102 年 - 102學年度臺師大中等教程(英文)#19615
1.31. Public television is ____by various grants and by individual and
2.32. Most soloists’ salaries are so low that they have to rely on the ____of a
wealthy owner or foundation to lend them an expensive instrument.
3.33. The term corruption has not received a(n) ____global definition
because one community would see a particular act of omission as corrupt
while another may not see things that way.
4.34. To ____ their movements so well, the dancers must practice doing the
steps together for hours.
5.35. Before the police ____ the suspect, they informed him of his right not to
answer their questions without his lawyer’s presence.
6.36. Eric Magin was convicted on twelve counts of criminal possession of a forged
instrument and was considered as a ____ felony offender by the judge.
7.37. While the U.S. media has some spirited debate over politics and social issues,
there remains a broad ____ about foreign adversaries.
8.38. Hazardous chemicals have become so ____that babies are born
pre-polluted, sometimes with hundreds of synthetic chemicals showing up in
9.39. When the president was asked about his views on violence against women,
instead of clearly and ____ condemning the practice, he said that it was
a decision that should be left to the family concerned.
10.40. Gender imbalance is frequently found in workplace. Women typically occupy
lower rank jobs while the upper managerial positions are a(n) ____ male
11.II. Cloze：Choose the item that best completes the passage.（10 分）
Nobody likes a bully—but these days the book industry loves having
them to kick around.
Publishing houses are flooding the market with titles that tackle bullying,
and these books 41 all age groups—from “Bully,” a picture book for
children, to “Sticks and Stones,” a recent release for adults that includes both
stories and analysis. According to WorldCat, the number of English-language
books 42 with the key word “bullying” in 2012 was 1,891, an increase
of 500 in a decade. There are more to come, said Elizabeth Bird, who tracks
trends for youth collections at the New York Public Library. “Bullying has
always been a popular topic, but this year, we 43 bullying titles
coming out as never before, and there is no end in sight.”
The publishing world’s 44 with bullies does not end at the
bookshelf. Several publishing houses have started antibullying campaigns
built around their books. Many authors 45 action as well. Two
young-adult authors, Morgan Kelley Hall and Carrie Jones, assembled an
anthology of personal essays on bullying by 70 prominent writers. Ms. Hall
and Ms. Jones also formed a Facebook site called Young Adult Authors
Against Bullying that identifies cruel Facebook pages and lobbies to have
(B) are aimed at
(C)look forward to
(D) are intended to
(C) having tagged
(D) being tagging
(C) will see
(D) are seeing
(C) will take
(D) have taken
Last month, a small white ceramic bowl carved with a pattern of lotus
blossoms sold for more than 2.2 million dollars at an auction in New York.
That price was more than 700,000 times 46 the sellers had paid for it.
The consignors bought the bowl for a few dollars at a yard sale in 2007.
It was displayed in their home until they 47 Asian art experts and
discovered that it was a thousand- year-old artifact from the Northern Song
dynasty in China. If it’s curious that this bowl escaped notice for so long, it’s
an equal 48 that it came to light. Nothing signaled its age or rarity to
the untutored eye.
49 so vital an article was overlooked led Ms. Wiggers, director and
chief curator of the Museum of Contemporary Craft in Portland, Oregon, to
organize an exhibition devoted to it. She posits the bowl has been overlooked
partly because it’s an accessory. “When I talk to people about the bowl, it is
always about something else,” Ms. Wiggers said. “It’s a metaphorical
conversation about ritual, like in the tea ceremony, or about the fabrication
process. It’s very hard to just talk about the bowl itself. We talk around the
50 , it’s the bowl’s lack of presence that makes it such an excellent
metaphor and accounts for the many memorable references to it in literature.
(C) referred to
21.III. Reading Comprehension: Choose the best answer for the question（20 分）
Perhaps no destination has inspired more great naturalists than Brazil.
Charles Darwin first made landfall at Bahia in 1832; Alfred Russel Wallace
and Henry Walter Bates arrived at Pará in 1848 and Fritz Müller in 1852.
Wallace roamed the Amazon for four years and the indefatigable Bates for
While Darwin and Wallace would conceive of the theory of evolution by
natural selection, its acceptance was aided by Bates and Müller. And thanks
to Bates and Müller, no creatures contributed more to the early growth of
evolutionary science than butterflies.
Bates noticed species whose wing patterns resemble those of other
butterfly families in the area. In puzzling this out, he realized that harmless
butterflies were mimicking noxious species that were unpalatable to birds
and lizards, and therefore not attacked by predators.
A few years after Darwin published “On the Origin of Species,” Bates
suggested that this sort of mimicry—now called “Batesian”—was proof of
the principle of natural selection.
Müller crucially observed that unpalatable butterflies were also
mimicking other species of unpalatable butterflies. If they were already
unpalatable, he wondered, what added advantage was there to mimicking
other species? It dawned on him that unpalatable mimics would enjoy
strength in numbers: Their unpalatability had to be learned by predators, and
species would share the cost of those lessons, whereas a uniquely patterned
unpalatable species would bear the full cost.
Natural selection thus explained why different species’ wing patterns
would converge. But how were such similar but complex wing color patterns
generated by different species? The answer eluded scientists for nearly 150
years, until an international team of researchers recently revealed mimicry’s
There were two ways in which what is still called “Müllerian mimicry”
would evolve: Either each species independently evolved mutations that led
to very similar wing patterns, or patterning genes were exchanged among
species. By analyzing the DNA sequences in two mimicking Heliconius
species in South America, researchers could determine that each species had
independently evolved up to 20 different patterns. But in more closely related
mimicking species, they found that color-controlling genes had been
It is astonishing that so many patterns could be independently generated and
replicated in different species. And it is surprising to have species swapping
genes. After all, the inability to breed successfully with other groups has long
been an operational definition of species. Even if such interspecies matings
are rare, a gene that confers a strong advantage, like mimicry, can spread
quickly through a population.
【題組】51. Which statement of the four naturalists mentioned in the passage is NOT
(A) Darwin wrote “On the Origin of Species.”
(B) Wallace embraced the idea of evolution by natural selection.
(C) Bates stayed in the Amazon for the longest time among the four.
(D) Müller discovered how butterflies generated their wing color patterns.
22.【題組】52. According to the passage, why do unpalatable butterflies mimic other species
of unpalatable butterflies?
(A) To become even more unpalatable.
(B) To attract mates from other species.
(C) To minimize the cost of being eaten.
(D) To enjoy more colorful wing patterns.
23.【題組】53. According to the passage, which statement about how Müllerian mimicry
evolved is NOT correct?
(A) The genes controlling the production of wing patterns have been found.
(B) Genes leaped over the species barrier and were exchanged among species.
(C) Each species independently evolved different wing patterns through gene
(D) Genes exchanged through interspecies matings are not likely to pass on
24.【題組】54. The word ELUDED in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to
25.【題組】55. Which of the following is the best title for this article?
(A) Speculations on the origin of species.
(B) Solutions to puzzles of mimicry in nature.
(C) Relationships between butterflies and their predators.
(D) Arguments against the theory of evolution by natural selection.
Languages usually change very slowly over time, but they are always
evolving as long as they are in use. English is a perfect example of a
language that has maneuvered through many changes. Students only have to
read classic writers such as Chaucer and Shakespeare to know that we don’t
speak, write, or spell as these authors did; the meanings of some of the words
these writers used can be quite elusive and unintelligible. After so many
years of gradual change, it is unlikely this version of English will undergo a
resurgence. If that is so, why should we be so disparaging of the notion of
change in modern English?
Types of changes include the weakening, strengthening, or changing of
the meaning of a word over time. For example, “sick” used to only mean ill.
Then it acquired the additional meaning of “mentally unbalanced” when the
phrase “sick in the head” was shortened. From there it has been used to mean
“gross” or “awful,” and today it is commonly used as its antonym. When
today’s generation says something is “sick,” they mean it is unbelievably
fantastic! Vocabulary too can change when words are shortened. In the U.S.,
“radical” is often shortened to “rad.” Among Singaporean teens, “ex” is often
used instead of “expensive.” To anyone unfamiliar with the abbreviation,
these colloquialisms can get very confusing!
Languages change when foreign influences get into the mix. The Norman
French descended on and conquered England in 1066, and this had a
profound effect on the Anglo Saxon English of the time. The rugged native
language was enriched with new vocabulary and grammatical structures.
Sometimes languages can evolve in a short time—across just a few
generations or even a single generation. The development of Creole is an
example of such rapid change. Creole is the convergence of two different
languages in such a way that it becomes a new language in itself and has its
first-language speakers. In the U.S., adult slaves were brought together with
no common language between them. They accumulated the vocabulary of
their slave masters as a tool with which to communicate, but used the
grammar structures of their native languages. This new tongue that developed
diverged enough from its root languages to become a completely different
Probably the biggest changes in the English language today are occurring
with the written word. Technology and the changes it has made in the way we
communicate are having a dramatic effect on the way the language can
unofficially be written. Sending text messages has become a preferred way to
communicate. In addition, communication needs to be quick, so teens have
found new ways to shorten words in text messages and in Internet chat rooms
for the dual purpose of brevity and privacy from the prying eyes of parents.
The written text has gradually morphed into a separate code understood only
by those in the know and is probably on the brink of becoming its own
written language. As a result, punctuation rules are also being ignored and it
is even suggested that in the future capital letters will no longer have a place
in the written language.
In 500 years, it is quite likely our ancestors will look at this page and,
just like schoolchildren experiencing Shakespeare today, find deciphering its
contents extremely arduous!
【題組】56. Which of the following statements best summarizes the writer’s view?
(A) Language will always change.
(B) Language may change in a variety of ways.
(C) English has evolved several times since the 14th century.
(D) The English language is spoken differently in various parts of the world.
27.【題組】57. According to the passage, when does a language become Creole?
(A) When two languages mix.
(B) When it is used in colonies.
(C) When it is used as a native language.
(D) When it is used as an official language.
28.【題組】58. In the passage, what is NOT mentioned as a consequence of the rise of
(A) Capital letters won’t be needed.
(B) Spoken language will be influenced.
(C) Punctuation rules will no longer be observed.
(D) The messages will not be understood by some people.
29.【題組】59. According to the passage, what is most likely to be the reason why teenagers
shorten traditional words?
(A) The words are too difficult for them to say and spell.
(B) It is the correct way to speak and write today.
(C) They think the language is not good enough.
(D) They are looking for their own identity.
30.【題組】60. According to the passage, which statement about English is NOT correct?
(A) Written communication today is greatly changed.
(B) American slaves’ native languages had great impact on English.
(C) Owing to the influence of French, English became a better language.
(D) Both word meanings and grammatical structures in English have been
changed through time.