More than one in five U.S. children live in poverty. Among the world’s 35 richest countries, the United
States holds the distinction of 11 second highest in child poverty. Children who grow up in poverty
complete less schooling, work and earn less 12 adults, and have poorer health.
While education has been envisioned as the great equalizer, this promise has been more myth than reality.
Despite some periods of progress, the achievement gap between white and black students remains 13 . Yet
today, the achievement gap between the poor and the non-poor is twice as large as 14 between black and
white students. These 15 undoubtedly contribute to the increasing stratification in who attends and
graduates from college. They will also limit economic and social mobility and perpetuate the gap between rich
【題組】11. (A) living (B) putting (C) ranking (D) taking
Insects are often thought of as a nuisance to human beings and merely pests for crops and animals. Yet this
is far from the truth. In fact, eating insects has been practiced throughout history and many people around the
world eat insects out of choice.
The practice of eating insects is known as entomophagy. Many animals, such as spiders, lizards and birds,
are entomophagous, as are many insects. People throughout the world have been eating insects as a regular part
of their diets for millennia. The earliest citing of entomophagy can be found in biblical literature; nevertheless,
eating insects was, and still is, taboo in many westernized societies. The unconventional nature of entomophagy
has meant that farming insects for food and feed has largely been absent from the great agricultural innovations
in livestock farming that emerged in past centuries – with a few exceptions, such as bees, silkworms and scale
insects. Insects have also failed to feature on the agendas of agricultural research and development agencies
worldwide. Until recently, references to insects for food and feed have been largely anecdotal. It is therefore
unsurprising that insects are still lacking from the diets of many rich nations and that their sale for human
consumption remains part of a niche food sector of novelty snacks.
Nevertheless, insect consumption is not a new concept in many parts of the world. From ants to beetle
larvae – eaten by tribes in Africa and Australia as part of their subsistence diets – to the popular, crispy-fried
locusts and beetles enjoyed in Thailand, it is estimated that insect-eating is practiced regularly by at least 2 billion
people worldwide. More than 1,900 insect species have been documented in literature as edible, most of them in
tropical countries. The most commonly eaten insect groups are beetles, caterpillars, bees, wasps, and ants.
Insects deliver a host of ecological services that are fundamental to the survival of humankind. They provide
food and contribute to livelihoods. In the time when it’s more and more difficult to meet the food and nutrition
needs, the practices of gathering insects for food and income definitely worth consideration.
【題組】16. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) Although eating edible insects has been practiced long, it is still not widely accepted by the majority.
(B) The historical documents on entomophagy are too limited for people to understand the dietary behavior of insects.
(C) Bees and silkworms are not absent from agricultural innovations because of the economic value they can bring.
(D) The more developed a country is, the less ecologically dependent it will be on insects as food for humans and
feed for animals.
18.【題組】18. Why are the tribes in Africa and Australia mentioned in the passage?
(A) Because they have noted down what they eat. (B) Because they do not belong to the rich nations.
(C) Because insects have been food for their animals. (D) Because insects have been among their daily diet.
20.【題組】20. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(A) The number of endangered species of insects has risen rapidly around the world.
(B) The consumption of edible insects has improved considerably in the rich nations.
(C) The agricultural research on insects has increased significantly over the past centuries.
(D) The practice of eating insects has prevailed extensively among certain groups of people.