1.1. Last month, European Union officials accused Google of unfairly _____ research results. It’s the first time the company has faced such
(A) formalizing (B) manipulating (C) contributing (D) shattering
3.3. Nowadays in modern society, obesity is _____, as are high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure resulting in increasing cardiovascular
(A) rebellion (B) rampant (C) redundant (D) routine
4.4. Though the legal drinking age is 21, students say alcohol _____ university social life from freshman year; it helps to make social life
(A) lubricate (B) hesitate (C) mandate (D) squander
7.7. Many prominent scientists consider extraterrestrial life to be _____ because many planets in the universe meet the main criteria, such as
oxygen and liquid water, for supporting life.
(A) tentative (B) oblivious (C) plausible (D) credulous
9.9. One of the most profound human interactions is the offer and acceptance of apologies. The result of that apology process is the _____
and restoration of broken relationships.
(A) reconciliation (B) obsession (C) extortion (D) partition
10.10. Danny says that he cares about the environment but is constantly littering and spitting. His behavior does not accord with his words.
Danny is a _____.
(A) philanthropist (B) counselor (C) hypocrite (D) pediatrician
11.11. Most people infected with the MERS virus developed severe _____ illness including symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of
(A) chronic (B) neurologic (C) gastrointestinal (D) respiratory
16.16. Information overload is inevitable in the modern society where ______ access to the world wide web is no longer an ideal but a status quo.
(A) ludicrous (B) strident (C) transient (D) ubiquitous
23.23. When Marco Polo, the Italian traveler, returned to Italy from China in the 1300s, he _____ with the idea for making pasta.
(A) was returned (B) had told to have returned (C) was said to have returned (D) told to have been returned
Why do the songs I heard when I was teenager sound sweeter than anything I listen to 26 an adult? I’m happy to report that my
own failures of discernment as a music critic may not be entirely 27 . In recent years, psychologists and neuroscientists have
confirmed that these songs hold disproportionate power over our emotions. And researchers have uncovered evidence that suggests our
brains bind us to the music we heard as teenagers more tightly than anything we’ll hear as adults—a connection that doesn’t weaken as we
age. Musical nostalgia, 28 , isn’t just a cultural phenomenon: It’s a neurotic command. And no matter 29 sophisticated our
tastes might otherwise grow to be, our brains may stay 30 on those songs we obsessed over during the high drama of adolescence.
(Stern, M. J. (2014, Aug 12). Neutral nostalgia. Slate. Retrieved from
nce_and.html) 【題組】26. (A) as (B) by (C) of (D) with
30.【題組】30. (A) jam (B) jammed (C) jamming (D) to jam
Since the advent of computer-based hand-held mobile devices, “anywhere, anytime” learning has been promoted as the pedagogical
wave of the future. Within the specific context of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), the earliest attempts to realize the potential of
31.Since the advent of computer-based hand-held mobile devices, “anywhere, anytime” learning has been promoted as the pedagogical
wave of the future. Within the specific context of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), the earliest attempts to realize the potential of
mobile learning 31 from 1994. In the intervening years, there have been over 345 studies describing MALL implementations
based on a 32 of mobile devices that includes e-dictionaries, MP3 players, personal digital assistants, tablet PCs, and most
especially mobile phones. 33 the attention it has received, MALL remains on the fringes of foreign language pedagogy. Even after
nearly two decades, those who have undertaken MALL studies are mostly restricted to experimenters who have yet to influence the core of
the language teaching profession. With few exceptions, published studies of MALL implementations have not progressed 34 pilot
testing, that is, design proposals, proof of concepts, limited experiments, class trials. To the extent that any large-scale implementations
have been attempted, these have remained 35 to the curriculum, restricted to the use of voluntary complementary materials, most
notably vocabulary review. Above all, what is most striking about published MALL implementation studies is the virtual absence of
follow-up reports of curricular integration 【題組】31. (A) arise (B) date (C) emerge (D) result
36.In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require
them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property. The degree 36 life inside a particular monastery is socially separate
from the surrounding populace can also vary widely. Some religious traditions mandate 37 for purposes of contemplation
removed from the everyday world, in which case members of the monastic community may spend most of their time isolated even from
each other. 38 focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods, by donations or alms,
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by rental or investment incomes, and by funds from other organizations within the religion. There has been a long tradition of Christian
39 providing hospitable, charitable and hospital services. Monasteries have often been associated with the 40 of
education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the
association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and
management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. 【題組】36. (A) to which (B) of which (C) in which (D) at which
41.IV. Reading Comprehension
Multitasking is often assumed to increase our productivity but it definitely depends on the activities. Of most importance to students
is the impact of multitasking on the cognitive processes used while learning. Is multitasking actually detrimental to learning? Keep this
thought in mind as you read further: To perform several activities quickly in the same span of time is not the same as trying to learn and
store information. It is during activities that require concentration and active thinking that multitasking becomes especially problematic.
Multitasking behaviors need to be understood in the context of their purpose and goals. For example, if a student is using a computer
to enter data while listening to music, then these two activities can be done simultaneously. This is known as “dual tasking.” Whenever we
are engaged in any two tasks at precisely the same time, then simultaneous processing, or dual tasking, is taking place. However, very often
it is sequential processing that occupies our time. For example, a student might be using a computer to write an essay, stops to send a text
message, checks Facebook, returns to the essay for five minutes, then stops typing to read the return text message, etc. Delbridge (2001)
referred to this type of switching among sequential tasks as “attention switching” because to effectively change tasks requires a change of
attention and focus. Changing attention does allow us to switch among activities, but different parts of the brain are involved in the actual
performance of each task. It has been clinically demonstrated (Delbridge, 2001) that task and attention switching during sequential
processing can indeed result in effectively accomplishing multiple goals in the same general time period. However, researchers have found
that focusing on just one task involves fewer errors and requires less time to accomplish than trying to engage in multiple tasks.
Information that is intended to be remembered requires a deeper level of sustained attention to process than information that does not
need to be stored in memory. Sequential and simultaneous processing both interfere with our ability to sustain attention unless one of the
tasks is very passive or requires little or no thought, such as listening to background music. It is the level of processing during an activity
that is most significant to our ability to store information. The more cognitively difficult a task, such as learning complex information, then
the greater degree of attention it requires.
Sustained thought is impaired when one’s attention is partial or fractured. Stone (2007) coined the term “continuous partial attention”
and distinguished it from multitasking. She wrote that multitasking is driven by a desire to be more productive whereas “continuous partial
attention” means, literally, to pay partial attention – continuously. It has little to do with being productive or efficient and more to do with
being neurologically stimulated by multiple activities. After all, our brains tend to thrive on novelty and distracting stimulation from our
environment. We know that constantly scanning the environment for stimulation and interesting details is easier than trying to maintain
focused attention on a difficult task. Think about how easy it is to surf the internet! It might not have any real meaning to us, but it is novel
and captures our attention. Given that many students struggle with maintaining focused attention, particularly when reading textbooks, it
can be anticipated that they will look for stimulation, whether or not it is relevant to their learning. “Digital multitasking,” which is the
tendency to move between and among electronic and digital devices, is especially popular among students and can consume large amounts
of their attention and time. Constant use of technology disrupts or interferes with our ability to sustain attention, which is the foundation of
thought. Attention is needed not only to learn, but to understand the world in which we live. A challenge for students is to maintain focus
and concentration. It is only when we pay attention to information that we can connect it with what we already know, make it personally
meaningful, and store it in memory.
We remember what we pay the most attention to. Given that, we have a great deal of control over what we select to pay attention to.
Perhaps that, alone, is the key to effective multitasking. Students must focus when it matters, sustain thought, work efficiently, and then
reward themselves with the multiple modes of technological stimulation that they find so appealing. We know what is required for deep and
lasting learning to occur. We also know that multitasking is not compatible with it. Turn off the digital media distractions when learning is a
goal. Focus when it matters most. (“Learning and multitasking: Can we do both?” by C. M. Dzubak (2012). Retrieved from
http://www2.yk.psu.edu/student-affairs/2012/02/learning-and-multitasking-can-we-do-both/) 【題組】41. What is the main idea of this passage?
(A) Multitasking has become more common among students and scientists have sought to understand how it affects learning.
(B) The effects of multitasking are often unidentified and there are no easy answers for helping students learn to multitask better.
(C) Digital multitasking stimulates our brains to release chemicals to help people maintain focus and concentration.
(D) Some people are better multitaskers than others because they have strong sense of purpose and goal attainment.
42.【題組】42. Which of the following statements is NOT true about “dual tasking” and “attention switching”?
(A) Dual tasking refers to the process when people are involved in two activities simultaneously.
(B) Attention switching refers to the process when people juggle from task to task consecutively.
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(C) Dual tasking and attention switching vary mainly in relation to their degree of time involved.
(D) Both dual taking and attention switching can lead to more errors than concentrating on one task only.
44.【題組】44. It can be inferred from the passage that multitasking
(A) is comparatively unusual for young people
(B) is compatible with shallow information processing
(C) is a valuable life skill for students to acquire
(D) is a natural neurological process that may enhance memory
46.Although European decisions during the 16th and 17th centuries to explore, trade with, and colonize large portions of the world
brought tremendous economic wealth and vast geographic influence, the enormous success of European maritime ventures during the age
of exploration also engendered a litany of unintended consequences for most of the nations with which Europe interacted. Due to their
incredible military force, religious zeal, and uncompromising goal of profit, Europeans often imposed their traditions, values, and customs
on the people with whom they traded. They frequently acted without regard to the long-term welfare of others as their principal concern
was short-term economic gain. Since many nations that traded with Europe placed high value on their historical customs, some natives
became deeply disconcerted by the changes that occurred as a result of European power. These factors, coupled with perennial domestic
political instability, caused numerous countries to grow increasingly resistant to European influence.
One potent example of this ideological shift can be seen in the actions of the Tokugawa government of Japan. In its Seclusion Edict
of 1636, the government attempted to extricate cultural interactions with Europe from the intimate fabric of Japanese society. The Edict
attempted to accomplish this by focusing on three areas. First, it sought to curb cultural exchange by eliminating people bringing European
ideas into Japan. The Edict stated, “Japanese ships shall by no means be sent abroad….All Japanese residing abroad shall be put to death
when they return home.” Second, the Edict focused on limiting trade. Articles 11 through 17 of the Edict imposed stringent regulations on
trade and commerce. Third, the government banned Christianity, which it saw as an import from Europe that challenged the
long-established and well-enshrined religious traditions of Japan. The government went to considerable lengths to protect its culture.
Article 8 of the Edict stated, “Even ships shall not be left untouched in the matter of exterminating Christians.”
With the example of Japan and the examples of other countries that chose a different response to European influence, it is perhaps not
too far of a stretch to conclude that Japan made the right decision in pursuing a path of relative isolationism. As history unfolded during the
next 400 years, in general, countries that embraced European hegemony, whether by choice or by force, tended to suffer from pernicious
wealth inequality, perennial political instability, and protracted underdevelopment.
【題組】46. It can best be inferred from the passage that in 1636, the Japanese government
(A) saw its citizens living abroad as potential threats.
(B) considered all foreign religions a danger.
(C) disagreed with the European philosophy that trade brought wealth.
(D) foresaw the economic dangers of European trade and imperialism.
47.【題組】47. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) explore the consequences of some European trade and exploration along with analyzing a country’s response to it.
(B) elucidate the root of frustration with European imperialism.
(C) explain the actions of the Tokugawa government of Japan.
(D) compare the results of countries that pursued protectionism with those that pursued globalization.
48.【題組】48. The author most likely included the quotation from Article 8 of the Edict at the end of the second paragraph to
(A) highlight the venomous anger many Japanese leaders felt toward the importation of foreign religions.
(B) illustrate how pervasive foreign religious influence had become in Japanese society.
(C) provide an example of Japan’s effort to curb cultural and economic exchange.
(D) emphasize the determination of the Japanese government to protect itself from foreign influences it saw as damaging.
49.【題組】49. According to the passage, which of the following constituted the biggest reason for the Seclusion Edict of 1636?
(A) Japanese economic potential would be hampered in the long-term.
(B) European trade amounted to a disproportionate transfer of wealth.
(C) Traditional Japanese culture and way of life were threatened by European influence.
(D) With growing European influence, the potential for European military action against the Japanese government became too large.
50.【題組】50. Which of the following best characterizes the most significant motivation for Europe’s behavior with Japan during the 17th century?
(A) Religious zeal (B) Short-term economic self-interest (C) Cultural imperialism (D) Territorial aggrandizement