From the mid-1990s, “intelligence” has increasingly displaced “community” in policing discourses. In the United Kingdom, this has been the case since 1993 when the Audit Commission proposed a new policing model centered on police-informant relationships. Since then, Chief Police Officers have adopted the language of "intelligence-led policing" to describe police services. In essence, intelligence-led policing involves linking together information from a wide range of sources--from open source and publicly available information to that obtained covertly in order to build up a composite picture. This will highlight links between people, objects, locations and events that are essential in supporting the policing purposes described. Identifying these links enables decisions to be made about priorities and resources needed to manage risk.
There was, however, a problem during the latter part of the 1990s when the relationship between intelligence-led and community policing remained unclear. The Home Office and Chief Police Officers touted both simultaneously. As local police units were increasingly empowered to address local problems, Chief Police Officers were also touting an intelligence-led approach that required police to develop and tap into local informant sources. These strategies appeared disparate and even contradictory. The intelligence-led approach seemed appropriate for addressing major cases involving drug trafficking or terrorism whereas many considered community policing to be appropriate for addressing local issues. As a result, constables have generally sustained a reactive style inconsistent with either model.
It was not until the turn of the millennium that the National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) proposed the National Intelligence Model (NIM)--a single intelligence-led approach at “nearly” all levels of policing. While there has been some recent discussion of reintegrating community policing and the NIM through neighborhood safety initiatives and the hiring of reassurance police officers in the past half-decade, community policing has taken a secondary role to intelligence-led approaches.
【Group】What is the main idea of the passage above?
(A) The United Kingdom attempts to introduce the intelligence-led policing approach to the world.
(B) Linking together information from a wide range of sources is the key to successful policing.
(C) It is important to strike a balance between the intelligence-led policing model and the community policing model.
(D) Intelligence-led policing has gradually become the dominant approach to policing in the United Kingdom.