9.10. Experts have long suspected that sunlight has powerful and perhaps conflicting effects on the body’s _____ to develop a
variety of diseases, including cancer.
(A) tendency (B) hazard (C) prospect (D) construct
10.11. The Chinese system of writing operates wholly _____ of the spoken language, and you can learn one without any
knowledge of the other.
(A) competitively (B) independently (C) indispensably (D) connectedly
14.15. It is hard for us to tell which product is _____ and which is a fake copy.
(A) official (B) genuine (C) accessible (D) tentative
II. Grammar: Based on the context, choose the best one to complete the sentence.
17.18. Much of the world has become aware that Taiwan is a democracy. The collateral benefit, ________the freedom of Taiwan’s 23 million
people, has been the potential for that democracy to set an example that would spread to its giant neighbor—The PRC.
(A) aside from (B) such as (C) because of (D) thanks to
22.23. In all conservation, the first effective step is to decide and define ____.
(A) that its protection is worthy (B) it is worthy of protection
(C) its protection is worthy (D) what is worthy of protection
28.29. The deadline for illustrations for the new series of teenager’s books, Eagles, has been brought forward to July 31 _____
August 7 as originally planned.
(A) in addition to (B) and (C) instead of (D) regardless of
30.III. Cloze: Choose the best answer for each blank.
Botany, the study of plants, occupies a peculiar position in the history of human knowledge. For many thousands of years it
was the one field of (31) about which humans had anything (32) the vaguest of insights. It is impossible to know
today just what our Stone Age ancestors knew about plants, (33) from what we can observe of preindustrial societies that
still exist, a (34) of plants and their properties must be extremely ancient. This is logical. Plants are the basis of the food
pyramid for all living things, even for other plants. They have always been enormously important to the welfare of people, not
only for food, but also for clothing, weapons, tools, dyes, medicines, shelter, and a great many other purposes. Tribes living
today in the jungles of the Amazon recognize (35) hundreds of plants and know many properties of each. To them botany,
as such, has no name and is probable not even recognized as a special branch of “knowledge” at all. 【題組】31. (A) aware (B) awarely (C) awareness (D) awarenesses
35.36) before exercise. However, many people do not bother stretching after their workout. They say they are too
tired after their workout, (37) they just forget. Stretching has many benefits, though. For example, it helps you avoid painful
cramps in your muscles. If you don’t stretch, you could have tight and sore muscles the next day. It helps to (38) your
flexibility as well. Finally, it is also a good way to relax and wind down after (39) exercise. So be sure to (40) 10
minutes of stretching as part of the start and end of your exercise routine. 【題組】
36. (A) no more important than (B) more important than
(C) similar to (D) so important that
40.IV. Reading Comprehension: Based on the content of the passage, choose the best answer to each question.
From Water Lilies to Moonflowers
In 1751, Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus came up with the novel idea of using flowers as clocks. Morning glories open
their trumpetlike petals around 10 a.m., water lilies at 11 and so on through evening primroses and moonflowers. A full array of
these blossoms, planted in a circle, could indicate the time. It was a whimsical notion. But some 360 years later, scientists are
seriously interested in the timekeeping mechanisms of nature. “They’re so ubiquitous, they’re almost a signature of life,” says
molecular neuroscientist Russell Foster of Imperial College in London.
From cockroaches to humans, Foster explores these internal clocks in a fascinating new book, “Rhythms of Life,” coauthored
with British science writer Leon Kreitzman. The authors show how the daily patterns known as circadian rhythms—from the
Latin circa diem (“about a day”)—influence far more than our sleep. Heart attacks are more common in the morning. Women
tend to go into labor in the evening. Severe asthma attacks prevail at night. The book traces the century-long quest to unravel
circadian mechanisms, with some startling outcomes. Even our response to medicines may depend on when we take them.
Nature has devised internal clocks for a simple reason: they aid survival. “The early bird really does get the worm,” says
Foster—thanks to a silent wake-up call before the last of the wigglers burrow underground around dawn. A mimosa plant
spreads its fernlike leaves during the day to create the maximum surface area for photosynthesis, then folds them up at night to
reduce water-vapor loss. It’s not a mere response to light. “They do this even when kept in the dark,” says biologist Eugene
Maurakis of the Science Museum of Virginia.
In humans, the master clock in the brain orchestrates a series of biological events that unfolds in sequence. In the hours
before breakfast, the body ramps up digestive enzymes to be ready for the first meal. Temperature and blood pressure rise in
preparation for the day’s demands (which helps explain the morning increase in heart attacks). Cells reproduce at set times.
Hormones rise and fall—many of them according to a predetermined schedule.
The implications for medicine are profound. By timing treatments to complement daily changes in biochemistry, doctors may
boost efficacy and reduce side effects. In one seminal trial, medical oncologist William Hrushesky of the Dorn V.A. Medical
Center in Columbia, South Carolina, found that by simply reversing the times when he administered two chemotherapeutic
drugs, he could extent survival in women with advance ovarian cancer from 11 percent at five years to 44 percent. In all, says
Michael Smolensky, editor of the journal Chronobiology International, more than a dozen ailments can currently benefit from
carefully timed treatments. In one recent study, he notes, a simple low-dose aspirin at bedtime reduce the rate of preterm
delivery in pregnant women at risk for hypertension from 14 percent to zero. Aspirin in the morning had little effect. Surprise?
Not to Foster and Kreitzman As they show, timing is everything.
【題組】41. What is the main topic of this passage?
(A) Timing treatments are boost efficacy and lower the effect sides
. (B) Scientists devoted themselves to study human’s circadian rhythms and have some findings.
(C) Certain flowers open and close on schedule, a gardener could use them to build a flower clock.
(D) Creatures have their circadian rhythms, humans can benefit greatly from applying them.
43.【題組】44. Based on the passage, what does the book “Rhythm of Life” mainly talk about?
(A) Creatures have their unique internal clocks.
(B) Timing treatments are effective for patients.
(C) Certain flower will open and close on schedule.
(D) For health, people should get up in the early morning.
45.Speech and Writing
It is a widely held misconception that writing is more perfect than speech. To many people, writing somehow seems more
correct and more stable, whereas speech can be careless, corrupted, and susceptible to change. Some people even go so far as to
identify language with writing and to regard speech as a secondary form of language used imperfectly to approximate the ideals
of the written language.
One of the basic assumptions of modern linguistics, however, is that speech is primary and writing is secondary. The most
immediate manifestation of language is speech and not writing. Writing is simply the representation of speech in another
physical medium. Spoken language encodes thought into a physically transmittable form. Writing is a two-stage process. All
units of writing, whether letter or characters, are based on units of speech, i.e. words, sounds, or syllables. When linguists study
language, they take the spoken language as their best source of data and their object of description (except in instances of
languages like Latin for which there are no longer any speakers).
What gives rise to the misconception that writing is more perfect than speech? There are several reasons. For one thing, the
product of writing is usually more aptly worded and better organized, containing fewer errors, hesitations, and incomplete
sentences than are found in speech. This perfection of writing can be explained by the fact that writing is the result of
deliberation, correction, and revision while speech is the spontaneous and simultaneous formulation of ideas; writing is
therefore less subject to the constraint of time than speech is. In addition, writing is ultimately associated with education and
【題組】46. The word “approximate” is closest in meaning to _____.
(A) make better than. (B) come close to (C) take out of (D) get on with
46.【題組】47. How do most people view speech and writing?
(A) Speech is more correct than writing. (B) Writing tends to be careless and easy to change.
(C) Speech is not as reliable as writing. (D) Writing is the secondary form of language.
47.【題組】48. According to paragraph 2, what can be inferred about linguistic research?
(A) Linguists do not usually study Latin. (B) Research on writing is much easier.
(C) Studies always require several sources. (D) Researchers prefer speech samples.
48.【題組】49. How are speech and writing related?
(A) All speech comes from units of writing.
(B) They are a two-stage process in which speech comes first.
(C) Writing is another demonstration of speech through a different mode.
(D) Written language turns speech into a concrete form.
49.【題組】50. Which of the following statements about speech and writing is correct?
(A) Speech is more restricted than writing in terms of time.
(B) Writing is the immediate expression of ideas.
(C) There are more errors in writing than in speech.
(D) Speech is related to education one has received