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教甄教程◆英文題庫

【非選題】VI. 試題評鑑 15% (將文章改寫成 100 字以內適合高三生的 5 題克漏字,要含選項) Confronting a bully can be difficult, online or off. But a new study may suggest an alternative: Bystanders might be more willing to step in to help, its author says, if they’re able to do so without standing up to the bully directly. For their study, Kelly P. Dillon, a graduate student in communication at Ohio State University, and Brad J. Bushman told 241 undergraduates they would be testing an online chat program. But during the “test,” the person supposedly charged with monitoring the chat began insulting one of the participants (who was actually a member of the research team). Only 10.4 percent of subjects directly intervened to address the insults — by, for instance, asking the chat monitor, ‘‘How are you being helpful at all right now?” A total of 68 percent, however, intervened indirectly, by giving the monitor or the chat program itself a bad evaluation. “So many anti-bullying and anti-harassment intervention programs are ‘if you see something, say something,’ and this experimental data tells us that that’s a pretty high threshold,” Ms. Dillon explained. “There are so many other ways that people can intervene.” She mentioned that the messaging app Yik Yak allows users to “down-vote” posts (that is, to express their disapproval by clicking a “down” arrow). After five down-votes, the post is removed — all without anyone having to say anything to an offensive poster directly. “My data suggests the more indirect ways you can give people to intervene, the more likely it would be for them to intervene.” People may be afraid of judging others directly online because it may impact their own reputation, said Mihaela van der Schaar, a professor of electrical engineering at U.C.L.A. who has studied reputation on social networks. And they may prefer to express disapproval for a particular behavior, rather than for a person. “If there is the opportunity to differentiate between rating the particular behavior” and rating the user, “that may help,” said Dr. van der Schaar. Dr. van der Schaar noted that social networking companies may not necessarily want to institute systems for rating and regulating behavior — their business models may depend on high numbers of users, and they may have no reason to ensure those users behave well. But companies that do want a rating system to prevent bad behavior should build one that allows “for differentiating ratings of different types of behaviors, rather than just one value for the entire individual.” And, she said, the goal should be to “encourage free speech yet give the opportunity to people to sanction a particular behavior without being afraid that they themselves may be negatively impacted.” Indirect intervention could also be valuable in school settings, said Jaana Juvonen, a psychology professor at U.C.L.A. who has studied bullying. Often, “kids don’t want to get involved in these situations,” she said. “Deep inside they feel for the victim or the target, but there is not enough of an impetus” to do something. ~ 5 ~ 國立臺中第二高級中學 104 學年度第一次教師甄選 英文科試題 請填寫准考證號碼 ________________ But students who don’t want to confront a bully may still be able to help the target of bullying. Research shows that having just one friend can mitigate the ill effects of bullying, Dr. Juvonen said. No one is exactly sure why this is, she added, but “I personally suspect that it’s the small things.” During an incident of bullying, “the friend may not do anything right then and there, but when they walk away from that situation the friend just sort of puts their hand on the shoulder of the target.” It may be helpful to teach kids, she said, “how the smallest acts of kindness, something that they may think is totally trivial, may go a long way.” People are sometimes reluctant to intervene when they see someone being bullied because of “a misperception of what the norm is,” she added. “When nobody says and does anything publicly,” she explained, we’re led to believe that everyone’s on the side of the bully “and nobody’s feeling for the victim.”

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