5.45. When Peter finished telling the story of the accident, one look at the ______ faces of his
listeners made him realize that they did not believe him.
(A) incredible (B) incredulous (C) discreditable (D) accredited
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840 – 1893) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. His
wide ranging output includes symphonies, operas, ballets, instrumental and chamber music and
songs. He wrote some of the most popular concert and theatrical music in the classical 52 ,
including the ballets Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, the 1812 Overture,
his First Piano Concerto, his last three numbered symphonies, and the opera Eugene Onegin.
Born into a middle-class family, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant,
despite his obvious musical 53 . He pursued a musical career against the wishes of his
family, entering the Saint Petersburg Conservatory in 1862 and graduating in 1865. This
formal, Western-oriented training set him apart from the contemporary nationalistic movement
embodied by the influential group of young Russian composers known as The Five, with
whom Tchaikovsky's professional relationship was mixed.
Although he enjoyed many popular successes, Tchaikovsky was never emotionally secure,
and his life was 54 by personal crises and periods of depression. Contributory factors
were his suppressed homosexuality and fear of exposure, his disastrous marriage, and the
sudden collapse of the one enduring relationship of his adult life, his 13-year association with
the wealthy widow Nadezhda von Meck. Amid private turmoil Tchaikovsky's public reputation
grew; he was honored by the Tsar, awarded a lifetime pension and lauded in the concert halls
of the world. His sudden death at the age of 53 is generally 55 cholera, but some attribute
it to suicide.
Although perennially popular with concert audiences across the world, Tchaikovsky's
music was often 56 by American critics in the early and mid-20th century as being
vulgar and lacking in elevated thought. By the end of the 20th century, however, Tchaikovsky's
status as a significant composer was generally regarded as secure.
【題組】52. (A) reservoir (B) repertoire (C) revenue (D) inventory
Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) reported that college students perform better on
standardized tests of spatial abilities after listening to 10 minutes of a Mozart sonata than after
listening to relaxation instructions or sitting in silence. 57 the short-term nature of the
so-called Mozart effect (10–15 min), the results received widespread attention in the popular
and scientific media. The notion that “music makes you smarter” has become one of the most
popular interpretations (or 58 misinterpretations) of a psychological finding.
Although the Mozart effect has been replicated by some researchers, failures to replicate
the effect by others raise doubts about its 59 . Nonetheless, based on a meta-analysis of 16
studies, Chabris (1999) conceded that there may be a small intermittent effect, but that it
probably arises from “enjoyment arousal” 60 by music. Compared with listening to
Mozart, sitting in silence or listening to a relaxation tape is less arousing. 61 , previous
investigations of the Mozart effect may have confounded differences in listening condition
with differences in arousal and mood. It seems possible that the Mozart effect has little to do
with Mozart in particular or with music in general.
【題組】57. (A) Concerning (B) Despite (C) Against (D) Without
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, at the
centre of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England.
Archaeologists 62 that the iconic stone monument was erected around 2500 BC. One
recent theory, however, has suggested that it may have been erected at the site as early as 3000
BC. The site and its surroundings were 63 the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in
There is little or no direct evidence for the construction techniques used by the
Stonehenge builders. Over the years, various authors have suggested that supernatural or
anachronistic methods were used, usually asserting that the stones were impossible to
move 64 . However, conventional techniques using Neolithic technology have been
demonstrably effective at moving and placing stones of a similar size.
Proposed functions for the site include usage as an astronomical observatory, or as a
religious site. More recently two major new theories have been proposed. Professor Mike Parker Pearson, head of the Stonehenge Riverside Project, has suggested that Stonehenge was
part of a ritual landscape and was joined to Durrington Walls by their corresponding avenues
and the River Avon. He suggests that the area around Durrington Walls Henge was a place of
the living, whilst Stonehenge was a domain of the dead. A journey along the Avon to reach
Stonehenge was part of a ritual passage from life to death, to celebrate past ancestors and the
recently 65 . On the other hand, Geoffery Wainwright, president of the Society of
Antiquaries of London, and Timothy Darvill of Bournemouth University have suggested that
Stonehenge was a place of healing. They argue that this 66 the high number of burials in
the area and for the evidence of trauma deformity in some of the graves. However, they do
concede that the site was probably multifunctional and used for ancestor worship as well.
【題組】62. (A) believe (B) have believed (C) were believed (D) had believed
III. Reading Comprehension
Mothers and fathers used to bring up children: now they parent. Critics used to review
plays: now they critique them. Athletes podium, executives flipchart, and almost everybody
Googles. Watch out—you’ve been verbed.
The English language is in a constant state of flux. New words are formed and old ones
fall into disuse. But no trend has been more obtrusive in recent years than the changing of
nouns into verbs. It is found in all areas of life, though some are more productive than others.
Financiers are never lacking in ingenuity: Investec recently forecast that “Better-balanced
autumn ranges should allow Marks & Spencer to anniversary tougher comparisons”—whatever
that may mean. Politics has come up with “to handbag” (a tribute to Lady Thatcher) and “to
doughnut”—that is, to sit in a ring around a colleague making a parliamentary announcement.
New technology is fertile ground, partly because it is constantly seeking names for things
which did not previously exist: we “text” from our mobiles, “bookmark” websites, “inbox” our
e-mail contacts and “friend” our acquaintances on Facebook—only, in some cases, to
“defriend” them later. “Blog” had scarcely arrived as a noun before it was adopted as a verb,
first intransitive and then transitive. Sport is another ready source. “Rollerblade,” “skateboard,” “snowboard,” and “zorb” have
all graduated from names of equipment to actual activities. Football referees used to book
players, or send them off: now they “card” them.
Verbing—or denominalization, as it is known to grammarians—is not new. Steven Pinker,
in his book The Language Instinct (1994), points out that “easy conversion of nouns to verbs
has been part of English grammar for centuries; it is one of the processes that make English
English.” Elizabethan writers revelled in it: Shakespeare’s Duke of York, in Richard II (1595),
says,“Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle,” and the 1552 Book of Common Prayer
includes a service “commonly called the Churching of Women.”
There is a difference today, says Robert Groves, one of the editors of the new Collins
Dictionary of the English Language. “Potential changes in our language are picked up and
repeated faster than they would have been in the past, when print was the only mass
communication medium, and fewer people were literate.” So coinages can be trialed around the
world—and greenlighted—as soon as they are visioned.
What’s the driving force behind it? “Looking for short cuts, especially if you have to say
something over and over again, is a common motivator,” says Groves. So fund-raisers say “to
gift-aid” rather than repeat “donate using gift aid” all day long, and CIA agents looking for
suspects to kidnap find “to rendition” handier than “to subject to extraordinary rendition.”
Sometimes the results are ridiculous—notably when verbs are minted from nouns which
were formed from verbs in the first place. To say “Let’s conference” instead of “Let’s confer,”
“I’ll signature it” instead of “I’ll sign it,” or “they statemented” instead of “they stated,” makes
the speaker seem either ignorant or pretentious. Using an elaborate verb when there is a far
simpler alternative—such as “dialogue” for “talk”—has the same effect.
Some lovers of the language deplore the whole business of verbing (Benjamin Franklin
called it “awkward and abominable” in a letter to Noah Webster, the lexicographer, in 1789);
others see it as proof of a vibrant linguistic culture. Certain words seem to bring people out
in a rash—among them “auctioning,” “tasking,” “impacting,” “efforting,” “accessing,”
“progressing,” and “transitioning.” Often, though, the dictionary yields surprising precedents:
“impact” was used as a verb in the 17th century, and “task” in the 16th. Other verbs have
managed to escape linguistic ghettoes: “to access” was recognized by the Oxford English
Dictionary over 20 years ago, but only as a computing term. Still others acquire new meanings:
“to reference,” originally meaning “to supply with references,” has now become a near-twin of
“to refer to.” Not every coinage passes into general use, and with luck “to incest” will quietly fade
away. But as for trying to end verbing altogether, forget it. You’d simply be Canuting.
【題組】67. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) English has a long tradition of changing nouns to verbs.
(B) Changing nouns to verbs is a popular trend in English today.
(C) Verbing is a natural process of language change and should not be resisted.
(D) English is now using nouns as verbs more often than any other languages.
28.【題組】68. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
(A) High frequency nouns are more likely to be used as verbs.
(B) Most verbs formed from nouns fall into disuse very quickly.
(C) People use nouns as verbs because there are no ready verbs for use.
(D) Grammarians do not consider verbing as a proper way of language use.
30.【題組】70. Which of the following is considered by the author as absurd in the trend of verbing?
(A) Adopting technical terms and using them on daily basis.
(B) Using a noun as a verb when it is originally created from a verb.
(C) Taking words randomly from the dictionary and using them as verbs.
(D) Looking for words to name new things and then turn the words into verbs.
31.【題組】71. What does the author mean by saying “Certain words seem to bring people out in a
(A) People are very much surprised by the popular use of certain words.
(B) People openly express their opinions about the use of certain words.
(C) Certain words are known to only a limited number of people.
(D) Certain words become popular among people very quickly.
A simple idea underpins science: “trust, but verify.” Results should always be subject to
challenge from experiment. That simple but powerful idea has generated a vast body of
knowledge. Since its birth in the 17th century, modern science has changed the world beyond
recognition, and overwhelmingly for the better.
But success can breed complacency. Modern scientists are doing too much trusting and
not enough verifying—to the detriment of the whole of science, and of humanity. Too many of the findings that fill the academic ether are the result of shoddy experiments or poor analysis.
A rule of thumb among biotechnology venture-capitalists is that half of the published research
cannot be replicated. Even that may be optimistic. Last year researchers at one biotech firm,
Amgen, found they could reproduce just six of 53 “landmark” studies in cancer research.
Earlier, a group at Bayer, a drug company, managed to repeat just a quarter of 67 similarly
important papers. A leading computer scientist frets that three-quarters of papers in his subfield
are bunk. In 2000-2010, roughly 80,000 patients took part in clinical trials based on research
that was later retracted because of mistakes or improprieties.
Even when flawed research does not put people’s lives at risk, it squanders money and the
efforts of some of the world’s best minds. The opportunity costs of stymied progress are hard
to quantify, but they are likely to be vast. And they could be rising.
One reason is the competitiveness of science. In the 1950s, when modern academic
research took shape after its successes in World War II, it was still a rarefied pastime. The
entire club of scientists numbered a few hundred thousand. As their ranks have swelled, to 6 to 7 million active researchers on the latest reckoning, scientists have lost their taste for
self-policing and quality control. The obligation to “publish or perish” has come to rule over
academic life. Verification does little to advance a researcher’s career. And without verification,
dubious findings live on to mislead.
Careerism also encourages exaggeration and the cherry-picking of results. In order to
safeguard their exclusivity, the leading journals impose high rejection rates: in excess of 90%
of submitted manuscripts. The most striking findings have the greatest chance of making it
onto the page. Little wonder that one in three researchers knows of a colleague who has pepped
up a paper by, say, excluding inconvenient data from results “based on a gut feeling.”
Conversely, failures to prove a hypothesis are rarely even offered for publication, let alone
accepted. “Negative results” now account for only 14% of published papers, down from 30%
in 1990. Yet knowing what is false is as important to science as knowing what is true. The
failure to report failures means that researchers waste money and effort exploring blind alleys
already investigated by other scientists.
All this makes a shaky foundation for an enterprise dedicated to discovering the truth
about the world. What might be done to shore it up? One priority should be for all disciplines
to follow the example of those that have done most to tighten standards.
Ideally, research protocols should be registered in advance and monitored in virtual
notebooks. This would curb the temptation to fiddle with the experiment’s design midstream so as to make the results look more substantial than they are. Where possible, trial data also
should be open for other researchers to inspect and test. Journals should allocate space for
“uninteresting” work, and grant-givers should set aside money to pay for it.
Science still commands enormous—if sometimes bemused—respect. But its privileged
status is founded on the capacity to be right most of the time and to correct its mistakes when it
gets things wrong. The false trails laid down by shoddy research are an unforgivable barrier to
【題組】72. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
(A) Trust, But Verify
(B) How Science Goes Wrong
(C) Science: Problems and Retrospection
(D) What Makes Science A Respected Discipline?
33.【題組】73. What is the main idea of the second paragraph?
(A) Some erroneous findings were repeated in many scientific studies.
(B) A huge amount of published research in science was found invalid.
(C) Most experiments in biotechnology were sponsored by drug companies.
(D) Many patients went through clinical trials based on wrong research findings.
34.【題組】74. Which of the following is true about the leading journals in science today?
(A) They publish less than 10% of the manuscripts they have received.
(B) They publish more papers on “negative results” now than 20 years ago.
(C) They dislike papers which exclude inconvenient data for striking results.
(D) They require contributors to verify the findings before submitting their papers.
The term governmentality is a combination of the words govern and mentality, and is
frequently defined as the “art of government” or governing. It is a concept studied in social
sciences, a social theory credited to Michel Foucault, a philosopher from France. It includes the
practices of governments and their effects on the people who are governed. Governmentality
should not be confused with the simple act of governing however, at least not in a strict sense,
because it also includes the way people govern or conduct themselves, as well as how these
two issues are intertwined. Foucault coined the term governmentality and continued to expand upon it throughout the
last decade of his life. He died in 1984. It was in lectures during the late 1970s and early 1980s
that he established his theory of governmentality as a basis for determining the theme of a
given society’s practices of governance and the personal governance of its citizenry and the
interaction of the two.
Foucault gave a lecture in the late 1970s that bore the title “governmentality” or
gouvernementalité, in French. Related works created a stir and the concept grew more popular
throughout academia. The translated text of the lecture as well as several other written works
by Foucault and other scholars and an interview with Foucault were contained in the book The
Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and
There are several terms useful in helping to define further the concept of governmentality.
Technologies of power, technologies of self, and technologies of the market are the main points
of interest. Technologies of power are the resources used to help develop good behavior with
the idea of creating positive attitudes and attributes while attempting to avoid negative ones.
Technologies of self revolve around the capacity of individuals to control and therefore
govern themselves. This means restricting their own negative behaviors while promoting
positive behaviors because of personal and societal benefits rather than the rule of law.
Included in the technologies of self are responsibilization, healthism, normalization, and
self-esteem. Responsibilization indicates personal responsibility, and healthism is another
aspect of it, in that people are expected to live healthfully. Both of these are for personal and
societal benefits and without dependence on government. Normalization, in its simplest sense,
means living according to established norms. Self-esteem means self-empowerment, but this is
based on an earned respect of self through continual self-evaluation, personal discipline, and
The concept of the technologies of the market is described as being “governed” into
buying things both wanted and needed due to psychological manipulation and personal identity
based on the types of items people purchase. Clearly, each of the technologies represented in
the concept of governmentality can work together or even overlap at times, helping to establish
the roles of both the government and the governed in a particular society.
【題組】76. Which of the following is LEAST likely the target readers of the passage?
(A) Sociologists. (B) Marketing managers.
(C) Technology specialists. (D) Political science majors.
37.【題組】77. Which of the following does the theory of governmentality mainly concern?
(A) Significance of citizenship.
(B) The functioning of a government.
(C) Ways to make a society governable.
(D) Approaches to reaching social justice.
38.【題組】78. Which of the following is true about the book The Foucault Effect: Studies in
(A) It was the best seller among Foucault’s books.
(B) Peter Miller co-authored some of the articles with Foucault.
(C) One major part of the book is a lecture by Foucault in 1970s.
(D) All chapters in this book came from face-to-face interviews with Foucault.
39.【題組】79. What is the relationship between paragraph 5 and paragraph 6?
(A) An argument and its counter arguments.
(B) A theoretical account and its problems.
(C) A thesis statement and its examples.
(D) A construct and its components.
40.【題組】80. What might best explain the craze for brand name products in modern societies?
(A) Principles of normalization.
(B) Technologies of the market.
(C) Desires for self-empowerment.
(D) Nations’ practices of governance.