Jue-jing Chiang>试卷(2013/07/04)

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102 年 - 102臺北市市立國中#10454 

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1.We are very interested in the source of the rumors, though knowing they are absolutely _____.
(A)backward
(B)dramatic
(C)fictitious
(D)subsequent
2.Jack’s promotion is temporarily ____ until the allegations against him are cleared.
(A)bewildered
(B)extinguished
(C)hypothesized
(D)withheld
3.The government has started building ____ along the border.
(A)formation
(B)fortitude
(C)foremast
(D)fortification
4.Serena had only a ___ knowledge of French, but she managed pretty well to make herself understood.
(A)rudimentary
(B)refutable
(C)reprehensible
(D)redundant
5.Christianity is reviving in mainland China though Communists still regard themselves ____.
(A)atheists
(B)conservationists
(C)enthusiasts
(D)unionists
6.After a long economic depression, people are extremely ___ about the future.
(A)apprehensive
(B)evasive
(C)lucrative
(D)selective
7.Jack received one year’s salary as ____ for his wound at worksite.
(A)adjustment
(B)benefit
(C)compensation
(D)reward
8.During winter months, brown bears in Finland live in a state of ___. They sleep for most part of the winter, without eating or drinking, and wake up in early April to begin their hunting for food.
(A)hibernation
(B)invocation
(C)exploitation
(D)hallucination
9.The noun “bear” and the verb “bear” are called ___ because they are spelled and pronounced the same, but they are quite different in meanings.
(A)homonyms
(B)synonyms
(C)antonyms
(D)heteronyms
10.Judy is fascinated with ___ because she is interested in studying the origins, history, and meanings of words.
(A)terminology
(B)phonology
(C)semiology
(D)etymology
11.Owing to a lack of nutrition, the underprivileged children are ___ in vitamins and minerals. They appear weary and inactive, thus showing little interest in studying.
(A)deficient
(B)lenient
(C)proficient
(D)omniscient
12.Harry’s wife was so ___ with organic food that she refused to consume anything nonorganic.
(A)thwarted
(B)encumbered
(C)infatuated
(D)seethed
13.____ specially deals with the medical care of infants and children.
(A)Podiatry
(B)Obstetrics
(C)Pediatrics
(D)Dermatology
14.Karen is outgoing and ____. She enjoys the company of her friends a lot.
(A)nefarious
(B)gregarious
(C)factious
(D)reclusive
15.Chen Shu-chu, a vegetable seller at a Taitung County's market, is well-known for her ______ behaviors. Living a modest life, she has donated nearly all of her earnings to help poor children.
(A)misanthropic
(B)altruistic
(C)sumptuous
(D)abominable
16.Dan worried about having to ________ his control over the company to his daughter as she was still not sophisticated enough for the business world.
(A) remonstrate
(B) relinquish
(C) replace
(D) remediate
17.Among the things Google ___ to Play, its new online store, were the mobile apps formerly housed in its Android market.
(A)adding
(B)added
(C)is added
(D)to add
18.Jerry was excited to see hail pelting down on the ground because he______ a hailstorm before.
(A) has never experienced
(B) would never experience
(C) will never experience
(D) had never experienced
19.About 18 percent of all bacterial emissions in the room — including both fresh and previously deposited bacteria — came from humans, ______ opposed to plants and other sources.
(A)as
(B)that
(C)what
(D)which
20.In 1982, Larry Walters rose three miles above Los Angeles _______ to a seat attached to a huge column of green, red, white, and yellow balloons.
(A)strap
(B)strapped himself
(C)while strapped
(D)to strap
21.Mitch Albom won fame ______ "Tuesdays with Morrie", which is a non-fiction novel, hit the market. He has written four more novels since then.
(A)from
(B)with
(C)upon
(D)as soon as
22.The detective entered the crime scene ___ to investigate it. He did not notify the police or tell anyone else about the investigation.
(A)surreptitiously
(B)expediently
(C)boisterously
(D)officiously
23.        The world’s forests are gradually shrinking, especially in poorer countries. This unfortunate situation is   23   . the result of a mix of bad policies, population growth and poverty. Most of the bad news has come from South America, particularly Brazil, but richer regions such as Australia are also affected. War zones are particularly    24   . In South-East Asia, illegal logging flourishes, and Indonesia’s orangutans are among the species that have suffered from it. 
         In addition to its effect on biodiversity, poor forestry management also plays a part in causing big fires, although improved    25   . techniques are being developed. In addition to good management, and cooperation between government, industry and environmentalists, the conservation of forests can be aided by    26   . . One day, genetically engineered trees may make plantations faster to mature and more economically viable, and thus    27   . the pressure to hack down wilderness forest.

【題組】23.
(A)decently
(B)incidentally
(C)ironically
(D)typically
24.【題組】24
(A)considerable
(B)flammable
(C)incredible
(D)vulnerable
25.【題組】25
(A)animation
(B)detection
(C)indigenous
(D)survey
26.【題組】26
(A)civilians
(B)horticulture
(C)science
(D)veterinarians
27.【題組】27 
(A)accelerate
(B)enhance
(C)lessen
(D)stagnate
28.         Gambling is an issue that has always been loaded with moral overtones. Is gambling morally wrong? In the current debate, some critics agree that it is. And they have been quick to point out all the terrible consequences and    28    . that may accompany gambling operations, whether legal or illegal, such as gambling addiction, prostitution, drugs, money  29  . , underworld control and so forth.
        But so far, government officials, businesspeople, and casino supporters have  30   .   touched on these issues. They are mostly likely aware of these issues, but their emphasis has always been on the benefits — how casinos can boost the tourism industry and the   31  . in general.
        The government may not be interested in the   32   issues, but if gambling is to be legalized, there must be careful planning, strict laws and tight control to prevent casinos from becoming a hub for criminal activities. The government must not take it lightly. Legalizing gambling must not be a gamble itself.68. 

【題組】28
(A)crimes
(B)defects
(C)flaws
(D)quarrels
29.【題組】29
(A)exchange
(B)investment
(C)laundering
(D)transfer
30.【題組】30 
(A)always
(B)casually
(C)roughly
(D)seldom
31.【題組】 31
(A)confidence
(B)economy
(C)education
(D)violated
32.【題組】32  
(A)civil
(B)financial
(C)humanistic
(D)moral
33.
        Despite being fairly large and having an extremely broad range, the spotted
salamander is actually pretty hard to, well, spot.
        They can reach 9 inches (23 centimeters) in length and are prevalent in mature
deciduous forests from eastern Canada throughout the eastern and mid-western United
States. But these secretive salamanders spend almost their entire lives hiding under rocks
or logs or in the burrows of other forest animals.
       They will populate upland forests and mountainous regions, but are most common
in moist, low-lying forests near floodplains.
        They emerge from their subterranean hiding spots only at night to feed and during
spring mating. They will actually travel long distances over land after a heavy rain to
mate and lay their eggs in vernal pools and ponds.
        Visually striking, these stout salamanders are bluish-black with two irregular rows
of yellow or orange spots extending from head to tail. Like many other salamanders, they
secrete a noxious, milky toxin from glands on their backs and tails to dissuade predators.
Their diet includes insects, worms, slugs, spiders, and millipedes.
         Spotted salamanders' numbers are generally stable throughout their range, but they
are very sensitive to changes in their ecology, and rising water acidity in certain habitats
is negatively affecting their population. The pet trade and habitat loss also take a toll.

【題組】  33. What can we NOT learn about spotted salamanders from the passage?
(A)When they mate.
(B)The danger they cause.
(C)The threat they face.
(D)How they protect themselves. 
34.【題組】34.Where can we find their eggs?
(A)Under rocks.
(B)On leaves of plants.
(C)In pools.
(D)In holes in the ground.
35.
        How do you gear yourself up for a big test, an important presentation, or any other
high-pressure situation? Maybe your internal monologue goes something like this: “OK,
this is really important. A lot is riding on this. Don’t screw this up. How well I do on this
really matters.” Reminding yourself of the high stakes makes intuitive sense as a
motivational strategy—but it will actually impede your performance. Instead of spurring
you to new heights, it’s likely to increase anxiety and undermine your confidence.
Research shows that reminding yourself how unimportant the event is in the big scheme
of things is a better tactic, and psychologists have come up with a variety of innovative
ways to help us do so.
        Geoffrey Cohen, a professor at the Stanford University School of Education,
conducted a series of experiments designed to reduce test-taking pressures felt by
minorities but which wound up revealing a great strategy for everyone. In a 2006 study
published in the journal Science, Cohen and his co-authors gave a group of
seventh-graders an in-class assignment in which they were presented with a list of values
and asked to choose which one was most important to them. The list included phrases
like “relationships with friends and family,” “religious values,” “athletic ability,” and
“being good at art.” The students then wrote a paragraph about why their value was
important to them. (The control group in the study chose a value that was not important
to them, and wrote a paragraph about why the value might matter to someone else.)
        This brief writing assignment significantly improved the grades of
African-American students, and reduced the racial achievement gap by 40 percent. Why?
The exercise affirmed students’ “self-integrity,” Cohen explains, buttressing their
self-worth and alleviating the stress they felt about being evaluated. Cohen and another
group of co-authors investigated whether a similar approach would help female college
students taking an introductory physics course who might be feeling vulnerable to
negative messages about women in science. Once again, students chose their most

cherished values from a list and then wrote about why these values were important to
them. Conducted just twice during the 15-week course, this intervention had a big impact,
“substantially” reducing the difference between men and women in learning and
performance and lifting women’s grades from the C range to the B range. These results,
reported in the journal Science in 2010, were especially pronounced for women who say
they believe the stereotype that men do better than women in physics.
        Perhaps the most inventive way to get students to focus on the bigger picture of
what matters to them was introduced by a group of researchers from Germany and
Austria in an article published in the European Journal of Social Psychology last year.
They asked university students to think about their ancestors by drawing a family tree or
by writing an essay imagining how their forebears lived and what advice they would give
them. The students who thought and wrote about their ancestors did better on subsequent
intelligence tests than members of the control group (who were asked to think instead
about their most recent trip to the supermarket).
        Why would reflecting on our great-great-grandparents help us perform better? The
authors of the study note that such musings “mostly remind us about eventful and
successful lives. Normally, our ancestors managed to overcome a multitude of personal
and societal problems, such as severe illnesses, wars, loss of loved ones or severe
economic declines. So, when we think about them, we are reminded that humans who
are genetically similar to us can successfully overcome a multitude of problems and
adversities.” So the next time you have to prepare for a high-pressure event, remember
that compared to world wars and great depressions, a test or a presentation should be a
snap.

【題組】35. Which is the main idea of the passage?
(A)Good preparation ensures good results.
(B)High expectations lead to high performance.
(C)Knowing oneself truly is the foundation of all knowledge.
(D)Not taking things too seriously can enhance performance.
36.【題組】36.What do the experiments mentioned in the passage which Geoffrey Cohen was involved in have in common?
(A)The subjects were female minorities.
(B)All the subjects wrote about what they valued most and why.
(C)They were designed to reduce test-taking pressures.
(D)The results were reported in the same publication.
37.【題組】37What is the implication of the experiment conducted by the German and Austrian researchers?
(A)Drawing or writing helps alleviate our stress from tests.
(B)We should follow the advice given by our forefathers.
(C)Pressure in our life can be dwarfed by severe problems humans have encountered.
(D)The way our ancestors overcame adversities sheds light on how we can confront difficult situations.
38.         A polyglot is a person who can master numerous languages. If one speaks more
than six languages, he will then be called a hyperpolyglot, a term coined by Richard
Hudson, professor emeritus of linguistics at University College London.
        Numerous theories exist as explanations for polyglotism. For example, it has been
recognized that someone who is interested in languages, with a sufficiently developed
intellect, and who optimizes his/her learning technique with experience, will become
increasingly efficient as each new language is learned; therefore, such an individual is
able to master new languages with less effort than the average person. Also, different
languages overlap in the areas of grammar and vocabulary, and this makes it easier to
acquire connected languages, such as English and French words.
        One theory suggests that a spike in a baby’s testosterone levels while in the uterus
can increase brain asymmetry, while others have suggested that hard work and right type
of motivation—which any adult can apply—are the key factors of polyglotism.
Neuroscientist Katrin Amunts studied the brain of German polyglot Emil Krebs and
determined that the area of Krebes’ brain that was responsible for language—the Broca’s
area—was organized differently in comparison to the brains of monolinguals.
One well-known polyglot is Alexander Arguelles. An American scholar of foreign
languages, Arguelles can read and fluently speak approximately thirty-six languages. In
college, he took classes in French, German, Spanish, Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Medieval
French, Gothic, Old High German, and Old Norse. He claims to have developed
conversational abilities in Swedish, Dutch, and Italian during visits to those countries
while doing research in Europe, Portuguese by conversing with a Brazilian student,
Russian during a month-long stay, and Korean and Arabic during his years of residence
in South Korea and Lebanon. During the first portion of his time in Korea, he also
engaged in the intensive simultaneous autodidactic study of a wide range of languages
including Irish, Persian, Hindi, Turkish, and Swahili.

        On average, Arguelles spends nine hours a day studying dozens of languages. A
typical daily regime may consist of the following: writing and reading in Arabic, then
writing at least two pages each of Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Latin, followed by
reading Persian and writing two pages of Russian grammar before composing in Latin,
doing grammatical exercise in Turkish, trying out a bit of Swahili, and reviewing Irish
conversational dialogues.
        Arguelles is notable not only for his achievements as a polyglot, but also for the
advice and information about autodidactic language study that he provides to language
learners on web forums. He does not maintain that there is any special key to language
learning other than systematic and disciplined hard work over long periods of time.
Among techniques he has advocated are “shadowing”—listening to and simultaneously
echoing a recording of foreign language audio loudly and clearly while walking briskly
rather than sitting, and “scriptorium”—reading aloud while transcribing texts by hand. In
reviewing and evaluating textbooks he tends to favor older and more traditional materials
over contemporary publications. In terms of time management skills he recommends
simultaneous rather than sequential language study.
        Even if you don’t aspire to be a polyglot like Alexander Arguelles or Joseph
Mezzofanti, the 19th century Italian cardinal who could speak 72 languages, giving these
two techniques a try can at least help you acquire a few foreign languages.

【題組】38. Based on the reading, which does NOT contribute to polyglotism?
(A)Motivation.
(B)Hard work.
(C)Good instructors.
(D)Genetic advantage.
39.【題組】Which statement about Alexander Arguelles is true?
(A)He invented a machine which enhances language learning.
(B)He went to language schools in Asia to learn several Asian languages.
(C)He focuses on one language at a time.
(D)His advice on how to learn language can be found online.
40.【題組】Which is the most important element in “shadowing” as a language learning technique?
(A)Repeating what is heard.
(B)Substantial exposure to the target language.
(C)Reading aloud while copying texts by hand.
(D)Using modern textbooks rather than older materials.