4.4. Stephen Krashan proposed the input hypothesis, arguing for ________ input (i+1) as the
key to successful language acquisition.
(A) constructional (B) comprehensible
(C) comprehensive (D) controversial
16.16. One of the most astonishing and almost ________ features of the case was the amount
of trust the bank placed on the company on the edge of bankruptcy.
(A) bizarre (B) common (C) furious (D) judicious
26.III. Cloze Test:
It's not that my husband and I don't go out. Every Valentine's Day, Ed will dutifully reserve
a 26____. at a romantic restaurant. I look forward to it until about five o'clock on the actual date.
Somehow the 27____. never seems to fit. I put on perfume and wait for the unseen chorus to
kick in, but hear 28____. the dulcet tones of my sweatpants calling out to me. Suddenly I don't
feel like going to an unfamiliar, overpriced restaurant. I want to go 29____. comfortable and
known, a place where the 30____. doesn't cost more than my shoes and the waiter won't look
down upon me for making "daikon" rhyme with "bacon."
【題組】26. (A) flight (B) program (C) date (D) table
31.In the early days of trade, seafarers relied on a combination of navigational skills, courage and
good instincts to steer their way through turbulent waters. In more recent times, technology has
transformed the 31____ we circumnavigate the globe but the basic need to steer a steady course
through stormy seas remains the same.
Over the past year, world trade has found itself tested by strong sea swells, with the 32____
economy still buffeted by the lingering effects of the crisis of 2008-09. As a result, world trade
growth fell to 2.0 per cent in 2012 — down from 5.2 per cent in 2011 — and is expected to 33 ____
only slightly in 2013, to around 3.3 per cent.
The need for a steady hand at the helm is greater now than 34____ before. The trade figures
for 2012 highlight that, 35____ some progress, many of the structural flaws in the global economy
are still to be addressed. Until governments rectify the policy shortcomings that have contributed to
the crisis, protectionist pressures will continue to mount.
【題組】31. (A) compass (B) discipline (C) fuel (D) way
36.In his presentation at the 1998 Cambridge meeting, James Wilson characterized gene
therapy as a novel approach in its very early stages. Its 36____. , he said, is to change the
expression of some genes in an attempt to treat, cure, or ultimately 37____. disease. Current gene
therapy is primarily experiment based, with a few early human clinical trials under way.
Theoretically, he continued, gene therapy can be targeted to somatic (body) or germ (egg
and sperm) cells. In somatic gene therapy the recipient's genome is changed, but the 38____. is
not passed along to the next generation. This form of gene therapy is 39____. with germline gene
therapy, in which a goal is to pass the change on to 40____. . Germline gene therapy is not being
actively investigated, 41____. in larger animals and humans, although a lot of discussion is being
conducted about its value and desirability.
Gene therapy should not be 42____. with cloning, which has been in the 43____. so much
in the past year, Wilson continued. Cloning, which is creating another individual with essentially
the same genetic makeup, is very different from gene therapy.
Listing three scientific 44____. in gene therapy, Wilson emphasized the concept of vehicles
called vectors (gene carriers) to deliver therapeutic genes to the patients' cells. 45____. the gene is in
the cell, it needs to operate correctly. Patients' bodies may reject treatments, and, finally, there is
the need to regulate gene expression. Wilson expressed optimism that many groups are making
headway and cooperating to overcome all these obstacles.
【題組】36. (A) background (B) model (C) purpose (D) theory
46.IV. Reading Comprehension:
Not that long ago, delaying motherhood to pursue a career or an education was viewed with
skepticism or scorn, if not outright hostility. Concerned grandmothers were likely to take an
ambitious daughter aside and insinuate that, if she put off babies for her work or an advanced degree,
her ovaries might just shrivel up. In the early part of this century, physicians agitated that delaying
motherhood could lead to all sorts of nervous ailments, including false or hysteric pregnancies.
Teddy Roosevelt singled out mothers of big families as the ultimate role models for young women,
claiming in one address that any woman who balked at having children was a “criminal against the
race” and an “object of contemptuous abhorrence.”
Women can heave a collective sigh of relief that societal mores about late motherhood have
changed, thanks largely to the feminist movement. Still, some gray-haired mothers who find
themselves panting after toddlers may still wonder what shape they will be in by the time their kids
finally grow up. They may recall hearing that young mothers pass through pregnancy and the
postpartum period with their bodies unscathed, while their older counterparts face a higher incidence
of varicose veins, high blood pressure, gestational diabetes and other complications. But the
assumption that early motherhood is better for your body is not necessarily true, according to a series
of recent studies on aging and reproduction. These studies suggest that it behooves women to do
what growing numbers of them are doing anyway—have children late and infrequently.
Researchers examining twelve centuries of genealogical records have discovered a clear
tradeoff between early childbearing and longevity. One recent study showed that women who delay
having children until their 30s and 40s, and then have only one or two, are more likely to live into
their 80s, 90s and beyond. Female longevity, it appears, is linked to the number of children a woman
has and her age at the birth of her first child. Another study showed that centenarians are four times
more likely than the general population to have had their first child in their 40s.
To any mother who has struggled through sleepless nights or other vagaries of motherhood, the
link between number of children and life span seems intuitively obvious. We only have so much
energy and each child obviously requires a substantial investment of this scarce commodity. That life
span should be correlated to age at first birth seems less intuitive, however. Researchers are careful to
point out that older mothers do not necessarily live longer just because they have fewer kids. Indeed,
the precise reasons for the importance of age are far from clear.
One possible explanation is that if a woman is able to have children relatively late in life, she is
clearly one of the genetic elect. The ability to have kids after a certain age may simply be a marker
for longevity, as late pregnancy implies late menopause, which in turn implies the delayed onset of
age-related disease such as Alzheimer’s, heart disease and stroke. It is also plausible that the timing
of first pregnancy resets, or at least interferes with, a woman’s biological clock. Setting a biological
timepiece ticking sooner could trigger early menopause while winding it up late in life could delay
menopause and rejuvenate middle-aged mothers.
Sadly, for men, one of the sacred tenets of evolutionary psychology—that men are naturally
more promiscuous in order to propagate the species—may also be a recipe for a shortened life span.
Married men with decreased fecundity live longer, and their longevity is in fact correlated to that of
their spouse. And those men who invest heavily in reproduction while they are young can expect, on
average, shorter lives.
【題組】46. What was Teddy Roosevelt’s attitude about women and children?
(A) He believed that children all need the care of mothers.
(B) He thought that they committed a crime again human race.
(C) He believed women growing up in big families were good role models.
(D) He thought women having many children set good example for other women.
47.【題組】47. What may be the main reason for the changing attitudes about women who have children
(A) The feminist movement.
(B) The many gray-haired mothers.
(C) Young mothers who had their bodies unscathed..
(D) The false assumption that early motherhood is better for the body.
48.【題組】48. What subgroup of women do recent studies suggest have the longest life span?
(A) Those who have fewer children, and have them early.
(B) Those who have fewer children, and have them late.
(C) Those who have more children, and have them early.
(D) Those who have more children, and have them late.
49.【題組】49. Why, according to the passage, is late motherhood a marker for longevity?
(A) Late motherhood suggests more mature physical and psychological conditions.
(B) Old mothers need not spend as much energy on their children as young mothers.
(C) Women who get pregnant when they are old receive more feedback from the children.
(D) Late pregnancy implies late menopause, suggesting delayed onset of age-related
50.【題組】50. What, according to the passage, is an important factor that contributes to man’s longevity?
(A) Their promiscuous nature to propagate the species.
(B) Their sacred tenets of evolutionary psychology.
(C) Their refraining from over investment in reproduction.
(D) The number of children that their spouses produce at an early age.
Few people are pitying the nation's health insurance companies, whose profits have risen by
double digits since 2000 (in 2004 alone, they shot up 32%). But the picture hasn't been entirely
From 1997 to 1999, the health insurance industry posted losses, as the cost of developing new
plans grew more quickly than premiums. And now insurers contend they're caught between steep
cost increases in areas like new medical technologies and pharmaceuticals, and employers who insist
they can't pay another cent for insurance. These pressures are part of the reason profit margins are
stuck between 3% and 4%, less than half that of insurers in other industries. Like everyone else,
health insurers are looking for a new business model.
In the 1990s they thought they had found the answer -- the health maintenance organization, or
HMO. "We provided first dollar coverage with an emphasis on prevention all the way to
catastrophic," says Karen Ignani, president of America's Health Insurance Plans. But HMOs
restricted access to certain doctors, medical tests, and hospitals, so they quickly met with loud
disapproval. The plans responded by expanding networks and, predictably, costs shot right back up.
"The system in its current form really is unsustainable," argues Carol McCall, vice president at
Humana, one of the nation's largest health insurance providers. "Employers will say, ' Look we can't
pay for this anymore. It's eating into our bottom line.' They set the parameters of choice." It is
employers, increasingly, who are asking for plans that feature more cost-sharing and higher
【題組】51. In most people’s eyes, many health insurance companies .
(A) posted considerable amount of loss
(B) are suffering steep cost increase
(C) have employers from all walks of life
(D) are making huge profit
52.【題組】52. Which of the following is true about health insurance companies?
(A)Their profit is higher than other insurance companies.
(B)They benefit from the new medical technologies.
(C) They are troubled by the low profit margin.
(D) They hire too many employees who do not pay any more cent.
The world, it is often observed, is becoming increasingly standardized. We mostly buy similar
things—drinks, food and fashions—wherever we happen to be. However much we may resist this
apparent trend emotionally and hope that it is only our imagining, intellectually we must accept that
this brave new world has its advantages. For standardized products save time, reduce confusion, and
may be cheaper and more predictable, especially when attached to a dependable brand. There is one
market, however, in which the inclinations of our hearts and heads are aligned, and moreover are
forcing things back towards variety: women’s clothing. There, the customer is queen, and she seems
to prefer chaos to order.
It is not the fashions themselves that are turning the clock back on standardization. Rather, it is
the sizes in which women’s clothing is sold. Not so long ago, these sizes were numerical and orderly,
even if the particular system used varied from country to country. It did not matter if a size 12 dress
in Britain was called a 38 in the U.S. and a 44 in Italy, for a simple conversion chart would suffice.
But that is no longer the case. Clothing sizes have become more and more a matter of vanity and not
of measurement, for women have become larger in various ways. Not surprisingly, women would
like to indulge their appetites and not be reminded by ever increasing dress sizes of the consequences
for the waistlines. Some clothing firms have accommodated such desires by retaining the same sizing
numbers but making the clothes larger. Others have resorted to soothing words—petite, regular and
“missy”—that trade stark precision for comforting vagueness. In America, it is even possible to buy
women’s clothes in size zero. Will the negative size be next?
Men are, of course, going through the same expansion in bodily dimensions. They do not,
however, have to deal with the same confusion. While it may occasionally be hard to work out what
exactly is meant by “medium” or “extra-large,” mainly predictable indications of clothing sizes still
predominate. Some suggest that this is because for men “bigness” does not carry the strong negative
connotations that it does for women.
Women, however, are finding that shopping is becoming difficult, because of the declining level
of standardization in their clothing sizes: More things must be tried on, taking more time and buying
online is a poor option. One is tempted to make the seemingly sensible proposal of introducing
standardization once more, but this idea ignores the fact that there are powerful market
forces—female preferences for clothing sizes that disguise fattened figures—that would resist such
an imposition. An alternative suggestion that has been put forth is for clothing firms to agree on a
standard sizing to be put on some sort of bar code or other marker unreadable to shoppers. In that
case, those who wanted speed and clarity could easily obtain a size indicator free of obfuscation,
while those who would rather deceive themselves and soothe their vanity could continue to do so by
sticking to the written labels.
【題組】56. What are the advantages of product standardization?
(A) A woman may prefer chaos to order.
(B) They save time and reduce confusion.
(C) Clothing sizes may disguise fattened figures
(D) Clothing sizes become more and more a matter of vanity.
57.【題組】57. Why is the trend in women’s clothing sizes toward less standardization?
(A) They have the inclinations to align their hearts and heads.
(B) Standardization is but an imagination in many women’s mind.
(C) They prefer sizing systems that don’t make the sizes too plain.
(D) Standardized products are attached only to a dependable brand.
58.【題組】58. What is one possible explanation that men’s clothing sizes have not been affected by
(A) Men do not indulge their appetites as much as women do.
(B) Being large in sizes does not have strong negative connotations.
(C) The sizing system of men’s clothes is the same in different countries.
(D) Men do not care for soothing words—petite, regular and missy—as much as women.
59.【題組】59. What would happen if the standardized sizing system is re-introduced?
(A) It would be easier to try to buy clothes on line.
(B) It would mean a dilemma between intellectuality over emotionality.
(C) It would be favored by women who need to disguise fattened figures.
(D) It would take an unbearable enormous time and budget to have the system
60.【題組】60. What is the potential function of bar coding of standardized sizes that cannot be read on
(A) More things must be tried on, which takes more time.
(B) That would eliminate the cost of attaching the written labels.
(C) Women cannot deceive themselves anymore and must face the reality.
(D) Women who seek shopping efficiency and those who are after vanity may both be