Kevin Ko>试卷(2014/07/13)

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103 年 - 臺東縣 103 學年度國民小學教師聯合甄選初試英文科試題#16944 

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1.1. Away from the sunlight, the plants will soon _____ and eventually die.
(A) fluctuate
(B) glitter
(C) incense
(D) languish

2.2. It seems common for political candidates to run TV ads made up largely of ______ directed against their opponents.
(A) appendage
(B) embankment
(C) propaganda
(D) dysfunction

3.3. In the training session, students are taught several _____ techniques to help them memorize and master new English words.
(A) tenacious
(B) mnemonic
(C) permeable
(D) resultant

4.4. Being an experienced teacher, Mr. Li knows very well how to help students change bad behavior patterns, even those that seem _____.
(A) intractable
(B) overburden
(C) unleavened
(D) ambivalent

5.5. There is no guarantee that everyone who _____ at colleges or universities will graduate with a degree.
(A) validates
(B) terminates
(C) consolidates
(D) matriculates

6.6. Some of the humor in the play is quite _____ or even silly and the plots don‟t always go where we think they‟re going to end up.
(A) whimsical
(B) rebellious
(C) gruesome
(D) verbose

7.7. Some people say that society today is so corrupt and immoral that the only measure to correct it is a moral _____.
(A) institution
(B) perspiration
(C) regeneration
(D) constitution 第 2 頁,共 10 頁

8.8. The scholar‟s reputation was _____ when it was revealed that he had plagiarized his colleague‟s report.
(A) mitigated
(B) tarnished
(C) admonished
(D) leveraged

9.9. The ______ information shows that the city‟s population has increased although the average income has gone down.
(A) lithographic
(B) demographic
(C) holographic
(D) topographic

10.10. A person who follows a _____ schedule on a regular basis spends his day rushing from task to task, thus constantly feeling stressed and overworked.
(A) hectic
(B) pliable
(C) caustic
(D) amenable

11.II. Cloze: Choose the best answer for each blank. (20%) Passage A Amphibians are ectothermic. That is, they depend on external heat 11 . such as the sun, to raise their body temperature. Most amphibians spend the early part of their lives in water and the adult part on land. During the early, 12 period, amphibians use gills for respiration. Later on land, most breathe through lungs. Amphibians can also absorb oxygen through their skin, which is generally smooth, moist, and scaleless. In most species of salamanders, the lungs do no function. All respiration is through the skin and the mucous membranes of the mouth. Amphibian 13 are well developed. Frogs and toads have excellent sight and depend on their eyes to find food. Salamanders have good eyes and also keen smell. When they hunt for food, they use both sight and smell. For the burrowing life of caecilian, good eyesight is not a necessity. They hunt mainly by smell. They have two tentacles, or feelers, near the mouth. As they move through the ground, the tentacles pick up food 14 . Young amphibians vary in their diets. Some eat mainly plant materials. Others eat a mixture of plant and animals. Adult amphibians, 15 , are almost entirely meat eaters and make insects the bulk of their diet.
(A) exchangers
(B) sources
(C) influxes
(D) extinguishers

(A) aquatic
(B) marine
(C) terrestrial
(D) exotic

(A) tissues
(B) effectors
(C) senses
(D) insights

(A) tastes
(B) scents
(C) hygiene
(D) poisoning

(A) similarly
(B) consequently
(C) therefore
(D) however

16.Passage B Our perception of time during short intervals is affected by inner feelings and psychological changes. Time flies at the beach or ballpark, but the clock seems stuck when we‟re doing monotonous work or recovering from a painful experience. Is our perception of time over longer periods governed by a similar 16 ? Calendar time is thought to represent the experience of moving through life, marking off the days, months, and years at a uniform pace. But this doesn‟t 17 our own perceptions. In fact, by middle age, most of us sense that the years—which crawled by in our youth—are rushing past at ever increasing speeds. Clearly the linear view as it applies to our own experience is misleading. With this in mind, researchers have proposed an alternative, nonlinear method for tracking the apparent 18 of time. The basic idea of this approach is that an individual judges the length of any given period, especially a longer period such as a month or a year, by comparing it to his or her total life span. A year is 10% of one‟s total life if one is 10 years old, but a 20-year-old would experience the same calendar year as only half 19 length of time, a mere 5%. The life percentage of a particular timespan is just as important as actual clock or calendar time. People tend to overlook the shrinking of years when they are young because of a preoccupation with current concerns and future goals. We become more 20 at middle age, when settling into more mundane lifestyles, and it is then that a change in the perception of time becomes apparent.
(A) usurpation
(B) theosophy
(C) subjectivity
(D) etymology

(A) square with
(B) abide by
(C) confer on
(D) bestow upon

(A) gratuity
(B) propensity
(C) congruity
(D) velocity

(A) his
(B) its
(C) that
(D) a

(A) retrospective
(B) histrionic
(C) baneful
(D) spasmodic

21.III. Discourse Structure: Choose the best answer for each blank. (20%) Passage A Vegetarians do not eat meat, fish, or poultry. Veganism is a type of vegetarian diet that excludes meat, eggs, dairy products and all other animal-derived ingredients. Many vegans also do not eat foods that are processed using animal products, such as refined white sugar and some wines. 21 For example, some vegans feel that one promotes the meat industry by consuming eggs and dairy products. That is, once dairy cows or egg-laying chickens are too old to be productive, they are often sold as meat; and since male calves do not produce milk, they usually are raised for veal or other products. 22 Many vegans choose this lifestyle to promote a more humane and caring world. They know they are not perfect, but believe they have a responsibility to try to do their best, while not being judgmental of The key to a nutritionally sound vegan diet is variety. A healthy and varied vegan diet includes fruits, vegetables, plenty of leafy greens, whole grain products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. 23 Thus eating a vegan diet makes it easy to conform to recommendations given to reduce the risk of major chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. High-fat foods, which should be used sparingly, include oils, margarine, nuts, nut butters, seed butters, avocado, and coconut. Vitamin D is not found in the vegan diet but can be made by humans following exposure to sunlight. 24 Food sources of vitamin D include vitamin D-fortified soy milk and rice milk. Calcium, needed for strong bones, is found in dark green vegetables, tofu made with calcium sulfate, calcium-fortified soy milk and orange juice, and many other foods commonly eaten by vegans. Although lower animal protein intake may reduce calcium losses, there is currently not enough evidence to suggest that vegans have lower calcium needs. 25 People are learning more about where their food comes from, the cost of food choices on the environment, and are making better choices. While the health benefits of a plant-based diet are becoming more and more popular, diet choices come and go for many people. (AB) From fast food to five-star restaurants, vegetarian options are becoming more commonplace. (AC) Vegan diets are free of cholesterol and are generally low in saturated fat. (AD) Therefore, vegans should eat foods that are high in calcium and/or use a calcium supplement. (AE) People choose to be vegan for health, environmental, and/or ethical reasons. (BC) Some people avoid these items because of conditions associated with their production. (BD) At least ten to fifteen minutes of summer sun on hands and face two to three times a week is recommended.

26.Passage B In the early 1980s, Roger Fisher and William Ury wrote a best-selling book called Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. The theories in Getting to Yes have become the basis for a ream of other advice about how to resolve conflicts and negotiate successfully. 26 They proposed a “win-win” model whereby each party shares common goals and cooperates in order to solve the problem. Fisher, Ury, and other experts in negotiating recommend the following strategies in order to create a win-win environment. First, listen actively to the other person. Use statements such as “I understand how you feel” and “I can see that you‟re upset” to acknowledge the other person‟s concerns and feelings. 27 Say, “You think that…” or “Do you mean…?” If you try to focus on getting the basic information in the open instead of making a judgment or expressing any opinion at this stage, you will defuse the other person‟s anger and reassure him or her that you are sincere about reaching an agreement. After finding out the other person‟s point of view, try to agree before you disagree. 28 Focus on objectives that you both share. In giving your perspective on the situation, try to be objective by avoiding judgmental, “loaded” language. Don‟t focus on or criticize the other person‟s actions. Instead, talk about your own perspective and feelings by using “I” statements instead of “you” statements. 29 For example, say, “I would appreciate knowing…” instead of “Tell me….” Make small concessions to show that you are willing to cooperate and, above all, keep the focus on working collaboratively to try to solve the problem. 30 In negotiating the best price for a car, for example, there is clearly a winner and a loser, no matter how polite the negotiations. However, in many cases, taking this collaborative approach to resolving differences works effectively. It‟s worth a try, at any rate. You can always go back to yelling and screaming if this doesn‟t work.
(A) Sandwich your negative ideas in positive statements.
(B) This type of collaborative approach may not be appropriate in every situation.
(C) Try to keep your tone of voice unemotional and, if possible, use more indirect ways to express demands.
(D) Fisher and Ury‟s basic premise is that the adversarial model of conflict resolution is not effective in many cases.
(E) Also, clarify and restate what the other person is saying to make sure that you understand the other person‟s views. (F) What Fisher and Ury pointed out in the book is by now widely received around the world.


31.IV. Reading Comprehension: Choose the best answer for each question. (20%) Passage A No, Steve Jobs declared. Apple wouldn‟t put a store in Brazil, with its “crazy” and “super-high” taxation. This was 2010, and Jobs was writing, bluntly, to an official in Rio de Janeiro. Four years later, Jobs‟s successor had a different message for Brazilians. “ „Obrigado‟ to everyone who visited our new store,” CEO Tim Cook tweeted in February, after 1,700 people packed into a Rio mall for the opening of the first Apple store in Latin America. “We are Brazilians, with lots of pride and lots of love,” his blue-shirted employees sang, adapting a tune heard in stadiums and bars when the national soccer team plays. Apple is one of many foreign brands feeling the love for Brazil — even if Brazilians, mired in an economic slump, aren‟t. As the country hosts this year‟s World Cup and prepares for the Olympic Games in 2016, the optimism that led it to bid for the planet‟s two most famous sporting events has all but evaporated. Inflation and flagging growth are squeezing Brazil‟s new middle class, whose anger is so intense and encompassing that its targets include the World Cup itself — an amazing thing in a country that is the definition of soccer mad. Protesters have jeered the national team, the World Cup trophy and the country‟s president, Dilma Rousseff, whom Brazilians blame for spending extravagantly on stadiums while neglecting basic public services. In May, Sao Paulo bus drivers snarled 162 miles of traffic when they threw away their keys in a strike, a fitting image for a country that is stalled after years of rapid economic growth. The foreign investors still come, drawn by something even high taxes can‟t take away: young, increasingly educated and affluent consumers. Companies as diverse as Forever 21, known for trendy fashions, and luxury automaker Bayerische Motoren Werke are putting down stakes this year. “Brazil has changed,” says Arturo Pineiro, head of BMW Brazil Group, which is investing $276 million in a plant scheduled to open later this year in Araquari, in the country‟s south. “It has some problems, but, with the right focus, they can be solved.” It can be hard to find ordinary Brazilians who agree with him, amid reports of protesters pelting police with rocks — or, at one clash in May, shooting them with arrows — and widespread griping about public corruption. When the country was awarded the two sporting events last decade, then-President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva — just Lula to Brazilians — was hailed as a miracle worker. The former union leader guided an epic boom during eight years in office, from 2003 to 2010, with the benchmark Ibovespa stock index growing sixfold and annual economic growth reaching as much as 7.5 percent. This allowed Lula to plow cash into his ambitious Bolsa Familia, a program that gives low-income Brazilians a monthly stipend in exchange for sending their children to school and has helped cut the poverty rate in half. 第 7 頁,共 10 頁 Brazilians long for those days now. Economic growth has slowed to just over 2 percent annually, and the stock market has declined by more than 20 percent in three years under Rousseff, Lula‟s former chief of staff.
【題組】31. According to the passage, where would people most likely hear the singing of “We are Brazilians, with lots of pride and lots of love” in Brazil?
(A) In a soccer stadium.
(B) At a bar in Rio.
(C) In Soccer World Cups.
(D) In the Apple store.

32.【題組】32. What is true about the Apple store in Brazil?
(A) It was opened by Tim Cook in 2010.
(B) It is the first of its kind in South America.
(C) 1,700 employees helped pack products in the store.
(D) Brazilians are too proud to purchase the products there.

33.【題組】33. Which of the following is one big attraction Brazil offers to foreign investors?
(A) Lower tax rates.
(B) Greater diversity in franchise.
(C) Young workforce.
(D) Increasing purchasing power.

34.【題組】34. Which of the following, according to the author, best represents most Brazilians‟ feelings about the overall economy in Brazil?
(A) The bus drivers‟ strike at Sao Paulo.
(B) BMW‟s investment in Araquari.
(C) Soccer fans‟ craze for the World Cup.
(D) Brazilians‟ pride in hosting the World Cup.

35.【題組】35. Which of the following is true about Rousseff?
(A) She is respected and hailed by most Brazilians.
(B) She successfully boosted the stock market in Brazil.
(C) She once worked under Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.
(D) She created an annual economic growth of 7.5 percent.

36.Passage B “WOULD You Kill the Fat Man?” is the title of a recent book about a set of moral problems that philosophers like to ponder, and psychologists to put to their experimental subjects. In the canonical form, you are on a footbridge watching a trolley speeding down a track that will kill five unsuspecting people. You can push a fat man over the bridge onto the tracks to save the five. (You cannot stop the trolley by jumping yourself, only the fat man is heavy enough.) Would you do it? Most people quail at the idea of shoving the man to his death. But alter the scenario a bit, and reactions change. People are more likely to throw a switch that would divert the trolley on to another track where it will kill only one person. The utilitarian calculation is identical—but the physical and emotional distance from the killing makes throwing the switch much more popular than throwing the man. There are other ways to nudge people‟s judgments, too. A rather counter-intuitive one was reported in a paper published last month in PLOS ONE, a journal. In it, Albert Costa of the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Spain, and his colleagues, found that the language in which the dilemma is posed can alter how people answer. Specifically, when people are asked the fat-man question in a foreign language, they are more likely to kill him for the others‟ sake. Dr. Costa and his colleagues interviewed 317 people, all of whom spoke two languages—mostly English plus one of Spanish, Korean or French. Half of each group were randomly assigned the dilemma in their native tongue. The other half answered the problem in their second language. When asked in their native language, only 20% of subjects said they would push the fat man. When asked in the foreign language, the proportion jumped to 33%. Morally speaking, this is a troubling result. The language in which a dilemma is posed should make no difference to how it is answered. Linguists have wondered whether different languages encode different assumptions about morality, which might explain the result. But the effect existed for every combination of languages that the researchers looked at, so culture does not seem to explain things. Other studies in “trolleyology” have found that East Asians are less likely to make the coldly utilitarian calculation, and indeed none of the Korean subjects said they would push the fat man when asked in Korean. But 7.5% were prepared to when asked in English. The explanation seems to lie in the difference between being merely competent in a foreign language and being fluent. The subjects in the experiment were not native bilinguals, but had, on average, begun the study of their foreign language at age 14. (The average participant was 21.) The participants typically rated their ability with their acquired tongue at around 3.0 on a five-point scale. Their language skills were, in other words, pretty good—but not great. Several psychologists, including Daniel Kahneman, who was awarded the Nobel prize in economics in 2002 for his work on how people make decisions, think that the mind uses two separate cognitive systems—one for quick, intuitive decisions and another that makes slower, more reasoned choices. These can conflict, which is what the trolley dilemma is designed to provoke: normal people have a moral aversion to killing (the intuitive system), but can nonetheless recognize that one death is, mathematically speaking, better than five (the reasoning system). 第 9 頁,共 10 頁 This latest study fits with other research which suggests that speaking a foreign language boosts the second system—provided, that is, you don‟t speak it as well as a native. Earlier work, by some of the same scholars who performed this new study, found that people tend to fare better on tests of pure logic in a foreign language—and particularly on questions with an obvious-but-wrong answer and a correct answer that takes time to work out. Regardless of the exact mental mechanism behind the team‟s findings, they could have big implications. Boaz Keysar, a psychologist at the University of Chicago and one of the study‟s authors, talks of investigating the impact on medical or legal decision-making. Meanwhile, globalization is boosting the number of bilinguals. There are more non-native English speakers (500m, by one estimate) than native ones (perhaps 340m). Big firms are making English their internal language, even if it is not the native tongue of most of their workers. Meetings of international organizations like the United Nations or the European Union are often conducted in languages that are not the preferred ones of most of those attending. Perhaps it is reassuring to think they may be more coolly rational than meetings of monoglots—unless, that is, you are the metaphorical fat man about to be pushed under a train.
【題組】36. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) Learning a foreign language boosts a person‟s cognitive system for decision making.
(B) People become more rational when moral dilemmas are posed in a foreign language.
(C) Bilinguals perform better than monoglots in areas that require logical reasoning.
(D) The mental mechanism that controls a person‟s decision making still remains unknown.

37.【題組】37. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “quail” in the 2nd paragraph?
(A) Shrug.
(C)Shun shyness.
(D)Show fear.

38.【題組】38. Which of the following is true about the subjects in the experiment by Dr. Costa‟s team?
(A) Subjects who speak fluent English responded to questions more quickly.
(B) Most subjects started learning their second language in their teenage years.
(C) Each subject was asked questions in both English and their native language.
(D) Asian subjects were more ready to kill the fat man for utilitarian consideration.

39.【題組】39. What may be said about the research by Daniel Kahneman and by Albert Costa?
(A) They both study how human beings make decisions.
(B) Their research findings show substantial disagreement with each other.
(C) Their studies in “trolleyology” have provoked a set of moral problems.
(D) The former built his study on the latter‟s findings in language and cognition.

40.【題組】40. What is the author‟s tone in the last sentence of the passage?
(A) Ungrateful.

V. Essay Writing. (20%)
Write a 20-minute, well-structured lesson plan for the following nursery rhyme. Make sure you include 
all essential details and provide the rationales for all the procedures and activities. 
Hey, diddle, diddle, 
The cat and the fiddle, 
The cow jumped over the moon; 
The little dog laughed 
To see such sport, 
And the dish ran away with the spoon.