A century after the first commercial flight took off, around $746 billion is expected to be spent this year on
global air travel, a record 3.3 billion passenger journeys will be taken and 1,400 new aircraft help will whisk
them across the skies.
But among these impressive figures there is a much smaller one that airlines are really taking note of: $5.42.
That’s the average profit made by airlines for each passenger they carry. “With a net profit margin of just 2.4%,
airlines only retain $5.42 per passenger carried,” said Tony Tyler CEO of International Air Transport Association
(IATA) at the group’s 70th AGM in Doha, Qatar. “There is a mismatch between the value that the industry
contributes to economies and the rewards that it generates.”
For others at the sharp end of the industry, the quest for profits is an ongoing battle. “We’re the wrong part
of the food chain,” says JetBlue Airways CEO David Barger. “Airports and financiers, you look at the profit
margins of them compared to airlines. But we recognize we’re the wrong part and you have to be innovative.”
Pearce suggests that if fuel prices -- one of the biggest costs to airlines -- were to fall, then because of the keenly
competitive nature of the industry it would be the customer that would be the beneficiary. Even with high fuel
prices IATA forecasts that on average fares this year will fall by around 3.5%. The profits the industry has made
are mainly because of cost-cutting in the industry through improved efficiency and consolidation, plus the way
that airlines package their products, most notably through giving passengers more choice in what kind of options
they want with a flight. That also gives airlines other ways to make a few dollars with ancillaries like baggage
charges or seat preferences. Yet the lament from IATA remains that airlines and those in the commercial aviation
industry are still hampered by high taxation and low profitability. 【題組】
1. What is the passage mainly about?
(A) How airlines have developed in the past century.
(B) What the airline industry has contributed to economies.
(C) When airlines should purchase more new aircrafts.
(D) Why the airline industry has a low net profit margin.
3.【題組】3. What is NOT mentioned about the airline industry?
(A) The airline business is greatly influenced by economic downturn.
(B) The number of airline passengers will reach more than 3 billion.
(C) If fuel prices were to drop, the customers would be the beneficiary.
(D) The profit margins of airlines are relatively low if compared to those of airports
4.【題組】4. What may be inferred about the airline industry?
(A) It is responsible for about 11 percent of greenhouse gases.
(B) It is extremely sensitive to costs, such as fuel.
(C) It is making more profit with purchase of new aircrafts.
(D) It is quickly declining because of low profitability.
5.【題組】5. which of the following has helped the airline industry make profits?
(A) Drop in fuel prices.
(B) Raise in flight tickets.
(C) Competition among companies.
(D) Improved efficiency in the industry
6.UK unemployment has fallen below the 2 million mark for the first time since the global financial system
was on the brink of collapse six years ago. In a pre-election boost to the UK government, the number of
unemployed people fell to 1.97 million between June and August, the lowest level since late 2008 when the US
investment bank Lehman Brothers imploded and Britain was in the early stages of recession. The jobless rate fell
to 6% in the three months to August, from 6.2% in the quarter to July. It was the lowest rate since late 2008. The
employment rate rose to 73%, a level last seen in spring 2008 and close to the all-time high of 73.2%.
Simon Walker, the director general of the Institute of Directors, said falling unemployment was testament to the
“fortitude of British business”. It was not enough to cheer investors however, with the FTSE 100 closing down 181
points or 2.8% at 6,211 – the biggest one-day fall since June 2013. Weak US data, the looming threat of Ebola and
geopolitical tensions contributed to the fall. In New York the Dow Jones index closed down more than 170 points.
Despite the rise in UK employment, pay growth remained sluggish at 0.7% between June and August
compared with a year earlier, prolonging the fall in real pay as wage growth continued to lag behind CPI inflation
which was 1.5% in August and 1.2% in September. It was, however, a slight improvement on the 0.6% pay
growth between May and July. Pay growth excluding bonuses was 0.9%, up from 0.8%.
Jo Swinson, the employment relations minister, said she had asked the Low Pay Commission to explore how
to increase national minimum wage without having an adverse impact on jobs. Economists said the Bank of
England would delay raising interest rates – on hold at 0.5% since March 2009 – amid weak wage growth, low
inflation and a flagging eurozone economy. Philip Shaw at Investec said the Bank was unlikely to raise rates
before August 2015. 【題組】
6. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) The fall in the UK unemployment does not suggest the UK wage is growing.
(B) The state of the UK job market is determined by the US economy.
(C) Raising interest rates is related to improving the unemployment in UK.
(D) The lowest unemployment rate since late 2008 should be attributed to the UK government.
7.【題組】7. According to Mr. Walker, why could not the lowered jobless rate cheer the investors?
(A) The wage growth continued to lag behind CPI inflation.
(B) UK unemployment rate was not lower than 6%.
(C) Britain was in the late stages of recession.
(D) The international situation was not ideal.
9.【題組】9. What did Ms. Swinson ask the Low Pay Commission to do?
(A) To lower interest rates. (B) To raise national minimum wage.
(C) To create more job opportunities. (D) To deal with Ebola contamination.
10.【題組】10. Which of the following is NOT a factor for Bank of England to put off raising interest rates?
(A) A declining Eurozone economy. (B) Feeble wage growth.
(C) Growth in employment. (D) Low inflation.
11.Fair trade is an alternative approach to conventional trade based on a partnership between producers and
traders, businesses and consumers. The concept of ethical trading was established slowly from the late 1980s in
order to give a decent deal to producers in the developing world of basic commodities such as coffee, sugar, and
cocoa at a time when they were faced with a global crash in commodity prices. Organizations, like the
International Fairtrade system - made up of Fairtrade International and its member organizations - representing
the world’s largest and most recognized fair trade system, are involved in Fairtrade guarantee that farmers are
paid a minimum price that is enough to cover production costs of basic commodities whatever world prices may
be at the time. When farmers can sell on Fairtrade terms, it provides them with a better deal and improved terms
of trade. This allows them the opportunity to improve their lives and plan for their future. Fairtrade offers
consumers a powerful way to reduce poverty through their every day shopping.
From a slow start, Fairtrade business has really taken off and product sales rose 40% in 2005 alone to a
figure of $295 million. Although this is still only 0.1% of world trade, the trend is upward and this indicates that
people are beginning to take social and environmental issues into consideration when buying products. Fairtrade
labeled products are stocked not just in specialist stores but they also can be found in many large supermarkets.
According to principles of Fairtrade, workers’ rights and environmental protection must be taken into
consideration. Other ethical issues to be resolved are the exploitation of migrant workers and cheap labor.
However, fundamental to the trading is how goods are produced and how they are sold. It is hoped that through
fair trading, the benefits of free trade are brought into the hands of the people who really need it most. 【題組】
11. Which type of products is typically bought and sold under Fairtrade practices?
(A) Crude oil. (B) Coffee beans.
(C) Poultry. (D) Mobile phones.
12.【題組】12. Which of the following is NOT an objective of Fairtrade?
(A) To increase the output volume of certain commodities.
(B) To improve living conditions for farmers.
(C) To provide more positive prospects for farmers’ future.
(D) To be responsible for the societies and environment
13.【題組】13. Which of the following statements is true about Fairtrade?
(A) Fairtrade is an alternative approach to exploit migrant workers.
(B) Fairtrade is the trend to meet the consumers’ need for less costly products.
(C) Fairtrade allows consumers to engage in poverty reduction through purchases.
(D) Fairtrade farmers are paid minimally regardless of the final selling prices.
15.【題組】15. Which of the following is true about the development of fairtrade business?
(A) It developed very quickly at the beginning. (B) Its product sales declined sharply in 2005.
(C) It occupied 0.1% of world trade today. (D) Its development is greatly influenced by unemployment.
One event that shook the business world in 2006 was the takeover by Internet superpower Google of an
extremely popular video-sharing website called YouTube. The $1.65 billion purpose resulted in astonished
reaction in the world’s financial markets. After all, it was a remarkable price to pay for a company that didn’t
exist two years earlier.
It all began in January 2005 at a dinner party in San Francisco. Three former employees of PayPal, a
company that operates an online payment system, were chatting about the difficulty of sharing home videos with
friends online. Videos were difficult to download, and they were often too big to be sent through e-mail. Working
in a garage, Chad Hurley, Jawed Karim, and Taiwan-born Steve Chen developed a website through which short
homemade videos would be easy to download and to watch online. They named it YouTube, which basically
means “your television.” In other words, you can broadcast your own stuff. People began uploading interesting
and funny videos to share with others, at no cost. Word about the fun new site began to spread. The site’s
popularity took off like a rocket. In less than two years, more than 100 million videos were being viewed each
day on YouTube. Clips ranged from music and comedy stunts to shameless self-promotional messages. Some,
such as “Hong Kong Bus Uncle,” which features a loud argument filmed on a cell phone by a bus passenger, have
achieved worldwide fame.
As well as personal videos, many clips from movies, TV shows, and advertisements have found their way
onto YouTube. Sneaker giant Nike, for example, has provided video clips to the site. Music recording companies
such as Warner and EMI have also used the site to promote their music videos, and small companies that can’t
afford to advertize on TV have also used YouTube for publicity. With so many users, YouTube’s advertising
potential is obvious. If Google can figure out how to sell ads to even a fraction of the site’s huge number of
visitors, it will have been a very good acquisition indeed. 【題組】
16. How did Google surprise the business world in 2006?
(A) By selling most of its shares on financial markets.
(B) By starting a website for people to share videos.
(C) By paying a high price for a very young company.
(D) By taking more than a billion dollars from YouTube
19.【題組】19. How did YouTube’s popularity spread in the beginning?
(A) It was advertised on Google. (B) People told one another about it.
(C) There was a news story about it. (D) It offered free music downloads.
20.【題組】20. The passage implies that Google purchased YouTube because ____________________.
(A) it could bring in large profits (B) Nike was advertising on it
(C) most of its content was funny (D) online videos didn’t make money
【非選題】 22.二、英翻中【30 分】
As much as the greening of sports was a mirage to many skeptics, it is no longer a pie in the
sky now — it’s moving forward dramatically. Stadiums have installed wind and solar operations,
improved lighting efficiency, ramped up recycling efforts and diverted increasing amounts of
organic waste from the landfill through composting efforts. The payback is not just good public
relations but, increasingly, real bottom-line savings. The story of the Seattle Mariners explains how
this can work. First, he Seattle Mariners baseball team saw first-hand the financial benefits of
working for energy efficiency when it reduced natural gas use 60% and electricity use by 30% from
2006 to 2009 at Safeco Field. The Mariners now have one of the most comprehensive
environmental programs in sports. The change was questioned by a lot of naysayers, but the
numbers eventually convinced them. Now the Mariners’ stadium is the exemplary model of green