1.Which of the following is an example of a homogeneous equilibrium?
(A) NH4NO3(s) N2O(g) + 2H2O(g)
(B) H2(g) + I2(s) 2HI(g)
(C) CaCl2(s) + 2H2O(g) CaCl2•2H2O(s)
(D) 2N2O(g) + N2H4(g) 3N2(g) + 2H2O(g)
2.2. As water is heated, its pH decreases. This means that
(A) the water is no longer neutral
(B) [H+] > [OH-]
(C) [OH-] > [H+]
(D) none of these
3.3. Calculate the pH of a 10.0 M solution of HNO3.
4.4. Buffers in the human body
(A) help to maintain a constant blood pH.
(B) help to keep the body temperature constant.
(C) help change the blood plasma pH when foods are eaten.
(D) precipitate proteins so enzymes are inactive.
5.5. One milliliter (1.00 mL) of acid taken from a lead storage battery is pipetted into a flask. Water and phenolphthalein indicator are added, and the solution is titrated with 0.50 M NaOH until a pink color appears; 12.0 mL are required. The number of grams of H2SO4 (formula weight = 98) present in one liter of the battery acid is (to within 5%):
6.6. Which of the following statements is (are) true?
(A) Enthalpy is a state function.
(B) In exothermic reactions, the reactants are lower in potential energy than the products.
(C) A chemist takes the surroundings point of view when determining the sign for work or heat.
(D) The heat of reaction and change in enthalpy can always be used interchangeably.
7.7. For which process is ΔS negative?
(A) evaporation of 1 mol of CCl4(l)
(B) mixing 5 mL ethanol with 25 mL water
(C) compressing 1 mol Ne at constant temperature from 1.5 atm to 0.5 atm
(D) raising the temperature of 100 g Cu from 275 K to 295 K
8.8. The reaction below occurs in basic solution. In the balanced equation, what is the sum of the coefficients?
Zn + NO3– → Zn(OH)42– + NH3
9.9. The standard potential for the following reaction:
Zn + 2Ag+ → Zn2+ + 2Ag
is 1.56 V. Calculate the cell potential for the following reaction:
2Zn2+ + 4Ag → 2Zn + 4Ag+
(A) 1.56 V
(B) -1.56 V
(C) 3.12 V
(D) -3.12 V
10.10. A sky diver jumps out of a plane. Before reaching
terminal velocity, her
(A) displacement remains constant.
(B) acceleration increases.
(C) acceleration remains constant.
(D) acceleration decreases.
11.11. The motion of a ball of mass m dropped off a building is observed by a man at ground level and a woman at the top of the building. The man’s origin for measuring gravitational potential energy is at ground level and the woman’s origin for measuring gravitational potential energy is at the top of the building. The building’s height is h and air friction is neglected. What kinetic energy does the woman record after the ball has fallen a distance d?
(D) mg (h–d)
12.12. Two observers are each travelling at 0.49c toward each other. Observer A sends a pulse of light toward observer B and observes that the pulse leaves her vehicle at a speed of 1.00 c. At what speed does observer B record the pulse moving?
13.13. The centripetal acceleration of a planet in an elliptical orbit about the sun is greatest when the planet is
(A) nearest the sun.
(B) nearest the Earth.
(C) farthest from the sun.
(D) farthest from the Earth.
14.14. When the position of an oscillating particle is x = Acoswt ,
, its velocity v is
(A) A cos wt
(B) -A cos wt
(C) -Aw sin wt
(D) Aw sin wt
15.15. A 5 kg piece of lead (specific heat 0.03 cal/g C°) having a temperature of 80° C is added to 500 g of water having a temperature of 20°. What is the final equilibrium temperature in °C of the system?
16.16. At every instant, the ratio associated with an electromagnetic wave is equal to
17.17. An energy of 13.6 eV is needed to ionize an electron from the ground state of a hydrogen atom. What wavelength in nm is needed if a photon accomplishes this task?
18.18. Which form of electromagnetic radiation has the longest wavelengths?
(A) gamma rays
(C) radio waves
19.19. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(A) Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
(B) Dipole moments result from the unequal distribution of electrons in a molecule.
(C) The electrons in a polar bond are found nearer to the more electronegative element.
(D) Linear molecules cannot have a net dipole moment.
20.20. Which of the following statements is true?
(A) When two opposing processes are proceeding at identical rates, the system is at equilibrium.
(B) Catalysts are an effective means of changing the position of an equilibrium.
(C) The concentration of the products equals that of reactants and is constant at equilibrium.
(D) An endothermic reaction shifts toward reactants when heat is added to the reaction.
21.21. The reaction
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
takes place in a 1.0-L vessel initially filled with an equimolar mixture of N2 and H2 at a pressure of 12.0 atm. When equilibrium is reached, the partial pressure of H2 is 3.0 atm. Determine the value of Kp for this reaction.
22.22. If an acid, HA, is 10.0% dissociated in a 1.0 M solution, what is the Ka for this acid?
(A) 9.1 x 10–2
(B) 1.1 x 10–2
(C) 8.1 x 10–1
(D) 6.3 x 10–2
23.23. Calculate the pH of a 0.02 M solution of KOH.
24.24. Which of the following will not produce a buffered solution?
(A)100 mL of 0.1 M Na2CO3 and 50 mL of 0.1 M HCl
(B)100 mL of 0.1 M NaHCO3 and 25 mL of 0.2 M HCl
(C)100 mL of 0.1 M Na2CO3 and 75 mL of 0.2 M HCl
(D)100 mL of 0.1 M Na2CO3 and 50 mL of 0.1 M NaOH
25.25. Given: Cu2O(s) + (1/2)O2(g) → 2CuO(s)ΔH° = –144 kJ
Cu2O(s) → Cu(s) + CuO(s)ΔH° = +11 kJ
Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of CuO(s).
(A) –166 kJ
(B) –299 kJ
(C) +299 kJ
(D) –155 kJ
26.26. Which of the following is a scalar?
27.27. The dot product of (ai + bj) and (ci + dj) is
(A) ab + cd
(B) ad + bc
(C) ba + cd
(D) ac + bd
28.28. A sphere moves past an observer at 0.6c. What
shape does the observer see?
(A) A sphere, slightly smaller than the sphere really is.
(B) A cone, slightly flattened.
(C) An ellipsoid, flattened in the direction of motion.
(D) A hypocycloid, flattened in the direction of motion.
29.29. What is the angular speed in rad/s of a turntable
rotating at 33 1/3 rev/min?
30.30. In terms of its angular frequency , the period T of a
simple harmonic oscillator is
31.31. Five g of water are vaporized in a 2.0 L pressure cooker and heated to 500 K. and the molar mass of water is 18 g/mol. What is the pressure in atm inside the container?
32.32. How much heat (in kilocalories) is needed to convert 1 kg of ice at 0° C into steam at 100° C? (Lf = 3.33 x 105 J/kg; Lv 2.26 x 106 J/kg; 1 cal = 4.186 J.)
33.33. The resonance frequency of an LC circuit is
34.34. The rate expression for a particular reaction is rate = k[A][B]2. If the initial concentration of B is increased from 0.1 M to 0.3 M, the initial rate will increase by which of the following factors?
35.35. Which of the following is most likely to be a solid at room temperature?
36.36. Order the intermolecular forces (dipole-dipole, London dispersion, ionic, and hydrogen-bonding) from weakest to strongest.
(A) dipole-dipole, London dispersion, ionic, and hydrogen-bonding
(B) London dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen-bonding, ionic
(C) hydrogen-bonding, dipole-dipole, London dispersion, and ionic
(D) dipole-dipole, ionic, London dispersion, and hydrogen-bonding
37.37. Which of the following compounds has the lowest boiling point?
(D) All the boiling points are about the same since the molar masses of the three compounds are essentially equal.
38.38. How many milliliters of 18.4 M H2SO4 are needed to prepare 600.0 mL of 0.10 M H2SO4?
(A) 1.8 mL
(B) 2.7 mL
(C) 3.3 mL
(D) 4.0 mL
39.39. One mole of an ideal gas is expanded from a volume of 1.00 L to a volume of 10.00 L against a constant external pressure of 1.00 atm. Calculate the work. (1 L• atm = 101.3 J)
(A) -456 J
(B) -1010 J
(C) -912 J
(D) -2870 J
40.40. For the process CHCl3(s) → CHCl3(l), ΔH° = 9.2 kJ/mol and ΔS° = 43.9 J/molK. What is the melting point of chloroform?
41.41. Which of the following represents a conjugate acid-base pair?
(A) H2PO4– and PO43-
(B) HSO4– and SO32-
(C) HNO3 and NO3–
(D) HCl and NaOH
42.42. A synchronous satellite revolves around the Earth in a
(A)Its acceleration is zero because its speed is constant.
(B)Its acceleration is zero because its velocity is constant.
(C)Its speed varies because its acceleration is constant.
(D)Its acceleration and its velocity are both not constant.
43.43. A 1200 kg car is moving with a speed of (11i + 6.2j ) m/s. What is the magnitude of its momentum in kg m/s?
(A) 1.3 x 104
(B) 4.3 x 104
(C) 7.4 x 104
(D) 1.5 x 104
44.44. A planet has the same mass as the Earth. It also has a radius twice the Earth’s radius. If the Earth’s acceleration due to gravity is g, what is the acceleration due to gravity on the planet’s surface?
(A) 1/4 g
(B) 1/2 g
(D) 2 g
45.45. A sound wave can be described as a
(A) pressure wave.
(B) displacement wave.
(C) transverse wave.
(D) pressure wave and a displacement wave.
46.46. The single temperature and pressure at which water, ice,
and water vapor can co-exist in equilibrium is called the
(A) freezing point.
(B) coequal point.
(C) boiling point.
(D) triple point.
47.47. Five moles of an ideal gas expand isothermally at 100° C to five times its initial volume. Find the heat in J that flows into the system. (R = 8.31 J/molK)
(A) 2.5 x 104
(B) 1.1 x 104
(C) 6.7 x 103
(D) 2.9 x 103
48.48. For a closed surface, Gauss’s law states that
is equal to
49.49. An electron is located on the Earth’s magnetic equator at 1000 m altitude. In which direction will it be deflected when it is projected downward?
50.50. When a charged particle is accelerated it radiates
(A) waves that have the particle’s velocity.
(B) electromagnetic waves.
(C) longitudinal waves.