19.19. I feel happy that not only my parents but also my girlfriend ______ my idea of resigning from my current job and
establishing my own company.
(A) support (B) supports (C) supporting (D) are supporting
Reading without relevant background knowledge is like going to a new country without knowing the local
language: nothing you see printed in that language is anything you can understand. Background knowledge is very
important in reading and it includes the knowledge of vocabulary use and the basic concepts in a given field. For
example, it is difficult for a patient to read his doctor’s prescription on his recent physical checkup 31 the
technical terms used in the field of medicine. Also, it is probably very difficult for a lawyer to read and understand
an article on 32 a nuclear power plant is built. It is 33 not because lawyers do not have good command of
their native language; it is because they do not have the specific concept that it is necessary to know the structure of
a nuclear plant. 34 , they do not have the background knowledge of the construct of a nuclear power plant, not
to mention the technical terms used in that field.
People increase their world knowledge, and therefore their background knowledge, through 35 reading. If
you wish to read to broaden your world knowledge, you need to broaden the scope of your reading. Reading
difficulty comes in many different forms and lack of background knowledge is a very important one.
【題組】31. (A) in fact (B) by no means (C) leading to (D) because of
Bullying can threaten students’ physical and emotional safety at school and can negatively impact their ability to
learn. The best way to address bullying is to stop it 36 it starts. Here are a number of things school staff can do
to make schools safer and prevent bullying.
First of all, conduct assessments in your school to 37 how often bullying occurs, where it happens, and
how students and adults intervene. Create school-wide rules and a bullying reporting system to establish a climate
38 bullying is not acceptable. Then, build bullying prevention material into the curriculum and school activities.
Train teachers on the school’s rules and policies. Give them the skills to intervene consistently and appropriately.
It is also important for everyone in the community to work together to send a unified message 39 bullying.
Launch an awareness campaign to make the objectives 40 to the school, parents, and community members.
Establish a school safety committee or task force to plan, implement, and evaluate your school’s bullying prevention
program. Saying goodbye to bullying can be achieved by everyone’s effort.
【題組】36. (A) for (B) before (C) since (D) until
Paul van der Velpen, the head of Amsterdam’s health service, wants to see sugar tightly regulated. “Just like alcohol and tobacco, sugar is actually a drug. There is an important role for government. The use of sugar should be discouraged. And users should be made aware of the dangers,” he wrote on an official public health website. “This may seem exaggerated and far-fetched, but sugar is the most dangerous drug of the times and can still be easily acquired everywhere.” Mr. Van der Velpen cites research claiming that sugar, unlike fat or other foods, interferes with the body’s appetite, creating an insatiable desire to carry on eating, an effect he accuses the food industry of using to increase consumption of their products. “Sugar upsets that mechanism. Whoever uses sugar wants more and more, even when they are no longer hungry. Give someone eggs and he’ll stop eating at any given time. Give him cookies and he eats on even though his stomach is painful,” he argued. “Sugar is actually a form of addiction. It’s just as hard to get rid of the urge for sweet foods as of smoking. Thereby diets only work temporarily. Addiction therapy is better.” The senior health official wants to see sugar taxes and legal limits set on the amount that can be added to processed food. He also wants cigarette-style warnings on sweets and soft drinks telling consumers that “sugar is addictive and bad for the health.” “Health insurers should have to finance addiction therapy for their obese clients. Schools would no longer be allowed to sell sweets and soft drinks. Producers of sports drinks that are bursting with sugar should be sued over misleading advertising and so on,” he said. The number of obese people in the Netherlands has doubled over the last two decades; more than half of Dutch adults and one in seven children are overweight in a country famed for its deep fried croquettes.
【題組】41. What is the main idea of the article?
(A) A Dutch senior health official proposes to set up some tight regulations on sugar.
(B) A Dutch senior health official provides some tips on maintaining a good diet.
(C) A Dutch senior health official gives the reasons why people love to eat sweet foods.
(D) A Dutch senior health official shows the symptoms of sugar addiction.
43.【題組】43. Which regulation on sugar is NOT mentioned by Paul van der Velpen?
(A) Having the same regulations as the ones on alcohol and tobacco.
(B) Setting up legal limits on the amount that can be added to processed food.
(C) Not allowing schools to sell sweets and soft drinks.
(D) Having health insurance companies fund addiction therapy for their obese clients.
44.【題組】44. What can be inferred about the use of sugar?
(A) The food industry has decreased the use of sugar in their products.
(B) The use of sugar can be better controlled by addiction therapy.
(C) The obese people in Denmark will consume more sugar in the future.
(D) The use of sugar can be continuously discouraged by keeping diets.
45.【題組】45. Which of the following is the most appropriate title to the article?
(A) Why Sugar Makes Us Fat?
(B) Decoding Your Sugar Addiction
(C) Stopping Addiction to Sugar: Willpower or Genetics?
(D) Sugar Addiction: The Most Dangerous Drug of the Times
In asking about the origins of human language, we first have to make clear what the question is. The question is not how languages gradually developed over time into the languages of the world today. Rather, it is how the human species developed over time so that we — and not our closest relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos — became capable of using language. And what an amazing development this was! No other natural communication system is like human language. Human language can express thoughts on an unlimited number of topics (the weather, the war, the past, the future, mathematics, gossip, fairy tales, how to fix the sink...). It can be used not just to convey information, but to solicit information (questions) and to give orders. Unlike any other animal communication system, it contains an expression for negation — what is not the case. Every human language has a vocabulary of tens of thousands of words, built up from several dozen speech sounds. Speakers can build an unlimited number of phrases and sentences out of words plus a smallish collection of prefixes and suffixes, and the meanings of sentences are built from the meanings of the individual words. What is still more remarkable is that every normal child learns the whole system from hearing others use it. Animal communication systems, in contrast, typically have at most a few dozen distinct calls, and they are used only to communicate immediate issues such as food, danger, threat, or reconciliation. Many of the sorts of meanings conveyed by chimpanzee communication have counterparts in human 'body language'. For animals that use combinations of calls (such as some songbirds and some whales), the meanings of the combinations are not made up of the meanings of the parts (though there are many species that have not been studied yet). And the attempts to teach apes some version of human language, while fascinating, have produced only rudimentary results. So the properties of human language are unique in the natural world.
【題組】46. What is the article mainly about?
(A) A problem in technology.
(B) Wild animals.
(C) The origin of language.
(D) The human brain.
48.【題組】48. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
(A) Normal children learn the whole system of language from hearing others using it.
(B) Other animals like chimpanzees and bonobos can express thoughts and feelings like human beings.
(C) The attempts to teach apes some version of human language are limited to some fundamental results.
(D) Animal communication system is used to express something immediately present in space and time.
50.【題組】50. What is the conclusion of the passage?
(A) Every human language has a vocabulary of thousands of words, built up from several dozen speech sounds.
(B) Animal communication systems typically have at most a dozen distinct calls.
(C) The properties of human language are unique in the natural world.
(D) Human language can express thoughts on an unlimited number of topics