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102 年 - 102年南台灣國民中學教甄英語科試題#10457 

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1.Prices on the stock exchange have been ____ wildly all week.
(A) vibrating
(B) wavering
(C) intensifying
(D) fluctuating
2.A nearly _____ diamond is more valuable than one with imperfections.
(A) flawed
(B) imperfect
(C) perfectly
(D) flawless
3.Obtaining a patent for an invention can be ______ process.
(A) a retracted
(B) a hardened
(C) a lengthened
(D)an extended
4.Mr. Suzuki has _____ finished preparing the financial statement and the final report has been emailed to his upper manager.
(A) more or less
(B)little or no
(C)on and off
(D)sooner or later
5.The T-1000’s diversified ____ forms were achieved through a computer technique called digital compositing.
(A) steady
(B) protean
(C) single
(D) one-sided
6.Smoking is permitted only in specially _____ areas.
(A) defined
(B) described
(C) denied
(D) designated
7.In even the simplest and most _____ Italian street song, Pavarotti gripped the audience like a benign bear.
(A) difficult
(B) hackneyed
(C) unheard
(D)funniest
8.Tom’s ____ prevented him from climbing the ladder.
(A) acrophobia
(B) agrophobia
(C) claustrophobia
(D) xenophobia
9. Some knowledge of Latin, if only of the meaning of a few hundred words, is ____if one is to feel at ease with the English language as an instrument of thought.
(A) expendable
(B) indisputable
(C) indescribable
(D) indispensable
10.The slaves in the States were freed by the Emancipation ____.
(A) Proclamation
(B) Exclamation
(C) Disclamation
(D) Reclamation
11.Wearing evening gowns all day is just part of Jane’s ____ behavior.
(A) ecstatic
(B) eccentric
(C) efficacious
(D) egocentric
12.Money and good taste made Emily the ____ of fashionable elegance.
(A) epitaph
(B) epoch
(C) epitome
(D) epicure
13.During their famous clash, Jung regarded Freud ambivalently, attacking the father of modern psychoanalysis even as he ____ him.
(A) preferred
(B) despised
(C) revered
(D) enlightened
14.Whales hurt none in their peaceful migrations through the earth’s seas, yet are savagely hunted by man, who ____ superior need.
(A) manifests
(B) assimilates
(C) retains
(D) assumes
15.Because of his inherent ____, William steered clear of any job that he suspected could turn out to be a travail.
(A) insolence
(B) indolence
(C) impudence
(D) industry
16.16. A buyer’s market is a market _____ sellers are so eager to sell that they offer very favorable terms to buyers.
(A) which in
(B) in where
(C) in which
(D) which
17.17. This salad dish ____ better if you use fresh herbs and garlic.
(A) will be tasting
(B) tastes
(C) would have tasted
(D) tasted
18.18. Kimberly Pinkala will become vice-president in charge of marketing when John Brock ____.
(A) will retire
(B) retires
(C) retired
(D) will be retiring
19.19. ____ most people at work, David has a degree in computer science.
(A) Likely
(B) Likewise
(C) Alike
(D) Like
20.20. Most of the foreign ambassadors arrived ___ limousines.
(A) at
(B) on
(C) in
(D) by
21.21. _____ you return from Vienna, you will have to fill out a trip report.
(A) So that
(B) Once
(C) Since
(D) The sooner
22.22. ____ economic indicators are of more concern to Americans than unemployment statistics.
(A) A considerable amount of
(B) Few
(C) The few
(D) A little
23.23. The body is composed of some hundred thousand million cells, ____ is complete in itself.
(A) which
(B) some of which
(C) each of which
(D) of which
24.24. ____, geology has been divided into two major divisions: physical geology and historical geology.
(A) Despite of its broad scope
(B) Because it is broad scope
(C) In spite of its broad scope
(D) Because of its broad scope
25.25. Xanthines have both good and bad effects on the body, and these effects ____ the size and regularity of dosage.
(A) generally determine on
(B) which are generally determined by
(C) generally determined by
(D) are generally determined by
26.26. It is the interaction between people, rather than the events that occur in their lives, ____ the main focus of social psychology.
(A) which are
(B) that is
(C) is
(D) of which are
27.27. ____ of eighteenth-century Russian settlements in Alaska are found on Kodiak Island and at Sitka.
(A) For the sites
(B) The sites
(C) They are the sites
(D) There are sites
28.28. ____, their small size and the thin soil make them easy prey to a hiker’s heel.
(A) When alpine flowers can resist wind, cold, and snow
(B) Alpine flowers can resist wind, cold, and snow
(C) Alpine flowers resisting wind, cold, and snow
(D) While alpine flowers can resist wind, cold, and snow
29.29. Other desirable qualities of concrete, the only building material that can be delivered to the job site in a pliable state, include its strength, economy, and ____.
(A) the fact that it lasts a long while
(B) durability
(C) because it lasts a long while
(D) great ability to last
30.30. There is new evidence to suggest that a child’s personality is ____ traumatic events.
(A) developed more by everyday interactions rather than by
(B) developed more by everyday interactions than by
(C) developed more by everyday interactions instead by
(D) being developed more by every day interactions than by
31.Swimming Machines 
    Tunas, mackerels, and billfishes (marlins, sailfishes, and swordfish) swim continuously. Feeding, courtship, reproduction, and even “rest” are so carried out while in constant motion. As a result, practically every aspect of the body form and function of these swimming “machines” is adapted to enhance their ability to swim. 
    Many of the adaptations of these fishes serve to reduce water resistance (drag). Interestingly enough, several of these hydrodynamic adaptations resemble features designed to improve the aerodynamics of high-speed aircraft. Though human engineers are new to the game, tunas and their relatives evolved their “high-tech” designs long ago. 
    Tunas, mackerels, and billfishes have made streaming into an art form. Their bodies are sleek and compact. The body shapes of tunas, in fact, are nearly ideal from an engineering point of view. Most species lack scales over most of the body, making it smooth and slippery. The eyes lie flush with the body and do not protrude at all. They are also covered with a slick, transparent lid that reduces drag. The fins are stiff, smooth, and narrow, qualities that also help cut drag. When not in use, the fins are tucked into special grooves or depressions so that they lie flush with the body and do not break up its smooth contours. Airplanes retract their landing gear while in flight for the same reason. Tunas, mackerels, and billfishes have even more sophisticated adaptations than these to improve their hydrodynamics. The long bill of marlins, sailfishes, and swordfish probably helps them slip through the water. Many supersonic aircraft have a similar needle at the nose. 
    Most tunas and billfishes have a series of keels and finlets near the tail. Although most of their scales have been lost, tunas and mackerels retain a patch of coarse scales near the head called the corselet. The keels, finlets, and corselet help direct the flow of water over the body surface in such a way as to reduce resistance. Again, supersonic jets have similar features. 
     Because they are always swimming, tunas simply have to open their mouths and water is forced in and over their gills. Accordingly, they have lost most of the muscles that other fishes use to suck in water and push it past the gills. In fact, tunas must swim to breathe. They must also keep swimming to keep from sinking, since most have largely or completely lost the swim bladder, the gas-filled sac that helps most other fish remain buoyant. 
     One potential problem is that opening the mouth to breathe detracts from the streamlining of these fishes and tends to slow them down. Some species of tuna have specialized grooves in their tongue. It is thought that these grooves help to channel water through the mouth and out the gill slits, thereby reducing water resistance. 
      There are adaptations that increase the amount of forward thrust as well as those that reduce drag. Again, these fishes are the envy of engineers. Their high, narrow tails with swept-back tips are almost perfectly adapted to provide propulsion with the least possible effort. Perhaps most important of all to these and other fast swimmers is their ability to sense and make use of swirls and eddies (circular currents) in the water. They can glide past eddies that would slow them down and then gain extra thrust by “pushing off” the eddies. Scientists and engineers are beginning to study this ability of fishes in the hope of designing more efficient propulsion systems for ships. 
      The muscles of these fishes and the mechanism that maintains a warm body temperature are also highly efficient. A blue fin tuna in water of 7°C (45°F) can maintain a core temperature of over 25°C (77°F). This warm body temperature may help not only the muscles to work better, but also the brain and the eyes. The billfishes have gone one step further. They have evolved special “heaters” of modified muscle tissue that warm the eyes and brain, maintaining peak performance of these critical organs.

【題組】31. The work “enhance” is closest in meaning to ____.
(A) use
(B) improve
(C) counteract
(D) balance
32.【題組】32. The word “they” in paragraph 3 refers to ___.
(A) aqualities
(B) fins
(C) grooves
(D) depressions
33.【題組】33. Why does the author mention that “Airplanes retract their landing gear while in flight?”
(A) To show that air resistance and water resistance work differently from each other
(B) To argue that some fishes are better designed than airplanes are
(C) To provide evidence that airplane engineers have studied the design of fish bodies
(D) To demonstrate a similarity in design between certain fishes and airplanes
34.【題組】34. The word “sophisticated” is closest in meaning to ____.
(A) complex
(B) amazing
(C) creative
(D) practical
35.【題組】35. According to paragraph 4, the long bills of marlins, sailfish, and swordfish probably help these fishes by ___.
(A) increasing their ability to defend themselves
(B) allowing them to change direction easily
(C) increasing their ability to detect odors
(D) reducing water resistance as they swim
36.【題組】36. Which of the following is one of the reasons that tunas are in constant motion?
(A) They lack a swim bladder.
(B) They need to suck in more water than other fishes do.
(C) They have large muscles for breathing.
(D) They cannot open their mouths unless they are in motion.
37.【題組】37. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in this highlighted sentence? “One potential problem is that opening the mouth to breathe detracts from the streamlining of these fishes and tends to slow them down.”
(A) These fishes often have a problem opening their mouths while swimming.
(B) The streamlining of these fishes prevents them from slowing down.
(C) The streamlining of these fishes tends to slow down their breathing.
(D) Opening the mouth to breathe can reduce the speed of these fishes.
38.【題組】38. The word “channel” is closest in meaning to ____.
(A) reduce
(B) remove
(C) direct
(D) provide
39.【題組】39. One of the adaptations of fast-swimming fishes that might be used to improve the performance of ships is these fishes’ ability to ___.
(A) swim directly through eddies
(B) make efficient use of water currents
(C) cover great distances without stopping
(D) gain speed by forcing water past their gills
40.【題組】40. Which of the following is true of blue fin tunas?
(A) Their eyes and brain are more efficient than those of any other fish.
(B) Their body temperature can change greatly depending on the water temperature.
(C) They can swim in wasters that are much colder than their own bodies.
(D)They have special muscle tissue that warms their eyes and brain.
41.    To produce the upheaval in the United States that changed and modernized the domain of higher education from the mid-1860’s to mid-1880’s, three primary causes interacted. The emergence of a half-dozen leaders in education provided the personal force that was needed. Moreover, an outcry for a fresher, more practical, and more advanced kind of instruction __41__ among the alumni and friends of nearly all of the old colleges and grew into a movement that __42__ all conservative opposition. The aggressive “Young Yale” movement appeared, __43__ partial alumni control, a more liberal spirit, and a broader course of study. The graduates of Harvard College simultaneously rallied to __44__the college’s poverty and demand new enterprise. Education was pushing toward higher standards in the East by throwing off church leadership everywhere, and in the West by finding a wider range of studies and a new sense of public duty. 

     The old-style classical education received its most crushing blow in the citadel of Harvard College, __45__ Dr. Charles Eliot, a young captain of thirty-five, son of a former treasurer of Harvard, led the progressive forces. Five revolutionary advances were __46__ during the first years of Dr. Eliot’s administration. They were the elevation and amplification of entrance requirements, the enlargement of the curriculum and the development of the elective system, the recognition of graduate study in the liberal arts, the raising of professional training in law, medicine, and engineering __47__ a postgraduate level, and the fostering of greater maturity in student life. Standards of admission __48__ in 1872-1873 and 1876-1877. __49__the appointment of a dean to take charge of student affairs, and a wise handling of discipline, the undergraduates were led to regard themselves more as young gentlemen and __50__ as young animals. One new course of study after another was opened up -- science, music, the history of the fine arts, advanced Spanish, political economy, physics, classical philology, and international law.

【題組】41.
(A) arose
(B) aroused
(C) rose
(D) roused
42.【題組】42.
(A) was overridden
(B) overriding
(C) was overriding
(D) overrode
43.【題組】43.
(A) demanded
(B) was demanded
(C) demanding
(D) which was demanded
44.【題組】44.
(A) relieve
(B) reload
(C) relay
(D) relish
45.【題組】45.
(A) where
(B) when
(C) by which
(D) which
46.【題組】46.
(A) done
(B) made
(C) offered
(D) invented
47.【題組】47.
(A) for
(B) at
(C) to
(D) by
48.【題組】48.
(A) advanced sharp
(B) were sharply advanced
(C) was sharply advancing
(D) should be advanced sharply
49.【題組】49.
(A) By
(B) For
(C) In
(D) At
50.【題組】50.
(A) than
(B) little
(C) few
(D) less