2.14. ______ are not leached out of soil, reclamation procedures are needed to restore the land’s productivity.
A) For concentrations of salt B) Salt concentrations that C) If salt concentrations D) With concentrations of salt
4.16. Even at low levels, ______
A) the nervous system has produced detrimental effects by lead.
B) lead’s detrimental effects are producing the nervous system.
C) lead produces detrimental effects on the nervous system.
D) the detrimental effects produced by lead on the nervous system.
5.17. ______ a lonely and rugged life, far from home and family.
A) However the early gold prospector often lived
B) The early gold prospector often lived
C) Not only did the early gold prospector often live
D) The early gold prospector often living
11.23. Oliver Ellsworth, ______ of the United States Supreme Court, was the author of the bill that established the federal court system.
A) he was the third chief justice B) the third chief justice was
C) who the third chief justice D) the third chief justice
13.25. He traced melodies simply, sometimes decorating them with trills, and shifted between softly gliding passages and furious fantasias ______, using even his fist to bang out a climactic chord.
A) to whip his arms up and down the keyboard
B) his arms whipped up and down the keyboard
C) which whipped his arms up and down the keyboard
D) with his arms whipping up and down the keyboard
There are two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical methods. Statistics had a mother who was dedicated to keeping orderly records of governmental units ( state and statistics come from the same Latin root, status) and a gentlemanly gambling father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds in games of chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counting, measuring, describing, tabulating, ordering, and the taking of censuses---all of which led to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferential statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability.
Descriptive statistics involves tabulating, depicting and describing collections of data. These data may be quantitative, such as measures of height, intelligence, or grade level---variables that are characterized by an underlying continuum---or the data may represent qualitative variables, such as sex, college major, or personality type. Large masses of data must generally undergo a process of summarization or reduction before they are comprehensible. Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data.
Inferential statistics is a formalized body of methods for solving another class of problems that present great difficulties for the unaided human mind. This general class of problems characteristically involves attempts to make predictions using a sample of observations. For example, a school superintendent wishes to determine the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school without breakfast, have been vaccinated for flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of statistics, the superintendent would know it is unnecessary and inefficient to question each child; the proportion for the entire district could be estimated fairly accurately from a sample of as few as 100 children. Thus, the purpose of inferential statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population. 【題組】26. With what is the passage mainly concerned?
A) The drawbacks of descriptive and inferential statistics
B) Applications of inferential statistics
C) The development and use of statistics
D) How to use descriptive statistics
15.【題組】27. Why does the author mention the “mother” and “father” in the first paragraph?
A) To point out that parents can teach their children statistics
B) To introduce inferential statistics
C) To explain that there are different kinds of variables
D) To present the background of statistics in a humorous and understandable way
17.【題組】29. Which of the following statements about descriptive statistics is best
supported by the passage?
A) It reduces large amount of data to a more comprehensible form
B) It is based on probability
C) It can be used by people with little knowledge of mathematics.
D) It measures only qualitative differences
If the salinity of ocean waters is analyzed, it is found to vary only slightly from place to place. Nevertheless, some of these small changes are important. There are three basic processes that cause a change in oceanic salinity. One of these is the subtraction of water from the ocean by means of evaporation---conversion of liquid water to water vapor. In this manner, the salinity is increased, since the salts stay behind. If this is carried to the extreme, of course, white crystals of salt would be left behind.
The opposite of evaporation is precipitation, such as rain, by which water is added to the ocean. Here the ocean is being diluted so that the salinity is decreased. This may occur in areas of high rainfall or in coastal regions where rivers flow into the ocean. Thus salinity may be increased by the subtraction of water by evaporation, or decreased by the addition of fresh water by precipitation or runoff.
Normally, in tropical regions where the sun is very strong, the ocean salinity is somewhat higher than it is in other parts of the world where there is not as much evaporation. Similarly, in coastal regions where rivers dilute the sea, salinity is somewhat lower than in other oceanic areas.
A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When seawater is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. In this manner, seawater directly beneath freshly formed sea ice has a higher salinity than it did before the ice appeared. Of course, when this ice melts, it will tend to decrease the salinity of the surrounding water.
In the Weddell Sea, off Antarctica, the densest water in the oceans is formed as a result of this freezing process, which increases the salinity of cold water. This heavy water sinks and is found in the deeper portions of the oceans of the world.
【題組】31. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A) The elements of salt B) The bodies of water of the world
C) The many forms of ocean life D) The salinity of ocean water
21.【題組】33. Which of the following statements about the salinity of a body of water can best be inferred from the passage?
A) The temperature of the water is the most important factor.
B) The speed with which water moves is directly related to the amount of salt.
C) Ocean salinity has little effect on sea life.
D) Various factors combine to cause variations in the salt content of water.
22.【題組】34. Which of the following is NOT a result of the formation of ocean ice?
A) The salt remains in the water. B) The surrounding water sinks.
C) Water salinity decreases. D) The water becomes denser.
There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The one most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world, even the seasonal changes, as unpredictable, and they sought, through various means, to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.
Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used. Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances, and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the “acting area” and the “auditorium.” In addition, there were performers, and, since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect---success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun---as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious activities.
Another theory traces the theater’s origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this view, tales(about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.
【題組】36. What aspect of drama does the author discuss in the first paragraph?
A) The reason drama is often unpredictable.
B) The seasons in which dramas were performed.
C) The connection between myths and dramatic plots.
D) The importance of costumes in early drama.
27.【題組】39. According to the passage, what is the main difference between ritual and drama?
A) Ritual uses music whereas drama does not.
B) Ritual is shorter than drama.
C) Ritual requires fewer performers than drama.
D) Ritual has a religious purpose and drama does not.
28.【題組】40. The passage supports which of the following statements?
A) No one really knows how the theater began.
B) Myths are no longer represented dramatically.
C) Storytelling is an important part of dance.
D) Dramatic activities require the use of costumes.