4.29. One of the management problems in this company is its _______ culture, which hinders work efficiency
because of the complicated rules and procedures.
(A) reciprocal (B) dynamic (C) bureaucratic (D) profitable
5.30. In order to stimulate sales growth and boost employees’ morale, the company adopts a new _______ system
to give a high commission to the top five sales representatives.
(A) penalty (B) collusion
(C) cartel (D) incentive
8.33. Expenses and losses incurred in the course of business are generally tax _______, allowing to be subtracted
from the gross income.
(A) payable (B) accountable
(C) deductible (D) inevitable
11.36. There _______ fierce competition between different universities for the large amount of national funds to
set up a world class research center.
(A) has been (B) has had
(C) could have (D) is to be having
14.39. _______ the most intelligent student in class, Michael was asked to teach his other fellow students who had
lower learning achievement than he did.
(A) To be (B) Had been
(C) To have been (D) Being
Singapore is 41 one degree north of the equator between the tip of Malaysia and the islands of Indonesia.
Slightly smaller than New York City, the city-state has a total landmass of 692.7 square kilometers 42 one
main island and more than 30 smaller surrounding islands. With about 3 million 43 in 2002, Singapore’s
population is composed of three ethnicities— Chinese (76.5%), Malay (13.8%), and Indian (8%)— and speaks four
official languages: English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil.
Singapore’s international status, particularly in global business, is not gained by its size but by its influence on
regional and international trade facilitated by major strategic 44 . Singapore joined with Thailand, Malaysia,
Indonesia, and the Philippines to form The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967. ASEAN’s
primary purpose was to provide individual members with leverage in 45 international trade issues for the
region as a whole.
【題組】41. (A) assigned (B) occupied (C) located (D) promoted
Willingness to take risks and reactions to failure differ dramatically around the world. In some cultures the
downside for failure is so high that individuals are allergic to taking any risks at all. These cultures associate shame
with any type of failure, and from a young age people are taught to follow a prescribed path with a well-defined
chance of success, as opposed to trying anything that might lead to disappointment. In some places, such as
Thailand, someone who has failed repeatedly might even choose to take on brand-new name in an attempt to reboot
his or her entire life. In fact, in the 2008 Olympics, a Thai weight lifter attributed her victory to changing her name
before the games.
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), which publishes a detailed annual report on startup activity
around the world, looks at cultural differences in risk taking and comfort with failure. The GEM team found that
important factors contribute to a society’s risk profile. For example, in some countries, such as Sweden, the
bankruptcy laws are designed such that once your company goes out of business you can never get out of debt.
Knowing that failure has drastic, long-term consequences for you and your family is a huge disincentive to try to
start a company in the first place. The culture in other countries is equally unforgiving. Once you fail, your friends,
neighbors and colleagues will always view you as a failure.
【題組】46. What is the main idea of the passage above?
(A) It encourages people to take risks with no need for any assessment.
(B) How risks and failures are viewed decides how new attempts will be practiced.
(C) People in Thailand, Sweden and other countries have better protection from failures.
(D) Lowering risks is a long-term effort for individuals and countries.
22.【題組】47. What does the author try to say by using the story of the Thai weight lifter?
(A) Name change can bring good luck.
(B) It is part of the Thai culture to have one’s name changed in order to succeed.
(C) To change one’s name for intended success is superstitious.
(D) Failure is almost unacceptable, so it would be easier to attribute success or failure to irrelevant factors.
23.【題組】48. What is the cultural mindset behind the design of bankruptcy laws in Sweden?
(A) Once you start a business, you have to take the full risks and be liable for such.
(B) Once a business fails, bankruptcy laws can give full protection.
(C) Bankruptcy laws are designed to protect those who are in debt.
(D) Bankruptcy laws can give businesses and individuals a second chance.
24.【題組】49. What does it mean by being allergic to taking risks?
(A) People in those cultures are embracing risks.
(B) People in those cultures are resilient when faced with risks and failures.
(C) People in those cultures are highly resistant to risks.
(D) People in those cultures are particularly prone to risks.
25.【題組】50. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) Believing that failures are shameful, people will work harder in order to succeed.
(B) If the downside for failure is high, people will be willing to take more risks.
(C) If a person fails once, he / she will be a failure in the entire life.
(D) A low or almost zero tolerance to failure may prevent many startup activities from success.