1.41. Hundreds of thousands of people were leaving with just the clothes they had on their
backs. It felt as if the whole valley were on the move. It was the biggest ________ in
(A) reprisal (B) deploy (C) overture (D) exodus
7.47. Daniel’s life has been in a ________ since he broke up with Jane. All he wants to do
now is to put the pieces back together and try to regain inner tranquility.
(A) tremor (B) truce (C) turmoil (D) tantrum
15.55. It was just not ________ for John to manage the hostel business on a part-time basis, so
he quit his teaching job to become a full-time hostel manager.
(A) despicable (B) feasible (C) trivial (D) frail
20.60. John: I guess we won't be spending Saturday together. We could still meet for dinner,
though. Where do you want to meet up then?
Susan: I don't have any preferences. Whatever ________ is fine with me.
(A) floats your boat (B) depends on you
(C) vents your spleen (D) is across the board
21. As the media’s infatuation with massive open online courses (MOOCs) continues
unabated, some academics seem to be succumbing to the hand-wringing about whether
MOOCs will destroy higher education as we know it (see “Will MOOCs Destroy Academia?”
by Moshe Vardi in the November 2012 issue of Communications). Is it a bad thing that we
“have let the genie out of the bottle,” as Vardi suggested in his Editor's Letter? I argue that a
close, systematic, and sustained look at how MOOCs are actually being used should persuade
the careful observer that tasteful use of MOOC technology can strengthen academia.
Note I do not say “MOOCs will strengthen academia.” They certainly can, but whether they
do depends on how they are received and used by academics. Full disclosure: 61 being a
MOOC instructor myself, I am the recently appointed faculty director of Berkeley's
MOOCLab, 62 extends Berkeley's existing online education programs with MOOC
research and practice. But I am not cheering for MOOCs because I have this position; 63 ,
I agreed to take the position because I am excited about the possibilities of MOOCs and other
online education. In particular, 64 MOOCs are used as a supplement to classroom
teaching rather than being viewed a replacement for it, they can increase instructor leverage,
student throughput, student mastery, and student engagement. I call this model the SPOC:
small private online course.
【題組】61. (A) so (B) on behalf of (C) upon (D) besides
25.For decades, the fortunes of the Texan economy were tied to oil. In the mid-1980s, after
an oil-price crash, the state suffered the savings and loan debacle, big house-price declines and
a deep recession. Unemployment 65 from 6% to 9%, even though it was falling across
the country as a whole.
Since then, say many Texans, the state has shed its reliance on black gold. Government
finances are in better shape: 66 in the early 1980s 10% of tax revenues came from oil
production, today it 67 less than 5%. The banking sector has grasped the importance
of diversification: there are more interstate firms, which means that credit losses in Texas are
spread more broadly across the country. Low taxers and stable regulations have encouraged
many corporate giants, such as Toyota, a carmaker, to move their American headquarters to the
state. The Dallas area thrives 68 telecoms, aerospace and banking. Houston has lots of
oil, but also NASA.
【題組】65. (A) lifted (B) raised (C) risen (D) rose
29.Cyber-security is now part of all our lives. “Patches” and other security updates arrive for
phones, tablets and PCs. Consultants remind us all not to open unknown files or plug unfamiliar
memory sticks into our computers. The bosses of some Western firms throw away phones and
laptops after they have been to China assuming they have been hacked. And yet, as our special
report this week points out, digital walls keep on being breached.Last year more than 800m
digital records, such as credit- and debit-card details, were pinched or lost, more than three times
as many as in 2012. According to a recent estimate by the Centre for Strategic and International
Studies, a think-tank, the cost to the global economy of cyber-crime and online industrial
espionage stands at $445 billion a year—about as much as the GDP as of Austria.
Now a new phase in this contest is emerging: “the Internet of things”. This involves
embedding miniature computers in objects and connecting them to Internet using wireless
technology. Cisco, a technology company, predicts that 50 billion connected devices will be in
circulation by the end of the decade, up from 11 billion last year. Web-connected cars and
smart appliances in homes are becoming more common, as are medical devices that can be
monitored by doctors many miles from their patients. Tech companies are splurging cash:
witness Google’s punt on driverless cars and the $3.2 billion it has spent buying Nest, a maker
of smart thermostats. (From The Economist July 12th 2014) 【題組】69. What does the word “Patches” in line 1 mean?
(A) Pieces of cloth to fix a computer program
(B) Software to improve a computer program
(C) Hacking devices
(D) Scams for commercial purposes
30.【題組】70. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?
(A) Computer consultants warn users not to plug unknown devices into our computers
(B) Western businessmen do not buy cell phones and laptops made in China
(C) No firewalls are powerful enough to withstand all hackers
(D) More and more personal information online have been stolen every year
31.【題組】71. Based on the passage, what in future is NOT predicted?
(A) Almost five times more of such internet of things will be produced by 2015
(B) Cars will be driven without drivers
(C) Home appliances can be remote controlled from your office
(D) Medical devices can be monitored by doctors far away
32.【題組】72. What is most likely the topic of the paragraph following this one?
(A) How Google decided its next investment
(B) The hope of wireless technology
(C) The security of the Internet of things
(D) The miracle of smart thermostats
In most earthquakes the Earth’s crust cracks like porcelain. Stress builds up until a
fracture forms at a depth of a few kilometers and the crust slips to relieve the stress. Some
earthquakes, however, take place hundreds of kilometers down in the Earth’s mantle, where
high pressure makes rock so ductile that it flows instead of cracking, even under stress severe
enough to deform it like putty. How can there be earthquakes at such depths?
That such deep events do occur has been accepted only since 1927, when the seismologist
KiyooWadati convincingly demonstrated their existence. Instead of comparing the arrival
times of seismic waves at different locations, as earlier researchers had done, Wadati relied on
a time difference between the arrival of primary (P) waves and the slower secondary (S) waves.
Because P and S waves travel at different but fairly constant speeds, the interval between their
arrivals increases in proportion to the distance from the earthquake focus, or rupture point.
For most earthquakes, Wadati discovered, the interval was quite short near the epicenter,
the point on the surface where shaking is strongest. For a few events, however, the delay was
long even at the epicenter. Wadati saw a similar pattern when he analyzed data on the intensity
of shaking. Most earthquakes had a small area of intense shaking, which weakened rapidly
with increasing distance from the epicenter, but others were characterized by lower peak
intensity, felt over a broader area. Both the P-S intervals and the intensity patterns suggested
two kinds of earthquakes: the more common shallow events, in which the focus lay just under
the epicenter, and deep events, with a focus several hundred kilometers down.
The question remained: how can such quakes occur, given that mantle rock at a depth of
more than 50 kilometers is too ductile to store enough stress to fracture? Wadati’s work
suggested that deep events occur in areas (now called Wadati-Benioff zones) where one crustal
plate is forced under another and descends into the mantle. The descending rock is
substantially cooler than the surrounding mantle and hence is less ductile and much more liable
to fracture. 【題組】73. The passage is primarily concerned with________.
(A) demonstrating why the methods of early seismologists were flawed
(B) arguing that deep events are poorly understood and deserve further study
(C) defending a revolutionary theory about the causes of earthquakes and methods of
(D) discussing evidence for the existence of deep events and the conditions that allow
them to occur.
34.【題組】74. The method used by Wadati to determine the depths of earthquakes is most like which
of the following?
(A) Determining the depth of a well by dropping stones into the well and timing how
long they take to reach the bottom
(B) Determining the height of a mountain by measuring the shadow it casts at different
times of the day
(C) Determining the distance from a thunderstorm by timing the interval between the
flash of a lightning bolt and the thunder it produces
(D) Determining the distance between two points by counting the number of paces it
takes to cover the distance and measuring a single pace
35.【題組】75. The passage supports which of the following statements about the relationship between
the epicenter and the focus of an earthquake?
(A) P waves originate at the focus and S waves originate at the epicenter.
(B) In deep events the epicenter and the focus are reversed.
(C) In shallow events the epicenter and the focus coincide.
(D) In both deep and shallow events the focus lies beneath the epicenter.
36.【題組】76. The passage suggests which of the following about the views held by researchers before 1927?
(A) Some researchers did not believe that deep events could actually occur.
(B) Many researchers rejected the use of P-S intervals for determining the depths of
(C) Some researchers doubted that the mantle was too ductile to store the stress needed
for an earthquake.
(D) Few researchers accepted the current model of how shallow events occur.
The promise of finding long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food
shortages seems difficult to fulfill. Many innovations that were once heavily supported and
publicized, such as fish-protein concentrate and protein from algae grown on petroleum
substrates, have since fallen by the wayside. The proposals themselves were technically
feasible, but they proved to be economically unviable and to yield food products culturally
unacceptable to their consumers. Recent innovations such as opaque-2 maize, Antarctic krill,
and the wheat-rye hybrid triticale seem more promising, but it is too early to predict their
One characteristic common to unsuccessful food innovations has been that, even with
extensive government support, they often have not been technologically adapted or culturally
acceptable to the people for whom they had been developed. A successful new technology,
therefore, must fit the entire sociocultural system in which it is to find a place. Security of crop
yield, practicality of storage, palatability, and costs are much more significant than had
previously been realized by the advocates of new technologies. For example, the better protein
quality in tortillas made from opaque-2 maize will be of only limited benefit to a family on the
margin of subsistence if the new maize is not culturally acceptable or is more vulnerable to
The adoption of new food technologies depends on more than these technical and cultural
considerations; economic factors and governmental policies also strongly influence the
ultimate success of any innovation. Economists in the Anglo-American tradition have taken the
lead in investigating the economics of technological innovation. Although they exaggerate in
claiming that profitability is the key factor guiding technical change—they completely
disregard the substantial effects of culture—they are correct in stressing the importance of
profits. Most technological innovations in agriculture can be fully used only by large
landowners and are only adopted if these profit-oriented business people believe that the
innovation will increase their incomes. Thus, innovations that carry high rewards for big
agribusiness groups will be adopted even if they harm segments of the population and reduce
the availability of food in a country. Further, should a new technology promise to alter
substantially the profits and losses associated with any production system, those with economic
power will strive to maintain and improve their own positions. Since large segments of the
populations of many developing countries are close to the subsistence margin and essentially
powerless, they tend to be the losers in this system unless they are aided by a government
policy that takes into account the needs of all sectors of the economy. Therefore, although
technical advances in food production and processing will perhaps be needed to ensure food
availability, meeting food needs will depend much more on equalizing economic power among
the various segments of the populations within the developing countries themselves. 【題組】77. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph?
(A) A suggestion is made and arguments in its favor are provided.
(B) A criticism is levied and an alternative proposal is suggested.
(C) A generalization is advanced and supporting evidence is provided.
(D) An example is analyzed and general conclusions are derived from it.
38.【題組】78. According to the passage, the use of Antarctic krill as a food is an innovation whose
(A) basically gloomy but still uncertain
(B) somewhat promising but very tentative
(C) generally bright and virtually assured
(D) tied to the success of opaque-2 maize
39.【題組】79. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with
which of the following statements concerning the solution to food shortages in
(A) The introduction of technological innovations to reap profits might alleviate food
shortages to some degree, but any permanent solution can come only from effective
governmental intervention in the socioeconomic system.
(B) Long-lasting solutions will not be found until large landowners adopt improvements
that will make production more efficient and thus more profitable.
(C) In order to achieve a meaningful solution to the problem of food shortages, the
tastes of the general population must be educated to accept the new food products of
modern agricultural technology.
(D) Although a short-term solution to food shortages can be achieved by importing food
from other countries, a long-term solution requires a restructuring of the countries’
40.【題組】80. The author provides a sustained argument to support which of the following assertions?
(A) Profitability is neither necessary nor sufficient for a new technology to be adopted.
(B) Profitability is the key factor guiding technological change.
(C) Economic factors and governmental policies strongly influence the ultimate success
of any innovation.
(D) Opaque-2 maize is of limited benefit to poor families in developing countries.