Rupert Chen>试卷(2013/02/08)

教甄教程◆英文題庫 下載題庫

101 年 - 101台北市國中英文專業#9523 

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1.Typically used as cheap cooking oil, palm oil has a pretty bad reputation. (61) , by the time the palm oil is processed, much of its nutritional value is destroyed. And the fact that it can (62) at room temperature makes it even look extra artery clogging. But preliminary research suggests that the form of vitamin E packed into the oil-palm fruit, tocotrienol, could help fight cancer and prevent strokes. Numerous test-tube studies done over the past two decades in the U.S., Canada and Malaysia show tocotrienols are “very effective” in killing cancer cells. Nascent though the studies may be, the promise of tocotrienols in the fight against cancer is gathering force worldwide. Now researchers worldwide are moving beyond the test tubes in labs, and are (63) the critical next step: human clinical trials on cancer patients. For example, ongoing human clinical trials are being conducted by Southeast Asian outfits like Davos Life and by scientists at Ohio State University (on stroke prevention). (64) the results of these trials are—analysts and researchers caution that it may take years to achieve a decisive breakthrough—the much derided nutritional image of palm oil is certain to improve
【題組】61.
(A) Indeed
(B) However
(C) Moreover
(D) Otherwise
2.【題組】62.
(A) hurdle
(B) flicker
(C) defect
(D) congeal
3.【題組】63.
(A) adhering to
(B) coinciding with
(C) embarking on
(D) deliberating over
4.【題組】64.
(A) Wherever
(B) Whatever
(C) Whichever
(D) Whenever
5.
In the United States the cost of living has been steadily rising for the past few decades. Food prices, clothing costs, housing expenses, and tuition fees are constantly getting higher. Partly because of financial needs, and partly because of career choices for personal fulfillment, mothers have been leaving the traditional role of full-time homemaker. (65) they have been taking salaried jobs outside the home. <BR>Making such a significant role change affects the entire family, especially the children. Some consequences are obvious. For example, dinnertime is at a later hour. The emotional impact, (66) , can be more subtle. Mothers leave home in the morning, feeling guilty because they will not be home when their children return from school. They (67) their guilt since they believe that their working will benefit everyone in the long run. The income will enable the family to save for college tuition, take an extended vacation, buy a new car, and so on. 
The emotional impact on the children can be significant. It is quite common for children to feel hurt and resentful. After all, they are alone several hours and they feel that their mothers should “be there” for them. They might need assistance with their homework or want to share the day’s activities. (68) , however, the mothers arrive home exhausted and face the immediate task of preparing dinner. Their priority is making the evening meal for the family, not engaging in relaxed conversation

【題組】65.
(A) Surprisingly
(B) Increasingly
(C) Relatively
(D) Apparently
6.【題組】66.
(A) in a word
(B) by all means
(C) to say the least
(D) on the other hand
7.【題組】67.
(A) suppress
(B) intervene
(C) articulate
(D) hypothesize
8.【題組】68.
(A) All in all
(B) All too often
(C) All for the best
(D) All said and done
9.Established in 1910 and built on 90 acres, the St. Louis Zoo is in many ways archetypal of institutions struggling to adapt from a late-19th-century concept to a 21st-century crisis management center. In their first century, American zoos plucked exotic animals from the wild and exploited them mainly for entertainment value, throwing in some wildlife education and a touch of preservation. When wilderness began disappearing, causing animals to fail at an accelerating pace, zoo officials became rescuers and protectors. Since the 1980s, zoos have developed coordinated breeding programs that have brought dozens of animals, like the golden lion tamarin of Brazil, back from the brink. To conserve animals effectively, however, zoo officials must winnow species in their care and devote more resources to a chosen few. The result is that zookeepers, usually animal lovers to the core, are increasingly being pressed into making cold calculations about which animals are the most crucial to save. Sometimes, the burden feels less like Noah building an ark and more like Schindler making a list. All sorts of criteria are considered, including uniqueness, level of endangerment in the wild, importance of the animal’s ecological role, and whether there is an adequate population in captivity for effective breeding. 9 Zoos are essentially given a menu of endangered species that the Association of Zoos & Aquariums is trying to maintain and can then choose according to their particular needs. But final decisions are often as much about heart as logic. When those decisions are made, the consequences can feel brutal. For 20 years, keepers at the St. Louis Zoo worked to understand the habits of endangered Mhorr gazelles, a graceful kind of antelopes, in their care. The animals had been squeezed out of the grasslands that border the Sahara by increased cattle ranching. Eighteen babies were born at the zoo during that time, a healthy rate. But then with fewer than 50 Mhorrs left in zoos in North America, there was not enough genetic diversity to reproduce without a risk of inbreeding. So, in 2008, a North American advisory group on the viability of hoofed species recommended that the animals be phased out of North American zoos and space given to another subspecies of endangered gazelle with more promising prospects. Sea lions are doing fine in the wild for now, but the St. Louis Zoo, which is taxpayer subsidized, decided to spend $18 million on a new pool, expected to be completed next year, that will be filtered and ozonated for clarity. Why? Because sea lions are one of the most popular attractions and their home was decrepit. Money also had to be spent on new restrooms and extra parking, meaning that stated priorities like breeding space for endangered animals and a frozen pool for walruses were shelved.
【題組】A. Established in 1910 and built on 90 acres, the St. Louis Zoo is in many ways archetypal of institutions struggling to adapt from a late-19th-century concept to a 21st-century crisis management center. In their first century, American zoos plucked exotic animals from the wild and exploited them mainly for entertainment value, throwing in some wildlife education and a touch of preservation. When wilderness began disappearing, causing animals to fail at an accelerating pace, zoo officials became rescuers and protectors. Since the 1980s, zoos have developed coordinated breeding programs that have brought dozens of animals, like the golden lion tamarin of Brazil, back from the brink. To conserve animals effectively, however, zoo officials must winnow species in their care and devote more resources to a chosen few. The result is that zookeepers, usually animal lovers to the core, are increasingly being pressed into making cold calculations about which animals are the most crucial to save. Sometimes, the burden feels less like Noah building an ark and more like Schindler making a list. All sorts of criteria are considered, including uniqueness, level of endangerment in the wild, importance of the animal’s ecological role, and whether there is an adequate population in captivity for effective breeding. 9 Zoos are essentially given a menu of endangered species that the Association of Zoos & Aquariums is trying to maintain and can then choose according to their particular needs. But final decisions are often as much about heart as logic. When those decisions are made, the consequences can feel brutal. For 20 years, keepers at the St. Louis Zoo worked to understand the habits of endangered Mhorr gazelles, a graceful kind of antelopes, in their care. The animals had been squeezed out of the grasslands that border the Sahara by increased cattle ranching. Eighteen babies were born at the zoo during that time, a healthy rate. But then with fewer than 50 Mhorrs left in zoos in North America, there was not enough genetic diversity to reproduce without a risk of inbreeding. So, in 2008, a North American advisory group on the viability of hoofed species recommended that the animals be phased out of North American zoos and space given to another subspecies of endangered gazelle with more promising prospects. Sea lions are doing fine in the wild for now, but the St. Louis Zoo, which is taxpayer subsidized, decided to spend $18 million on a new pool, expected to be completed next year, that will be filtered and ozonated for clarity. Why? Because sea lions are one of the most popular attractions and their home was decrepit. Money also had to be spent on new restrooms and extra parking, meaning that stated priorities like breeding space for endangered animals and a frozen pool for walruses were shelved.

 

What is the main idea of this article?


(A) Zookeepers have to make painful choices as to which endangered species to save.


(B) Zoos are transforming their mission quickly enough from entertainment to conservation.


(C) Zookeepers are playing the major roles in bringing endangered animals back from extinction.


(D) Zoos are increasingly concerning themselves with conservation, but the effort has limitations.

10.【題組】

Which of the following was NOT a function of zoos in the 19th century?

(A) They helped with animal preservation.

(B) They kept exotic animals for entertainment.

(C) They provided chances for wildlife education.

(D) They developed breeding programs for animals.

11.【題組】How do zookeepers actually decide which species to keep in the zoo?
(A) They consider all sorts of criteria.
(B) They consider what animal is crucial to save.
(C) They will balance entertainment and conservation.
(D) The Association of Zoos & Aquariums makes the final decision.
12.【題組】Which of the following statements is true about sea lions?
(A) Their home was a pool filled with ozonated water.
(B) They are kept in the zoo mainly for entertainment.
(C) They are going to share the new pool with walruses.
(D) They were the zoo’s first priority to spend taxpayers’ money on.
13.French social theorist Emile Durkheim, a pioneer figure in modern sociology, examined the effect of societal cohesion on emotional well-being. Advocating applying scientific methods to the study of society, Durkheim studied the levels of integration in various social formations and the impact that such cohesion had on individuals within the group. He postulated that social groups with high levels of integration serve to buffer their members from frustrations and tragedies that could otherwise lead to desperation and self-destruction. In Durkheim’s view, integration generally arises through shared activities and values of a group. Durkheim used two terms, which he coined as mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity, to classify integrated groups. As he explained it, mechanical solidarity, based on the similarities of the group members, dominates in groups in which individual differences are minimized and group devotion to a common goal is high. Durkheim further identified mechanical solidarity among groups with little division of labor and high degrees of cultural similarity, such as more traditional and geographically isolated groups. Organic solidarity, in contrast, is defined by its instrumental involvement with the division of labor. Accordingly, organic solidarity prevails in groups with high levels of individual differences, such as those with a highly specialized division of labor. In such groups, individual differences are a powerful source of connection rather than of division. Because people engage in highly differentiated ways of life, they are by necessity interdependent. In these societies, there is greater freedom from some external controls, but such freedom occurs in concert with the interdependence of individuals, not in conflict with it.  Durkheim realized that societies may take many forms and, consequently, that group allegiance can manifest itself in a variety of ways. In both types of societies outlined previously, however, Durkheim stressed that adherence to a common set of assumptions about the world was necessary prerequisite for maintaining group integrity and avoiding social decay.
【題組】According to the passage, which of the following is NOT a feature of a mechanical societal formation?


(A) Workers have an even division of labor and share the work of common tasks.


(B) Citizens share similar cultural beliefs and work toward a common overall goal.

 
(C) Individuals have their own specialties and operate interdependently in daily lives.


(D) Members of society share common worldviews and act and think in the same way.

14.【題組】

According to the passage, which of the following is an example of an organic societal formation?


(A) A film-making company with its own filming, production, and marketing group.


(B) An aboriginal tribe living in an isolated fishing village on an uncolonized island.


(C) A gas station having day-shift and night-shift workers to provide routine services.


(D) A religious group living and practicing its beliefs in a monastery in the mountain.

15.【題組】

What does the word buffer mean in the first paragraph?


(A) elicit
(B) shield
(C) offset
(D) prompt

16.【題組】

What is the overall tone of the passage?

(A) heavy and defensive

(B) serious and informative

(C) personal and reflective
 
(D) assertive and persuasive

17.In the early years of schooling, children are constantly encouraged to produce images and to illustrate their written work. Teachers comment on these illustrations as much as they do on the written part of the text, though perhaps not quite in the same vein. Unlike writing, illustrations are not “corrected” or subjected to detailed criticism like “this needs more work,” “not clear,” “poor expressions,” and so on. They are seen as self-expression, rather than as communication, and as something the children can do already, spontaneously, rather than as something they have to be taught. By the time children are beyond their first two years of secondary schooling, illustrations have largely disappeared from the children’s own texts as well as from the texts produced for them. Whereas texts produced for the early years of schooling are richly illustrated, later on visual images give way to a greater and greater proportion of verbal, written texts. In as much as visual images continue, they have become maps, diagrams, or representations with a technical function, such as photographs illustrating a particular landform or estuary or settlement type in a geography textbook. Outside school, however, images continue to play a very important role, and not just in texts for children. Newspapers, magazines, public relations materials, advertisements, and many kinds of books today involve a complex interplay of written texts, images, and other graphic elements. These elements combine together into visual designs, by means of layout. The skill of producing texts of this kind, however important their role in contemporary society, is not taught in schools. In terms of this new visual literacy, education produces illiterates. Writing itself is of course also a form of visual communication. Indeed, and paradoxically, the sign of the fully literate social person is the ability to treat writing completely as a visual medium—for instance, not moving one’s lips and not vocalizing when one is reading, not even “subvocalizing”—a silent “speaking aloud in the head.” Readers who move their lips when reading, who subvocalize, are regarded as still tainted with the culturally less advanced mode of spoken language. This kind of visual literacy, i.e., the old visual literacy, has been one of the most essential achievements and values of Western cultures. It is also one of the most essential goals for education, and it has been used by Western cultures to distinguish between literate (advanced) and non-literate (oral and primitive) cultures. No wonder that the move towards a new literacy, based on images and visual designs, can come to be seen as a threat and a sign of the decline of culture. The fading out of illustrations in texts by and for children, then, is not a straightforward disvaluation of visual communication. It is, instead, a valuation which gives particular prestige to one kind of visual communication—writing, which is the “old” visual literacy. Other visual communication is either treated as the domain of a very small elite of specialists or disvalued as possible form of expression for articulate, reasoned communication, seen as a “childish” stage one grows out of. To sum up, the opposition to the emergence of a new visual literacy is not based on an opposition to the visual media as such. It is, rather, on an opposition to the visual images which form an alternative to writing and can therefore be seen as a potential threat to the present dominance of verbal literacy among elite groups. 
【題組】What is the main purpose of this passage?
(A) To point out the interplay of written texts and visual images.
(B) To bridge the gap between the old and the new visual literacy.
(C) To promote a new literacy based on visual images and design.
(D) To defend the current dominance of verbal literacy in education.
18.【題組】

What is the main idea of the second paragraph?


(A) Texts written for and by children in their early years of schooling are full of illustrations.


(B) Visual images are largely replaced by printed words in the texts written for older children.


(C) Geography textbooks often have a variety of visual illustrations and other graphic elements.


(D) Visual images range from illustrations in children’s books to those with technical functions.

19.【題組】

According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?
(A) People who subvocalize while reading are considered less proficient readers.


(B) An important goal for education is to promote achievements in verbal literacy.


(C) Visual communication has turned popular via the widespread use of illustrations.


(D) Writing is the kind of visual communication that has received dominant attention.

20.【題組】

What does the word prestige mean in the fifth paragraph?

(A) validity
(B) fortitude
(C) clemency
(D) prominence