Zeno's paradox tells of a race between Achilles and the tortoise. Since Achilles could run much faster, he gave the tortoise a _____21_____ . He waited until the tortoise was half way along the track before he started. When he reached the halfway point, the tortoise had moved on some distance.
When he reached the point where the tortoise had _____22_____ , again the tortoise had moved a little way forward. Since this would happen an infinite number of times, Zeno says, Achilles would _____23_____ overtake the tortoise. In real life, as we know, Achilles will overtake the tortoise and win the race.
There is, however, an interesting modern parallel, and it _____24_____ toothpaste. When a tube of toothpaste is nearly finished, you say to yourself "I must buy some more tomorrow." But you forget and say the same thing the next evening.
The next day you forget again and curse yourself, but you can still squeeze a little more toothpaste from the tube. Sooner or later you will _____25_____ to buy a new tube, but a tube of toothpaste is never totally finished; it always seems possible _____26_____ a little extra effort to squeeze out some more paste.
21. (A) job (B) present (C) reason (D) start
It was a time when the simplest foods contained threats, traps and _____27_____ . Not a day went by without some newspaper telling of ghastly discoveries in the housewife’s shopping: cheese was made of plastic, butter from tallow candles; in fruit and vegetables the arsenic of insecticides was concentrated in percentages higher than the vitamin content; to fatten chickens they stuffed them with _____28_____ pills that could _____29_____ the man who ate a drumstick into a chicken himself. Fresh fish had been caught the previous year in Iceland and they put make-up on the eyes to make it seem yesterday’s catch. Mice had been found in several milk bottles, whether _____30_____ was not made clear. From the tins of oil it was no longer the golden juice of the olive that flowed, _____31_____ the fat of old mules, cleverly distilled.
27. (A) fags (B) fouls (C) frauds (D) flaws
We strongly reaffirm our commitment to the objective of sustainable development, as stated in the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement. We are convinced that the aims of _____32_____ and safeguarding an open and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, and acting for the protection of the environment and the promotion of sustainable development can and must be 33 supportive. We take note of the efforts by members to _____34_____ national environmental assessments of trade policies on a voluntary _____35_____ . We recognize that under WTO rules no country should be prevented from taking measures for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, or of the environment at the levels _____36_____ considers appropriate, _____37_____ to the requirement that they are not applied in a manner which would constitute a _____38_____ of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a _____39_____ restriction on international trade, and are _____40_____ in accordance with the provisions of the WTO Agreements. We welcome the WTO´s continued cooperation with UNEP and other inter-governmental environmental organizations. We encourage efforts to promote cooperation between the WTO and relevant international environmental and developmental organizations, especially in the lead-up to the World Summit on Sustainable Development to be held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in September 2002. 【題組】
32. (A) analyzing (B) lifting (C) raising (D) upholding
The development of Slovak culture _____41_____ the country’s rich folk tradition, in addition to the influence of broader European trends. The impact of centuries of cultural repression and control by foreign governments is also _____42_____ in much of Slovakia’s art, literature, and music.
There are 12 state scientific libraries in Slovakia, 473 libraries _____43_____ with universities and institutions of higher learning, and 2600 public libraries. The University Library in Bratislava, founded in 1919, contains more than 2 million volumes and is the country’s most important library. The Slovak National Library (1863), located in Martin, includes a collection of materials relating to Slovak culture.
Slovakia is also _____44_____ to more than 50 museums. The Slovak National Museum (founded in 1893), located in Bratislava, contains exhibits on Slovak history, archaeology, and musicology, and is probably the country’s best-known museum. Other museums include the Slovak National Gallery (1948), also in Bratislava; the Slovak National Uprising Museum (1955), located in Bansk Bystrica; and the Museum of Eastern Slovakia (1872), in Košice.
Slovakia’s tourism industry has grown _____45_____ since independence. By the late 1990s the country was _____46_____ more than 500,000 visitors each year. Slovakia’s historic towns and numerous mountain ski resorts are the more popular tourist destinations.
There's a _____47_____ absence of McDonald's-style commercialism that is rampant across Western Europe. Quaint and jovial with a surprisingly rich cultural life, Bratislava is a capital city without the usual congestion. The High Tatras are a magnificent range of mountains dotted with villages with deep peasant traditions. You'll find Slovaks to be an extremely helpful, pleasant people _____48_____ to go out of their way to welcome you. From folk festivals, to castle tours to snow boarding and hiking you'll find Slovakia a spectacular country to visit. 【題組】
41. (A) reflects (B) refines (C) reels (D) refrains
29.II. Reading Comprehension
A. Teachers and experimenters often find tokens and other conditioned reinforcers more effective and easier to use than primary reinforcers because (a) few primary reinforcers are available in the classroom whereas almost any stimulus event that is under the control of a teacher can be used for a conditioned reinforcer; (b) conditioned reinforcers can be dispensed rapidly; (c) they are portable; and (d) their reinforcing effect may be more immediate since it depends only on the perception of receiving them and not on biological processing, as in the case of primary reinforcers (eating food).
In some institutions “token economies” have been set up based on these principles. Desired behaviors are explicitly defined (grooming or taking medication, for example), and token payoffs are given by the staff when they are performed. These conditioned reinforcers can later be exchanged by the patients for a whole array of rewards and privileges (Ayllon & Azrin, 1965; Holden, 1978). These systems of reinforcement are especially effective in modifying patients’ behaviors regarding self-care, upkeep of their environment, and, most importantly, increasing the quality of their positive social interaction. 【題組】
49. The above extract of writing is mainly about _________.
(A) a more effective reinforcer
(B) provoked patients’ behaviors
(C) a new, alternative stimulus system
(D) the definition of “token economies”
30.【題組】50. Tokens as a conditioned reinforcer have been preferred by classroom teachers since ___________.
(A) they are prepared by students
(B) they endow the educators with a sense of authority
(C) they satisfy both physical and mental needs
(D) they are as flexible, and thus available, as the teachers’ creativity works
31.【題組】51. How do various reinforcement systems help patients?
(A) By offering medical treatment.
(B) By substituting a self- care plan.
(C) By improving their social interaction.
(D) By rewarding their caretakers.
32.B. Each day Linus Pauling takes an amount of vitamin C that is equivalent to drinking 260 glasses of orange juice, or 300 times above the recommended daily dose. One reason this makes the newspapers is that Linus Pailing is a renowned scientist: he won the Nobel prize for his work on chemical bonding in 1954 and the Nobel prize for peace in 1962. Pauling turned 90 in 1991 and partly attributed his good health, avoidance of cancer, lack of colds, and remarkable longevity to his daily megadose of vitamin C. Some assume that when Linus Pailing speaks about vitamin C, one should listen; others wonder how a Nobel laureate can come so close to being a quack.
For example, most mainstream scientists shake their heads in disbelief at Paulings’ claims that high doses of vitamin C can cure cold, lengthen the lives of AIDS patients, and prevent cancer and heart disease. Physician Victor Herbert, author of The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Complete Book of Nutrition, characterizes Pauling as “a believer, rather than a scientist in this area. There is no value in a megadose, and there is no study showing that people who take megadoses of vitamin C live longer than people who don’t take megadoses. Linus just believes what he wants to believe.” According to Jim Enstrom, who is an associate research professor at UCLA School of Public Health and has published with Pauling on vitamin C, “Pauling is not doing his scientific reputation any good. He’s not following the scientific methods.” Ahmed Zewail, the professor of Chemical Physics at Caltech, calls Pauling a misunderstood genius and says, “As a chemist, Pauling has to be one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century. Whether or not he is right on vitamin C needs experimentation and proof.” (Adapted from Los Angeles Times, February 26, 1991) 【題組】
52. What remains unknown after we read the article?
(A) The cause and effect relation between longevity and taking megadose of vitamin.
(B) The achievement Linus Pauling has reached in chemistry field.
(C) The belief Linus Pauling has held about the effect of vitamin C.
(D) The reasons why a number of scientists criticize the Nobel prize laureate’s belief.
33.【題組】53. What do Victor Herbert and Ahmed Zewail have in common?
(A) They don’t think Linus is worth being awarded Nobel prize.
(B) They are proponents of megadoses of vitamin C.
(C) They insist on a scientific procedure before claiming any effect of medicine.
(D) They are sympathetic to wronged genius like Linus Pauling.
35.【題組】55. From the second paragraph we can see that ___________.
(A) Linus Pauling dedicated himself to the experiment with vitamin C.
(B) Linus Pauling was a genius making far-reaching discoveries about nutrition.
(C) Linus Pauling sticks to his belief in the face of opposition.
(D) Linus Pauling enjoys reputation for his contribution of promoting vitamin C.
36.56. A communicative language learning task is usually NOT ________.
(A) highly-motivated (B) limiting the variety of sentence structures
(C) involving authentic material (D) student-centered activities
37.57. Which of the following is NOT a basic tenet of the Monitor Model?
(A) Communicative language skills can only be acquired rather than be learned.
(B) Roughly-tuned material which is slightly above language learners’ current level is seen beneficial for internalization process.
(C) Grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order.
(D) Students are to learn the language skill through abundant memorization of dialogues and practice with oral pattern drills.
38.58. Which of the following teaching objectives belongs to psychomotor domain?
(A) Students analyze the deep structure of integrative sentences.
(B) Students are engaged in group cooperation to fulfill the learning tasks.
(C) Students infer the poet’s attitude by reading between the lines.
(D) Students point out the topic sentence of each paragraph.
40.60. A reading comprehension test item “which of the following serves to be the best title for the article?” is to test students’ ability to _____________.
(A) analyze the structure of a discourse
(B) skim the main idea
(C) infer the implicit meaning
(D) scan for specific detailed information