1.21. If you have ever heard a beginning reader ____ process even a short passage of text, stopping
every word or two to decipher what on earth could be coming next, you will know how
meaning-deficient the final result can be.
(A) automatically (B) laboriously (C) miraculously (D) painterly
2.22. Ms. Lee typically read an interesting story to the children, asking them questions about the story
as they ____ through it.
(A) proceeded (B) procured (C) proclaimed (D) procrastinated
3.23. Because different skills vary in importance and occur at different developmental levels, a teacher
may decide to focus on the aspects of writing that are most ____ to a student’s current grade
level or level of development.
(A) extraneous (B) irrelevant (C) pertinent (D) peripheral
4.24. My mother believes that using praise to _____ a child into meeting her needs is often more
effective than using seduction.
(A) adopt (B) coerce (C) deduce (D) undermine
5.25. It is suggested that parents provide their children with lots of opportunities to talk about
problems they cause in school instead of _____ or nagging them.
(A) acclaiming (B) facilitating (C) reprimanding (D) satiating
6.26. Terrorist acts such as suicide bombings are not typically carried out in an emotional _____; they
are the consequences of deeply held belief systems.
(A) frenzy (B) chasm (C) shrine (D) truce
7.27. Members of disadvantaged groups would have fewer resources to _____ in their battle to find
available treatment if the government stopped supporting the medicare system.
(A) conceal (B) deploy (C) peruse (D) segregate
8.28. Some people believe that children may lie or _____ stories about abuse. In fact, children do not
invent stories about their own abuse.
(A) anticipate (B) fabricate (C) replicate (D) transcribe
9.29. Certain TV stations try to make as much money as possible from news departments, sometimes
to the ____ of journalists who aspire to truthfulness in their reporting of stories.
(A) complement (B) rationale (C) detriment (D) detraction
10.30. If basic ____, like water, sanitation, and electricity, can be added; a slum can be transformed into
a healthy community.
(A) fracture (B) infrastructure (C) impediment (D) facet
II. Error Correction: Identify the underlined word(s) or phrase that should be corrected or
11.31. One common aspect of instruction across the first-grade classrooms was that teachers
(A )supplemented their self-designed reading programs with a structured (B ) phonics program
(C )characterizing its use of animals (D ) associated with the letter sounds.
12.32. The accord (A )is but a first step, (B )and much work remains (C )to do(D ) in the days and months ahead in
order to seal a binding international climate deal.
13.33. Young readers may be faster (A )than old readers in (B )assessment the value of a website in terms of its
personal value and its ease of use, but (C )high-speed surfing may represent something
(D )more perfunctory.
14.34. (A )In the United States, (B )the life expectancy of women (C )is longer than (D )those of men.
15.35. During the early days of education in the U.K., (A )few formal schools existed, and (B )the ones that do (C )were costly and, therefore, (D )reserved for children of the wealthy.
Cloze Test: Choose the answer that best fits the whole text.
Without at least a(n) __(36)___ amount of stress to give us energy, we could not get through
the day. However, a very stressful lifestyle can have a negative effect on our bodies. When our
body experiences physical stress, it produces two hormones that give us energy: adrenaline and
cortisol. It also produces them in cases of psychological stress. While running on a treadmill, a
woman’s body releases a lot of stress hormones, but she’s also __(37)__ every bit of energy they
create. However, when she is stressed psychologically instead of physically, the same hormones
are created. The problem is that the type of energy they provide is not compatible with the
situation of test-taking at a desk, because the physical energy cannot be used. Too much cortisol
_(38)__ the bones, weakening them and making them more likely to break. This could create
problems that have an impact on _(39)__, perhaps taking years off a person’s life. Therefore, it is
important to exercise regularly. Putting the body through the stress of exercise is one way to
_(40)__ psychological stress, thereby preventing its harmful effects. And it keeps a body lean by
burning off extra calories, too!
【題組】36. (A) manual (B) material (C) minimal (D) maximum
Reading Comprehension: Choose the best answer to each question.
The human lexicon is a repository of relatively time-stable culturally-shared well-coded
knowledge about our external-physical, social-cultural and internal-mental universe. By
“relatively time-stable” one means knowledge that is not in rapid flux, i.e., not unique episodic
information. By “culturally shared” one means that when launching into communication,
speakers take it for granted that words have roughly the same meaning for all members of the
same cultural/linguistic community. By “well-coded” one means that each chunk of
lexically-stored knowledge is more-or-less uniquely—or at least strongly—associated with its
own perceptual code-label. 第 7 頁/共 8 頁
The conceptual lexicon is most likely organized as a network of nodes and connections.
Within this network, nodes stand for individual concepts (“senses”), each with its own distinct
code-label. By “concepts” one means types of conventionalized experience, rather than tokens of
individual experience subsumed under those types. Lexical concepts thus stand for generic
information, a repository of conventionalized, generalized experience.
Lexical concepts may reflect relatively time-stable entities, such as physical objects,
landmarks, locations, flora, fauna, persons, cultural institutions or abstract entities. All these are
typically classified as nouns. They may also reflect actions, events, processes or relations,
typically classified as verbs. They may reflect inherent qualities and properties or temporary
state, often classified as adjectives. Cognitive psychologists have long recognized the conceptual
lexicon under the label semantic memory.
【題組】41. This passage implies that the human lexicon is ____.
(A) a repository full of labels reflecting individual diversities
(B) a bank containing well-coded symbols shared culturally and linguistically
(C) a collection of words emphasizing individual unique episodic information
(D) a group of generalized symbols related to the genetic information of human
22.【題組】42. Which of the sentences below best expresses the information of the underlined sentence in
(A) A well-coded word allows different interpretations.
(B) Each chunk of words is more-or-less uniquely peculiar.
(C) Lexical knowledge has little to do with perceptual code-label.
(D) The meaning of a word doesn’t leave much room for ambiguity.
23.【題組】43. According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about “episodic information”?
(A) The information full of exciting plots.
(B) The information that can only be held temporarily.
(C) The information of a story with insufficient development.
(D) The information that does not reflect the unique qualities of a story.
24.【題組】44. According to the author, what do you think “conceptual lexicon” may include?
(A) Human behaviors.
(B) Specific individual acts.
(C) Generalized experiences.
(D) A new concept of diversity.
25.【題組】45. According to the passage, all the following can be classified as nouns EXCEPT
(D) covet. 第 8 頁/共 8 頁
By the early hours of Saturday, representatives of the 193 countries who have negotiated
here for nearly two weeks had not yet approved the deal and there were signs they might not. But
Mr. Obama, who left before the conference considered the accord because of a major storm
descending on Washington, noted that the agreement was merely a political statement and not a
legally binding treaty and might not need ratification by the entire conference.
Negotiators have all but completed a sweeping deal that would compensate countries for
preserving forests, and in some cases, other natural landscapes like peat soils, swamps and fields
that play a crucial role in curbing climate change.
Environmental groups have long advocated such a compensation program because forests
are efficient absorbers of carbon dioxide, the primary heat-trapping gas linked to global
warming. Rain forest destruction, which releases the carbon dioxide stored in trees, is estimated
to account for 20 percent of greenhouse gas emissions globally.
【題組】46. In paragraph one the pronoun “they” refers to ____.
(A) representatives (B) the 193 countries (C) signs (D) none of them
27.【題組】47. Which of the following statements is true?
(A) Negotiators have almost completed a sweeping deal that would compensate countries for
(B) Negotiators have already completed a sweeping deal that would compensate countries for
(C) Negotiators have agreed not to compensate countries for preserving forests.
(D) Negotiators have a hard time reaching an agreement to compensate countries for preserving
28.【題組】48. In paragraph two the word “curbing” means ____.
(A) reversing (B) locating (C) controlling (D) switching
29.【題組】49. President Obama left Copenhagen because ____.
(A) the deal had not been approved yet
(B) the agreement needed to be ratified
(C) the agreement was not a legally binding treaty
(D) there was a storm in the U.S
30.【題組】50. In the last paragraph the word “which” refers to ____.
(A) greenhouse gas
(B) carbon dioxide
(C) rain forests
(D) rain forest destruction