1.1.There are a series of controversial issues in second language writing research. For example, some
researchers (1)___ that first language writing processes are different from second language writing
processes, but others emphasize the similarities of the two processes. Some researchers argue that it is the
cultural difference that results (2)___ second language students' rhetorical organization problems, (3)___
others negate this claim. It is (4)___ that culture influences second language writing, but the genre of the
writing task completed by second language writers, cognitive development and interlanguage development
should also be (5)___ into account. 【題組】
1. (A)confirm (B)assert (C)announce (D)affirm
6.Today, the emphasis on opportunity makes homesickness a secret. Yet one study found that Mexican
immigrants in the United States (6)___ 40% more depression and anxiety than their relatives (7)___ at
home. If the “comforting illusion” of technology could truly help (8)___ homesickness and make us citizens
of the world, Skype, Facebook, cellphones and e-mail would have (9)___ a pain that has been around since
“The Odyssey.” Americans celebrate rootlessness in their national mythology. It is, (10)___, a nation of
【題組】6. (A)suffering (B)suffered (C)to suffer (D)being suffering
7.【題組】7. (A)have remained (B)remained (C)to remain (D)remaining
10.【題組】10. (A)not at all (B) at all (C) above all (D) after all
11.Globalization has been defined by Giddens as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link
distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away.”
Although there seems to be a (11)___ that we are living in a(n) (12)___ globalized world, there is by no
means agreement about related issues. For language teachers around the world, the question is how
discussions about globalization (13)___ in sociological circles relate to their overall (14)___ to language
teaching, and (15)___ their day-to-day practice.
【題組】11. (A)confrontation (B) consensus (C) compromise (D) concession
16.The city of Toledo, Ohio, in a pilot project, is adopting so-called "green infrastructure" techniques to
alleviate storm water run-off and to reduce basement flooding in residential areas. (16)___ money from the
federal government, the city transformed the existing grassy areas between the sidewalk and street into a
natural storm water drainage system, and (17)___ it with native plants, flowers, and shrubs. These new
areas, or bioswales, as they’re known, are actually designed for floods, not flowers. To create a bioswale,
they dug a shallow ditch, then filled it with layers of gravel and soil that (18)___ rainfall to drain into the
ground instead of overflowing into the sewers. These strips were planted with grasses and deep-rooted
groundcover to further aid (19)___. Shortly after the project was completed, Toledo got its first big storm.
The bioswales on Maywood Avenue absorbed the rainwater, (20)___ houses just one street over were
flooded. What’s happening on Maywood Avenue is a great model for other green infrastructure projects.
London has just put in a bioswale at the 2012 Olympic Park.
【題組】16. (A)Over (B) With (C) For (D) As
17.【題組】 17. (A)landscape (B) landscaping (C) landscaped (D) to landscape
20.【題組】20. (A)once (B)as soon as (C)in addition that (D)while
21.Many cities have green reputations. But in the developing world, where middle classes are growing along
with consumption, waste and energy use, Mexico City has become a leader. (21) _____ in the 1980s,
Mexico’s government created mandates that closed or moved toxic factories and banned most drivers (22)
_____ their cars one day a week. Mexico City has added a free bicycle loan program and (23) _____ public
transportation. But the most spectacular green project so far has to be the three eco-sculptures installed (24)
_____ the city. The vertical garden not only catches the eye, (25) _____ it gobbles up the carbon dioxide
contributing to high ozone levels.
【題組】21. (A)To start (B) Starting (C) Started (D) Start
22.【題組】22. (A)to use (B) of using (C) from using (D) using
24.【題組】24. (A)over (B) across (C) through (D) into
25.【題組】25. (A)while (B) as (C) but (D) also
26.Researchers say that highly trained dogs are able to reliably sniff out lung cancer in human breath. In its
early stages, lung cancer has few symptoms, (26) _____ it difficult for doctors to catch it early. But previous
cases show that dogs have alerted their owners (27) _____ undiagnosed cancers by repeatedly pawing or
nosing a(n) (28) _____ body part. Researchers think dogs are able to smell disease by picking up on minute
changes in compounds called VOCs that (29) _____ chemical signatures in the body. Dogs then (30) _____
the smell into a recognition system, which is useful for diagnostic purposes in human disease.
【題組】26. (A)make (B) made (C) making (D) to make
30.【題組】30. (A)process (B) store (C) integrate (D) file
31.Qin’s army of clay soldiers and horses that many visitors see today was in fact a display swathed in bold
colors. Sadly, most of the colors did not survive the (31) _____ of time. Now thanks to new preservation
techniques, researchers are (32) _____ the terra-cotta army’s true colors. During the recent excavation, the
moment a painted artifact was unearthed, workers sprayed any exposed color with a(n) (33) _____, then
wrapped it in plastic to keep in the protective moisture. The most colorful pieces are then (34) _____ to an
on-site laboratory for further treatment. (35) _____ everyone’s delight, the modern techniques seem to be
【題組】31. (A) torture (B) trial (C) harm (D) hazard
36.Quantitative easing (QE) is an unconventional monetary policy used by central banks to stimulate the
national economy. A central bank (36) _____ QE by purchasing financial assets from banks and other
private (37) _____ businesses with new electronically created money. QE may cause higher inflation than
desired if the amount of easing required is (38) _____. On the other hand, it can fail if banks remain
reluctant to lend money to small business and households in order to spur (39) _____. Also, inflationary
pressures associated (40) _____ money growth from QE could build before the central bank acts to counter
【題組】36. (A)implements (B) produces (C) operates (D) handles
37.【題組】37. (A)branch (B) domain (C) sector (D) region
41.41. What does “the process of simplifying a particular rule in learning the second language” refer to? (A) Overgeneralization. (B) Fossilization. (C) Interlanguage. (D) Ellipsis.
42.42. What is the core of the input hypothesis? (A) Active and passionate learners can produce output in a foreign language. (B)Not all children are good in learning skills. (C)With adequate input, speech skills will come by itself without the demand of teachers. (D)The input comes from social interaction.
43.43. Which of the followings is NOT one of the three aspects of reliability in language assessment? (A)Circumstances in which the test is taken. (B)The uniformity of assessment it makes.
(C)The numbers of learners who take the test. (D) The way in which it is marked.
44.44. Which of the followings is a type of assessment done at the end of a course where the focus is on learners receiving a grade for their work rather than receiving feedback on their progress? (A)Diagnostic assessment. (B) Summative assessment. (C) Performance assessment. (D) Formative assessment.
45.45. What does validity in language assessment refer to? (A)The consistent measurement tools. (B)The extent to which a test measures what it is intended. (C)The consistency of assessment developers. (D)The consistent length of assessment time.
46.46. What is phonics? (A)The relationship between sounds and their spellings. (B) A specific teaching method in English reading instruction. (C)The understanding of grammar and sentence structure. (D) A particular accent in English pronunciation.
47.47. Before teaching phonics, it is important for students to know the names of the letters and the sounds they represent. What is this stage called? (A)Alphabet recognition. (B))Phonemic awareness. (C)Alphabetic order. (D) Phonological awareness.
48.48. In English, a word is made up of a series of discrete sounds. What is each of these sounds called?
(A) Rhyme. (B) Phoneme. (C)!Syllable. (D) Allophonc.
49.49. What is a digraph? (A) A position where sounds are produced. (B)An understanding of spelling systems.
(C) A letter cluster that stands for one sound. (D) A group of letters with similar sounds.
50.50. When a student has troubles distinguishing between two similar sounds, what exercise can a teacher use to help the student? (A)Alliteration. (B)Oddity task. (C)Oral blending. (D)Oral segmentation.
51.51. When a student has troubles putting sounds together to form a word, what exercise can a teacher use to help the student? (A)Alliteration. (B)Oddity task. (C)Oral blending. (D)Oral segmentation.
52.52. What is the sound of a in the word “march”？ (A)Long. (B)Short. (C)R-controlled. (D)Part of a diphthong.
53.53. What is the sound of u in the word “use”？ (A)Long. (B)Short. (C)R-controlled. (D)Part of a diphthong.
54.54. Which of the followings is NOT true about miscue analysis? (A)It refers to a process of diagnosing a child's reading. (B)It is based on the premise of analyzing the errors a child makes during oral reading.
(C)With it, teachers will be much more capable of assisting those children who experience difficulty.
(D)It is an important diagnostic tool to see how children are improving in the sentence patterns.
55.55. What does the statement “the brain itself is designed to allow humans to use grammatical language” refer to? (A)universal grammar (B)critical period (C)discourse competence (D)grammatical competence
56.56. Which of the following statements best describes content-based instruction? (A)Learners are taught a language directly, without using the native language to explain. (B)translation and grammar drills.
(C)Learners are exposed to a considerable amount of language through stimulating content. (D)Learners learn a language by oral production and pattern drills through repetition.
57.57. What are the Krashen’s hypotheses? 1.Affective filter 2.Input 3.Monitor 4.Output 5.Natural Order (A)14 (B)234 (C)1245 (D)1235
58.58. How is task-based learning normally defined? (A)A language teaching method by physical or kinesthetic movement. (B) Acquiring a precise response to a discriminated stimulus. (C) A pedagogical effort used to draw learners’ attention to language form implicitly. (D) An approach that focuses on learning missions.
59.59. Which of the following statements about Gardner’s multiple intelligence is true? (A)Human intelligence that is based on reasoning. (B)Human intelligence is not unitary but has different modes. (C)Human intelligence is innate and cannot be developed. (D) Human intelligence consists of componential and contextual abilities.
60.60. What does the statement “the description of the ways in which words can change their forms and can be combined into sentences in that language” refer to (A)Pronunciation. (B) Morphology. (C)Pedagogy.
61.61. Which reading strategy does “running eyes over a text to get a quick idea of the gist of a text” refer to? (A)Skimming. (B) Scanning. (C) Rephrasing. (D) Paraphrasing.
62.62. In most cases, students find language production difficult. Which of the following factors should be considered first before teaching? (A)Language proficiency level. (B)Background knowledge. (C)Cultural knowledge. (D) Language patterns.
63.63. What does “corpora” refer to? (A)A database that contains a list of words in alphabetical order with their meanings explained or written in another language. (B) All the words used in a particular language or subject, or a dictionary. (C)Huge collections of language from a variety of source stored on computers.
(D) A collection of flashcards for promoting vocabulary learning.
64.64. What is the sequence of second language grammar learning model? 1.Access 2.Output 3.Acquisition 4.Intake 5.Input (A)12345 (B)23145 (C)45312 (D)35412
65.65. Which methodology does the statement “teachers should focus on teaching phrases which show words in combination without over-concentrating on syntax and tense usage” refer to? (A)Lexical approach.
(B) Cognitive approach. (C) Functional approach. (D) Communicative approach.
66.66. What does “an identity a person develops in reference to the language he speaks” refer to? (A)Language policy. (B) Lateralization. (C) Egocentricity. (D) Language ego.
67.67. What is the definition of norm-referenced testing? (A) A test can be used to show how hard a student devotes to his/her studies. (B) A test can be used to decide if a student can enter a higher education system. (C) A test can be used to determine whether a student has met certain instructional objectives.
(D) A test can be used to compare a student with other students locally, regionally, or nationally.
68.68. Which of the followings is true about “digital game-based language learning”？ (A)It is a learning process that proceeds unintentionally but consciously. (B)It connects language content with computer programs at all skill level. (C) It is an application of the computer in language testing. (D) It consists of broadcasting media and visual processing for monitoring language functions.
69.69. What is the latest trend of integrating PDAs, tablets, or mobile phones into English
teaching? (A)Conventional learning. (B) Computing learning. (C) Ubiquitous learning. (D) Stimulus learning.
70.70. What does the statement “there is an ideal window of time to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which additional language acquisition becomes much more difficult” refer to? (A)Critical period hypothesis. (B)Field sensitivity. (C)Whorfian hypothesis. (D)Field independence.
71.PART 3. Reading comprehension (共 30 題，30%)
Do Japanese companies really want global talent? It seemed to me like they’re not really serious. Corporate
Japan has long been wary of embracing Western-educated compatriots who return home. But critics say the
reluctance to tap the international experience of these young people is a problem for Japan as some of its
major industries lose ground in an increasingly global economy. A shrinking portion of Japanese college
students is seeking higher education in the West. At the same time, Japan’s regional rivals, including China,
South Korea and India, are sending increasing numbers of students overseas. “Japanese companies here are
missing out on the best foreign talent, and it’s all their fault,” said Toshihiko Irisumi, a graduate of the
University of Chicago Booth School of Business and former Goldman Sachs banker. Others with Western
educations recall Japanese recruiters, who referring to them openly as “over spec” – too elite to fit in, too
eager to get ahead and too likely to be poached or to switch employers. What is more, Japanese students
who study overseas often find that by the time they enter the job hunt back home, they are far behind
compatriots who have already contacted as many as 100 companies and received help from extensive
alumni networks. And those who spend too long overseas find they are shut out by rigid age preferences for
graduates no older than their mid-20s. In some ways, the Japanese snubbing of Western graduates is a
testament to the perceived strength of their own universities – despite mediocre showings in various global
【題組】71. What does wary mean? (A)suspicious (B)cautious (C)shabby (D)tired
72.【題組】72. Why do some of the major industries in Japan lose ground in an increasingly global economy, according to critics? (A)Increasing numbers of students are sent overseas. (B) A shrinking portion of Japanese college students. (C)Western-educated compatriots don’t return home. (D)Their hesitancy to hire
young people with international experience.
73.【題組】73. What does “too likely to be poached” mean? (A)too possible to be offered a better job (B)too easy to fit in (C)too easy to get ahead of colleagues (D)too effortless to enter job hunt
74.【題組】74. What is one of the advantages mentioned about the compatriots who studies locally in Japan, according to the passage? (A)They are eager to get ahead. (B)They have networks. (C)They are hired shortly.
(D)They switch jobs easily.
75.【題組】75. What is one of the disadvantages for those who spend too long overseas studying? (A)The industries have age preferences. (B)The local graduates in Japan are older and experienced. (C)The rankings of local universities are lower. (D)They don’t have capabilities for local jobs.
76.The explosive waves of Ocean Beach have long been a draw for tourists, local families and an international
tribe of surfers. But every few years, stormy surf driven by the weather pattern known as El Niño grinds
away at a thinning section of beach, pulling sand out to sea. Some comes back, but two years ago, bluffs
collapsed and massive amounts of sand disappeared. But planners see Ocean Beach as a priority in a long
roster of Bay Area sites threatened by inundation because of what lies on its landward side: the Great
Highway, a $220 million wastewater treatment plant and a 4.2-meter-wide underground pipe that keeps
storm water away from the ocean. The question facing local, state and federal agencies comes down to this:
With California officials expecting climate change to raise sea levels here by 36 centimeters by 2050, should
enormous efforts be made to preserve the beach, the pipe and the plant, or should the community simply
bow to nature? “We are in some ways the tip of the spear for this issue,” said Benjamin Grant, a city planner
who is leading the study in San Francisco. A disruptive rate of sea-level rise is one of the most daunting
potential consequences of climate change. Recently, researchers warned in two new studies that severe
coastal flooding could occur regularly in the United States by mid-century and that California would be
among the states most affected. Previous studies have suggested that the rise in sea levels is poised to
【題組】76. What does “draw” mean? (A)awareness (B)attraction (C)illustration (D)representation
77.【題組】77. Which of the followings is the most frightening potential consequences of climate change? (A)Flood threatening. (B)Wastewater pollution. (C) Growing sea-level rise. (D)Disruptive landslide.
78.【題組】78. What dilemma do local, state and federal agencies face? (A)To preserve the beach or not. (B)To face climate change or not. (C) To study the weather change or not. (D)To prevent coastal flooding or not.
79.【題組】79. What does “we are in some ways the tip of the spear for this issue” mean, according to Benjamin Grant, the city planner? (A) We are leaders. (B) We are innovators. (C) We are winners. (D) We are pioneers.
80.【題組】80. What would happen to California, according to two studies? (A)Flooding would occur regularly. (B)It would be threatened by inundation and storm. (C)The section of beach would never come back. (D)It would be most affected by coastal flooding.
81.You've probably heard everyone talking about 'apps' - but what are they? In short, they're a way to
perform almost any task on your phone, and in just a few years they've become a phenomenon. ‘APP’ is
short for application- which is another name for a computer program. Normally, when people talk about
apps they are almost always referring to programs that run on mobile devices, such as smartphones or tablet
computers. Apps can let your phone or tablet do almost anything that the programmers can imagine, within
the technical limitations of the device. This means that you can turn your phone into a remote control for a
toy helicopter, your tablet into a turbo-charged drawing pad, and much else besides. With so many apps to
choose from, it’s difficult to choose just a few to talk about. There are apps that let your phone stream radio
stations over 3G or Wi-Fi, turning your phone into a pocket radio. Another app uses your phone’s camera to
take pictures of products’ barcodes, and then automatically searches the internet for the best price deals on
that item. Yet another uses your phone’s GPS to work out your location, and then tells you exactly which
buses and trains you need to reach a destination you’ve chosen. Now, with the advent of faster smartphones
and tablet computers, ‘APP’ is not just an IT term used in engineering world, but a routine in daily life.
【題組】81. What do “apps” refer to? (A)Built-in programs on computers. (B)Remote controls on mobile gadgets.
(C)Programs on smartphones and tablet computers. (D) Versatile equipment of the latest laptops.
82.【題組】82. According to the passage, which of the following apps is available? (A) An app equipped with Wi-Fi.
(B)An app copying barcodes. (C) An app used for making a toy. (D) An app working with GPS.
83.【題組】83. How does the app with the function of scanning barcodes benefit people when shopping? (A)By providing shoppers with discounts. (B)By sending photos of products to customers. (C)By helping customers
compare prices. (D)By searching for products’ barcodes online.
84.【題組】84. What is “advent” in the passage closest in meaning to? (A)Fashion. (B)Appearance. (C)Similarity.
85.【題組】85. According to the passage, what can be inferred about apps? (A)They are becoming life’s necessities.
(B)They are chargeable for downloading. (C)They are exclusively used in engineering. (D)They are as small as pocket radios.
86.Dealings between India and China are stunted in many ways. Rich cultural links once existed long ago,
from the study of eclipses to Buddhist chanting, but hardly anyone remembers that today, laments Amartya
Sen, a Nobel-prize-winning economist. After a love-in during the 1950s, China thumped India in a border
war in 1962, and the two have continued to growl over their high-altitude frontier since. Indians envy
China’s economic rise, but console themselves by pointing out that it is no democracy. Investment flows are
negligible. There are still no direct flights between Beijing or Shanghai and Mumbai, India’s commercial
hub. And yet a huge shift has taken place in the make-up of Indian trade. When India began to liberalize its
economy in 1991, the West still dominated the world economy, and it was to the West that India turned for
trade. China’s rise has now changed everything—for India, too. China is now its third-largest trading partner
in goods, and the biggest if you include Hong Kong. For China’s East Asian neighbors a dominant trade with
China is a given, but Indians are still trying to digest the development. Rising trade with China has been
good for India. It mainly imports Chinese capital goods, with firms benefiting from cheap and decent gear.
India needs outside capital, and expertise in manufacturing and infrastructure. China must invest its surplus
funds abroad, ideally not just in government bonds—as mostly happens in America—and ideally in
countries that are not about to go belly up, as may happen in Europe. Chinese investment in India is an idea
whose time has come, if only the two sides can conquer a legacy of mistrust.
【題組】86. What is the main idea of the passage? (A)China’s economy partners in East Asia. (B)China’s economy revenge against India. (C)The relationship between India and China. (D) The dominance of China over India’s economy.
87.【題組】87. What does “growl” mean in the passage? (A)To fight in anger. (B)To show strong emotion. (C)To move around quietly. (D)To approach slowly.
88.【題組】88. According to the passage, which of the followings about India’s economy is true? (A)It dominates the world trade. (B)It relies on the support from China. (C)It opens its market in the early 1990s. (D)It has many trading partners in China.
89.【題組】89. Why does China’s blooming economy benefit India? (A)It supports domestic construction and activities.
(B)It has low-priced but good quality gear. (C)It has more domestic capitalists. (D)It has good manufacturing and infrastructure.
90.【題組】90. According to the passgae, what is the possible reason that China must invest its surplus funds to India? (A)India has invested different industries in China. (B)India is China’s largest business partner.
(C)India envies China’s economic rise. (D)India’s economy has the potential to grow.
91.You’ll burn through plenty of adjectives and superlatives describing the best of Sydney, with its
genuinely great beach options, top-notch restaurants and endless bars and nightclubs. For a place that started
out as a penal colony in the late 18th century, Sydney’s come a long way -- from opening its iconic Opera
House in 1973 to hosting the Olympics in 2000. These days, it’s a regular on all of those "top 10 places to
live in the world" and "most expensive cities in the world" lists. An overheated real-estate market means
homes that sold for $160,000 in the late 1970s now go for more than $40 million. The creep of
gentrification is claiming street after street, turning once-dodgy neighborhoods into havens for the trendy
set worthy of that “best of Sydney” tag. Government officials of Sydney are working on plans to build a
second airport. Living in a city that’s popular, cool and costly is a fact of life for Sydney’s 4.6 million
residents, an outdoorsy and environmentally friendly lot. They work hard and play harder. They’ll charm
you with a “G’day,” “No worries” or “How ya goin’?”You’ll contemplate moving here so you too can enjoy
being in paradise full time -- or at least talk like you do. Failing that, you’ll consider extending your vacation
or start planning a return voyage even before you hit the airport
【題組】91. What does “you’ll burn through plenty of adjectives and superlatives describing the best of Sydney” mean? (A)Sydney is too beautiful to describe. (B)Sydney has many fantastic tourist attractions. (C)The beauty of Sydney is overstated. (D)It is easy to travel through Sydney.
92.【題組】92. According to the passage, which of the followings about Sydney is NOT true? (A)It was a penal colony in the late 18th century. (B)It has hosted the Olympics in 1973. (C)It has a lot of best restaurants and great nightlife. (D) It often ranks highly in world cities rankings
93.【題組】93. How has the household price changed since 1970s? (A)It has fluctuated between 160,000 and 40 million dollars. (B)It has fallen to a low point in 1970s. (C)It has reached a peak of 40 million dollars now.
(D) It has remained steady during this period.
94.【題組】94. What does “gentrification” mean? (A)To move up or away after hitting a surface. (B)To change a place from being a poor area to a richer one. (C)To cause something to exist for a period of time. (D)To have an influence on someone or something.
95.【題組】95. What is the passage mainly about? (A)The development of Sydney. (B)The neighborhood of Sydney.
(C)The construction of outdoor environment in Sydney. (D)The vacation planning in Sydney.
As we begin to know more about our students, we will be better able to offer social and emotional
support especially to newcomers. Only when new students become comfortably integrated into our
classroom’s social and academic routines will optimal language acquisition and academic learning occur.
Adapting from Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs (Maslow, 1968), we discuss basic strategies for
integrating new students into our classroom. Two basic needs we will want to consider are (1) safety and
security and (2) a sense of belonging. When new students first arrive in school, the first concern must be
with creating a feeling of safety and security. To address this need, there are several things a teacher can do.
First, it is helpful to assign a “personal buddy” to each newcomer. The buddy must be a classmate who
already knows the school and is comfortable there. The buddy’s job is to accompany the newcomer
throughout the day’s routines to make sure he or she knows where things are and the various rules for using
them. Another way to address the safety and security needs of newcomers is to follow predicable routines in
daily classroom schedule. Predictability in routine creates a sense of security for all students, but it is
especially important for new students. An additional way to promote security and create a sense of
belonging is to seat new students toward the middle or front of the classroom, in a place where the teacher
can observe them closely and where they can observe the classroom interactions of other, more experienced
students. By paying close attention to the social and emotional needs of our new students, we will be laying
the foundation for the early stages of learning and acquisition.
【題組】96. What is the passage mainly about? (A)Approaches to teach language to new students. (B)Ways to interact with new students. (C)Strategies to ease new students into the classroom. (D)Tasks to motivate new students to learn.
97.【題組】97. What does “optimal” mean in the passage? (A) Acceptable. (B)Ideal. (C)Advanced. (D)Predictable.
98.【題組】98. How can teachers create a sense of security and belonging in their classrooms according to the passage? (A)Partnership, routine and seating. (B)Partnership, routine and attention. (C)Seating, attention and assignment. (D)Integration, routine and seating.
99.【題組】99. Why is it important to place new students toward the middle or front of the classroom? (A)It helps them focus on the teacher. (B)It enables other students to observe them. (C)It connects them with the teacher and other students. (D)It encourages them to participate more in class.
100.【題組】100. Which of the following statements would the author most agree with? (A)New students learn best in pairs.
(B)A teacher-centered interaction is crucial to new students. (C)Why emotional needs must be met is predictable. (D) Lower affective filter is the key to more effective learning.