6.6. Encyclicals aren't considered _________ (few papal documents are), but scholars say they are surpassed
in importance only by papal bulls, which define dogma.
(A) immortality (B) illumination (C) impediment (D) infallible
9.9. In 2012, the Obama ___ introduced a Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights and vowed to persuade Congress to
grant specific powers to the Federal Trade Commission to enforce it.
(A) office (B) government (C) politics (D) administration
17.17. It is a false notion that we own and can somehow run the earth that we treat it as a sort of _____ household pet,
living in an environment invented by us.
(A) domesticated (B) accentuated (C) glimpsed (D) dedicated
23.23. Experiments conducted by social psychologists have revealed how swiftly and decisively people ___
groups, and then discriminate in favor of the one to which they belong.
(A) are divided into (B) divide into (C) are dividing into (D) divided into
26.26. The Justice Department warned Apple that it planned to sue the company along with several U.S.
publishers ___ raise the price of electronic books.
(A) in collaborating to (B) to connive to (C) for conspire in (D) for colluding to
27.27. Pushing the boundaries of what is generally considered acceptable, even decent, when it comes ___
personal information is a daily sport in the online world.
(A) to exploit (B) to explore (C) to exploiting (D) exploring
29.29. A surrogate mother is a woman who is paid to carry the baby of another woman who is medically _____.
(A) unlikely to do so (B) not want to do so
(C) unable to doing so (D) unable to do so
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30.30. _____ was clear from her obvious air of boredom.
(A) That Angela lacked interest in me (B) What Angela lacked interest in me
(C) Why Angela’s lack of interest in me (D) That Angela’s lack of interest in me
Train traffic in the United States is much (31) from Taiwan. In Taiwan, most trains are passenger trains
and run very often every day. In the US, most trains are freight trains. There used to be many more passenger
trains in the US, but they have been (32) by cars driving on a huge highway (33) .
However, you can still see America by traveling by train. You'll see nothing of America at 11,000 meters, so
instead of flying over the country, catch the (34) from an Amtrak train. You can go from coast to coast in
comfort at very affordable prices. Long-distance trains in the USA are (35) by Amtrak. 【題組】
31. (A) evolved (B) different (C) sustained (D) rejected
Children are not born with integrity or the behaviors we (36) it, like honesty, honor, respect, authenticity,
social responsibility, and the courage to (37) what they believe is right. It is derived through a process of (38)
-- influences from all spheres of a child's life. In their school environments, students acquire these values and
behaviors from adult (39) and peers, and in particular, through an understanding of the principles of
academic integrity. When students learn integrity in classroom settings, it helps them (40) similar principles
(40) other aspects of their lives.
Most K-12 educators recognize that the students they teach today will become the leaders of tomorrow.
Academic curriculum is (41) to meet the (42) of a changing knowledge society. Yet we pay far less
attention to the habits that build ethical leaders -- habits that develop during childhood and adolescence. A recent
study noted that 40 percent of U.S. faculty members (43) cases of cheating in their courses, an indication that
teachers don't want to (44) or deal with angry parents. Research (45) the Educational Testing Service
suggests troubling issues related to the development of K-12 student integrity. 【題組】
36. (A) associate with (B) are associated with (C) associate to (D) are associated to
Anyone with even (46) in business and industry knows that American Business learning institutions are
47) the highest in the world. Business Schools and Colleges in North America dominate all the major
international rankings conducted annually by broadsheet media independent companies. Schools such as Harvard,
Stanford, Wharton and Columbia, considered as (48) in American Business Education, are consistently at the
top of the world university rankings. American Business schools set the (49) for excellence, pioneering attitude
and innovation. It comes as no surprise that (50) of students from across the globe seek to acquire and further
business education in the United States. 【題組】46. (A) a pressing interest (B) a past interest (C) an interest passing (D) a passing interest
Social networking sites are an expanding trend. They have really (51) in recent years. People from
around the globe use sites such as Facebook and Twitter to contact with friends and clients. When you join a site,
it’s just like the first day of school – you don’t know anyone at first. You can set up your (52) , find friends to
add, and sign up for groups with people who have common interests. Around the world, there are (53) types of
social networking sites. Flixster is for movie lovers, while last.fm is (54) music people go. 43Things is a site
that helps people achieve their goals. It is fair to say that Twitter (55) traditional media like newspapers by
updating people immediately when something occurs. The most popular site, Facebook, lets people stay in touch
with family, friends, and coworkers. Which networking sites do you use? 【題組】
51. (A) taken off (B) set off (C) backed off (D) gone off
One of the most important features that distinguish man from animal is the ability to laugh. People who
have studied the phenomenon have offered many (56) to explain human laughter. Scholars in the field of
psychology, for example, have done research on the (57) of what makes people laugh. But as usual happens,
the experts disagree, and there is much (58) in the field. Some people claim that human beings laugh at things
which are strange to their experience. Others feel that people laugh at what they (59) believe to be their own
weaknesses. Humor often (60) a knowledge of certain words, or even on an understanding of a particular
cultural background. There are, of course, many different sources of humor, but the important fact is that all
people share the great pleasure of laughter. 【題組】
56. (A) theories (B) escapes (C) solutions (D) forms
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sometimes referred to as attention deficit disorder (ADD),
is a mental disorder in which an individual displays a pattern of age inappropriate hyperactivity, impulsivity, or
inattention. The symptoms of ADHD must present themselves before the age of 12, and they must occur in
multiple settings (e.g. at home and school, not just at home).
A meta-analysis of genetic studies found that ADHD is highly heritable. Environmental factors—such as
the use of alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy –contribute to the presentation of ADHD, but genetics play a
more prominent role. About 6 percent of people in the United States under the age of 18 meet the DSM-IV
diagnostic criteria for ADHD, and males are about three times more likely to be diagnosed.
Treatment for ADHD includes social interventions (psychotherapy, behavioral interventions, parent training,
and education) and medication. Social interventions and medication can both be effective on their own, but a
combination of the two modalities tends to be the most effective.
Behavioral interventions and psychotherapy have been found to be very effective for the treatment of mild
ADHD symptoms. In the treatment of children with ADHD, it is essential to include parents in the process. In
addition to behavioral interventions, parents and children can benefit from education about ADHD. Many parents
will have difficulty responding to their children with ADHD because they are under the impression that the child
is intentionally being disrespectful or disruptive. Education about the biological causes and symptoms of ADHD
can help reduce tension in parent-child relationships. It helps parents to know that their child isn't simply trying to
be a nuisance, but that they have a physical limitation that makes it very difficult to control their behavior.
Children with ADHD can benefit from therapy focused on social skills training. Role-playing, modeling of
good behavior, practicing conversation skills such as listening and waiting to speak, conflict management
education, and emotional management skills can all help children reduce the impact of their symptoms.
Medication has been found to be effective for about 80 percent of those with ADHD, but there have been
mixed findings regarding the long-term effects of its use. Medication can improve a child's ability to focus, control
impulsive behavior, and decrease excessive motor behavior. That being said, they are not magic pills that make
children behave well and become effective students. These abilities are better fostered through parenting skills. 【題組】
61. What is the main idea of this article?
(A) It introduces what ADHD is and how it can be treated.
(B) It shows why children with ADHD need medication.
(C) It examines how children with ADHD can be taught.
(D) It indicates that information about ADHD has been outdated.
63.【題組】63.According to the article, which of the following statements is NOT true?
(A) ADHD is most probably genetic.
(B) Males are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.
(C) Children with ADHD are intentionally being disruptive.
(D) Medication is not 100 percent effective.
64.【題組】64.According to the author, the most important in the treatment of children with ADHD is _______.
(A) to control their behavior
(B) to include parents in the process
(C) to reduce the symptoms
(D) to decrease excessive motor behavior
65.【題組】65.According to the author, “there have been mixed findings regarding the long-term effects of its use.” What
does it mean?
(A) There may be side-effects for the long-term use of the medication.
(B) There is no problem for the long-term use of the medication.
(C) The medication can only be effective for a short period of time.
(D) The medication is more effective for children than adults.
Jazz has been called “the art of expression set to music”, and “America’s great contribution to music”. It has
functioned as popular art and enjoyed periods of fairly widespread public response, in the “jazz age” of the 1920s,
in the “swing era” of the late 1930s and in the peak popularity of modern jazz in the late 1950s. The standard
legend about Jazz is that it originated around the end of the 19th century in New Orleans and moved up the
Mississippi River to Memphis, St. Louis, and finally to Chicago. It welded together the elements of Ragtime,
marching band music, and the Blues. However, the influences of what led to those early sounds goes back to tribal
African drum beats and European musical structures. Buddy Bolden, a New Orleans barber and cornet player, is
generally considered to have been the first real Jazz musician, around 1891.
What made Jazz significantly different from the other earlier forms of music was the use of improvisation.
Jazz displayed a break from traditional music where a composer wrote an entire piece of music on paper, leaving
the musicians to break their backs playing exactly what was written on the score. In a Jazz piece, however, the
song is simply a starting point, or sort of skeletal guide for the Jazz musicians to improvise around. Actually, many
of the early Jazz musicians were bad sight readers and some couldn’t even read music at all. Generally speaking,
these early musicians couldn’t make very much money and were stuck working menial jobs to make a living. The
second wave of New Orleans Jazz musicians included such memorable players as Joe Oliver, Kid Ory, and Jelly
Roll Morton. These men formed small bands and took the music of earlier musicians, improved its complexity,
and gained greater success. This music is known as “hot Jazz” due to the enormously fast speeds and rhythmic
A young cornet player by the name of Louis Armstrong was discovered by Joe Oliver in New Orleans. He
soon grew up to become one of the greatest and most successful musicians of all time, and later one of the biggest
stars in the world. The impact of Armstrong and other talented early Jazz musicians changed the way we look at
66. The Passage answers which of the following questions?
(A) Which early Jazz musicians most influenced the development of Blues music?
(B) Why did Ragtime, marching band music, and the Blues lose popularity after about 1900?
(C) What were the origins of Jazz and how did it differ from other forms of music?
(D) Who has been the greatest cornet player to music in the twentieth century?
69.【題組】69.Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) Many early Jazz musicians had little formal musical training.
(B) There is no slow music in Jazz.
(C) Many early Jazz musicians had poor sight.
(D) The cornet is the most common musical instrument used in Jazz.
70.【題組】70.All of the following are true EXCEPT
(A) “Hot Jazz” is rhythmic.
(B) The late 1930s was called the “swing era ”.
(C) Jazz has been said to be America’s greatest contribution to music.
(D) Joe Oliver is generally considered to be the first real Jazz musician.
For some, an international language is equated with a language that has a large number of native speakers. In
this sense, Mandarin, English, Spanish, Hindi, and Arabic, the five most widely spoken mother tongues in the
world today, might be considered as international languages. However, unless such languages are spoken by a
large number of native speakers of other languages, the language cannot serve as a language of wider
communication. It is in this sense, as a language of wider communication, that English is the international
language par excellence. And in many instances, it is a language of wider communication both among individuals
from different countries and between individuals from one country. In this way, English is an international
language in both a global and a local sense. Crystal (1997) maintains that a language achieves global status when
it develops a special role that is recognized in every country and that this special status can be achieved either by
making it an official language of the country or by a country giving special priority to the language by requiring
study of it as a foreign language. Today there are over seventy countries where English has held or continues to
hold special status, with many other countries giving English the special priority referred to by Crystal where
English is a required foreign language.
A variety of difficulties exist in getting an accurate count of the current number of English users. First, there is
no single source of statistical information on totals of English language users of all countries in the world so
estimates have to be made from a variety of sources. Second, how fluent an individual must be to be considered as
“a user of English” is open to interpretation. Finally, there are many varieties of the language, ranging from
pidgins and creoles to various varieties of Standard English, and whether or not to include pidgin and creole
speakers in estimates of English users is a subject of debate. Whereas the exact number of users of English is
difficult to determine, it is clear that the number of individuals who have some familiarity with the language is
vast and growing. However, the number of speakers is not the defining characteristic of an international language.
Other features need to be taken into account as well. 【題組】
71. What is the purpose of this passage?
(A) To introduce English as an international language and how it has spread to become one.
(B) To describe English as an international language considering number of users and official recognition.
(C) To compare the varieties of English such as pidgins and creoles and Standard English.
(D) To examine the features of an international language defined by Crystal and others.
72.【題組】72. According to the author, which of the following can be considered as an international language?
(A) A language of wider communication and develops a special role recognized in every country.
(B) The most widely spoken languages in the world such as Mandarin.
(C) A language spoken by a large number of native speakers of other languages.
(D) A language given the special priority and required study as a foreign language.
73.【題組】73. Based on information in this passage, which of the following would most likely be considered true?
(A) English is an official language in over seventy countries.
(B) The range of proficiency in English among the population is broad.
(C) The number of English users in the world is vast and growing.
(D) There is no local model of English since the language does not have official status in some countries.
74.【題組】74. According to the author, which of the following is NOT a difficulty in estimating the number of English users
in the world?
(A) It is hard to define a user of English.
(B) English is used in many countries for international communication.
(C) There is no single source of information on estimates of English users in the world.
(D) It is argued to include speakers of pidgins and creoles in estimates of English users.
75.【題組】75. Based on the information in the passage, it can be inferred that--
(A) The sheer number of users is not the defining characteristic of English as an international language.
(B) The status of English is shifting in many parts of the world.
(C) English has not become institutionalized with locally developed standards of use.
(D) The spread of English is largely a result of foreign language learning in the world.
When you hear someone bubbling enthusiastically about an exotic species, you can safety bet the speaker
isn’t an ecologist. This is a name for a resident of an established community that was deliberately or accidentally
moved from its home range and became established elsewhere. Unlike most imports, which can’t take hold
outside their home range, an exotic species permanently insinuates itself into a new community.
Sometimes the additions are harmless and even have beneficial effects. More often, they make native
species endangered species, which by definition are extremely vulnerable to extinction. Of all species on the rare
or endangered lists or that recently became extinct, close to 70 percent owe their precarious existence or demise to
displacement by exotic species. 【題組】
76. Which of the following best explains the term “exotic species” in paragraph 1?
(A) An animal or plants on the rare species list.
(B) A permanent resident in an established community.
(C) A species that has been moves to a different community.
(D) An import that fails to thrive outside of its home range.
78.【題組】78. The following statements are correct EXCEPT
(A) Exotic species cause harm rather than benefits.
(B) Exotic species are from outside.
(C) Exotic species result in death of native species.
(D) Exotic species can survive and become a new group in a new place.
79.【題組】79. What might the author mention next?
(A) Examples of exotic species to cause problems.
(B) Illustrations of the ecological differences in some places.
(C) The reasons why certain exotic species exist.
(D) Solutions to the problems that exotic species cause.
80.【題組】80. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the author’s opinion about exotic species?
(A) Exotic species should be eliminated by ecologists.
(B) Exotic species are often disruptive to the ecology.
(C) Importing an exotic species can solve many problems.
(D) Ecologists should make the decision to import an exotic species.