1.1. With the seemingly recovering economy in the city, condominium boards are becoming truculent in stamping out _____ owners who do not pay
their monthly fees promptly and in full.
(A)cumbersome (B)delinquent (C)heretical (D)malleable
2.2. The daily opening and nightly closing of the leaves of a tamarind tree was observed, but they also found that a _____ plant inside a dark room
would continue its daily cycles of leaf movement in the absence of sunlight.
(A)heliotrope (B)malapropism (C)perquisite (D)theocracy
3.3. It is everyone’s obligation to bring down water use. Reduced water consumption and the _____ reduction in water-heating costs are remarkable
on the national level, precisely because so many people take showers.
(A)bumptious (B)commensurate (C)querulous (D)whimsical
4.4. It was the professor’s idea to arrange a series of public lectures to the students at this institution with the prerequisite that each speaker would be
asked to imagine that this will be his or her _____ presentation, or the “last lecture.”
(A)deceitful (B)notorious (C)rampant (D)valedictory
5.5. The chef considers the best place in the world to eat seafood is where you can reach eye-witness-live seafood. He says the three focal conditions
for great _____ and in seafood are immutable: freshness, freshness and freshness.
(A)gastronomy (B)labyrinth (C)nepotism (D)yeast
6.6. During the training, the physiotherapist asked those in the matched condition to match their partners’ posture: to _____ their partners’
movements and postural changes by mirroring what their partners did with their torso.
(A)ascribe (B)lounge (C)reciprocate (D)upbraid
7.7. Much to our surprise, there is an indirect technique for planet-hunting astronomers that may allow them, for the first time, to quest for the
chemical signs of life and prevent themselves from the glare of stars when _____their prey.
(A)boasting of (B)doing without (C)falling on (D)groping for
8.8. The dentist’s examination was _____. She just went through the motions without taking any interest in the patient.
(A)perfunctory (B)jeopardizing (C)perplexing (D)rudimental
9.9. The sinking of Titanic in 1912 was a(n) _____ in which more than 1,500 people died.
(A)attribution (B)enigma (C)qualm (D)retort
10.10. The death rate from cigarette smoking will someday _____ the death rate from better-known causes like tuberculosis and AIDS.
(A)boom (B)bounce (C)dwarf (D)tune
11.11. My son’s English teacher Mr. Levinson is probably the most _____ collector I have ever seen. He collects almost anything, from basketball cards
to beer bottles.
(A)transitory (B)avid (C)benevolent (D)feasible
12.12. Ms. Goodrum’s handmade carpets fit in well in her simple country house. The cabin had a rustic _____.
(A)garment (B)ambiance (C)captivity (D)tranquil
13.13. Shannon and Edward’s marriage was not weakened by the _____ in their ages. But Edward’s mother wasn’t happy with a daughter-in-law her
(A)disparity (B)liability (C)integrity (D)feasibility
14.14. David _____ a story that his computer had crashed. The truth is that he doesn’t even use a computer.
(A)saturated (B)fabricated (C)infringed (D)mediated
15.15. The book is most definitely a scholarly contribution that should help fill the historical _______ during a crucial period of American development.
(A)hiatus (B)feint (C)nettle (D) jaunt
16.16. On the east of the valley rose a ___________ wall of stratified rock, two thousand or three thousand feet high, stretching off towards the Arkansas.
(A)tentative (B)precipitous (C)gregarious (D)counterfeit
17.17. People _____ because they are not sure whether they make the right decision or not.
(A)vacillate (B)begrudge (C)subterfuge (D)coagulate
18.18. The police checked thoroughly underneath the backseats of the sedan several times for things ______ hidden by drug dealers.
(A)egregiously (B)nefariously (C)auspiciously (D)surreptitiously
19.19. The shocking and _______ truth is that the slaves on sugar plantations were forced to work 16 to 18 hours a day.
(A)opprobrious (B)peripheral (C)ebullient (D)volatile
20.20. Democracy can’t ______ strikes that intimidate citizens and use force to influence policymaking.
(A)flout (B)coddle (C)brook (D)parry
21.21. The word “class” means different things to different people. Class may be rank, tribe, culture and taste. At first, a person’s class is his parents’
class. Later, he may pick up a new hand of his own; it is likely to resemble _____ his parents, but not always.
(A)by (B)between (C)than (D)that of
22.22. Dr. Nien was famously reluctant to have his biography written. But _____ Nien since 1990, Mr. Feng, the author of a critical study of Dr. Nien’s
work, received not only his friend’s permission but access to a large collection of his manuscripts.
(A)have known (B)having known (C)knew (D)to know
23.23. Infection is a common cause of chronic liver disease and is frequently managed with immunosuppressive therapy. However, treatment-emergent
depression after therapy is frequent, _____ most studies report a risk of 10% to 40%.
(A)at (B)as (C)to (D)when
24.24. This “#24” uniform is special _____ the basketball player only wore it as a freshman, before switching to his high school career. It is believed to
be the only authentic game worn “#24” in existence.
(A)along (B)in (C)in that (D)of
25.25. My brother John has been _____ funds for the children who are suffering from the celiac disease.
(A)rising (B)raising (C)raised (D)risen
26.26. _____ in charge of this company, I would make some big changes to save it.
(A)Were I (B)I were (C)If I am (D)Had I been
27.27. Do you know what happened to Mary yesterday? She looked like _____!
(A)she saw a ghost (B)she has seen a ghost (C)she had seen a ghost (D)she would have seen a ghost
28.28. Grammar: Choose one best answer. (A)My little cousin is a blabbermouth! He cannot resist to tell everybody my secret!
(B)Tom got some kids in the neighborhood to clean up all the graffiti on the walls.
(C)While Jack was shopping, he found a jacket that he really liked. After he had the sleeves be shortened, it fit him perfectly.
(D)Ms. Hanson recommended our class divided into four sections for group discussion.
29.29. Grammar: Choose one best answer. (A)Whether molding into bars or shaping into hearts, kisses, or even bunnies, people worldwide love chocolate for its unique taste and the pleasure it gives.
(B)Every year, scientists from all over the world travel there to work in conditions of extreme cold, with temperatures reaching minus 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
(C)The children attended a special movie program consisted of cartoons that feature Donald Duck and Mickey Mouse.
(D)If taking individually, swimming, cycling, and running are each very physically demanding sports that require endurance and stamina in order
to be competitive.
30.30. Grammar: Choose one best answer. (A)Tungsten, a gray metal with the melting point is the highest of any metal, is used to form the wires in electric light bulbs.
(B)Biochemists use fireflies to study bioluminescence, the heatless light given off by certain plants and animals.
(C)June bugs they often cause damage by stripping the young leaves from trees and shrubs.
(D)The latest Flash Mob event involved a large number of people invaded a shoe boutique, all noisily pretending to be out-of-towners on a bus tour.
31.III. Cloze: Choose one best answer.
Deep in the desert, three hours by car from Amman, Jordan’s capital city, stands all that remains of the great civilization of the Nabataeans although
“stands” may not be the right word for striking buildings hewed out of solid rock. We know the place by the name the Greeks gave it: Petra, Greek for
stone. And certainly the Hellenic influence is present in the remarkable buildings at this site, __(31)__ the Treasury building, or al-Khazneh, is the
largest and most famous: its pediment and Corinthian columns are the unmistakable signature of the culture that built the Acropolis, although there are
also Egyptian elements in the carvings on the façade. The name of the building is perhaps a misnomer; it may have been a royal tomb, perhaps holding
a dead king’s riches at one time.
Originally a nomadic Arab people, the Nabataeans __(32)__ in this region of wind- and water-carved canyons around the 6th century B.C. Through
its mile-long main canyon, the Sik passed silk and spices from Asia to Arabia and the Mediterranean. But the Nabataeans controlled the Sik, and they
demanded tribute of all who ventured through.
Yet if the Nabataeans’ wealth was ill-gotten, it was well spent. They mastered hydraulic technology, channeling water through tunnels carved into
the hills and along elaborate ceramic pipes to irrigate the land. They also __(33)__ at pottery and metallurgy. By 100 B.C. the Nabataeans commanded
a mighty empire of trade with outposts around the Mediterranean, and __(34)__ was a flourishing capital that boasted an 8,000-seat theater, temples,
proud villas and broad avenues, the remains of which can still be seen. Petra’s wealth attracted the interest of the Romans, who became the first to
conquer the city: the Emperor Trajan entered it in A.D. 106. The city continued to flourish under __(35)__, until an earthquake destroyed many of its
buildings in A.D. 363; two centuries later, another earthquake led inhabitants to leave the city forever. Thinly resettled in recent centuries, Petra was
“lost” to Europeans until Swiss explorer Johann Burkhardt, disguised as a Muslim, managed to enter the city in 1812. 【題組】31. (A)which (B)what (C)on which (D)of which
35.【題組】35. (A)Roman rule (B)Muslim (C)Swiss explorer (D)Mediterranean
What is involved in the process of visual recognition? __(36)__, like computer data, visual memories of an object must be stored; then, a
mechanism must exist for them to be retrieved. But how does this process work? The eye triggers the nerves __(37)__ action. This neural activity
__(38)__ a picture in the brain’s memory system, an internal image of the object observed. When the eye once again confronts that object, the object is
compared with its internal image; if the two images match, recognition takes place.
【題組】36. (A)To illustrate (B)First (C)Since (D)Often
I forgot to feed my cat Palias this morning; __(39)__, by the time I got home from work, she __(40)__ over the trash and scattered papers and
coffee ground all over the kitchen.
【題組】39. (A)furthermore (B)to illustrate (C)however (D)as a result
In pursuing the future, it is always important to recognize the past. Occasionally, the modern world is lucky to discover archaeological artifacts that
connect present-day humanity to its ancestry. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls is one such valuable link. The Dead Sea Scrolls, named for the
location of the caves where they were discovered, are considered by many scholars to be the single greatest biblical archaeological find. Many believe
that the scrolls hold crucial information about the historical relationship between Judaism and early Christianity. Some further believe that the scrolls
were written by a monastic Jewish sect known as the Essenes. The scrolls, comprised mainly of “religious writings, messianic prognostications, psalms
and hymns, some of which anticipate ideas expressed in the New Testament,” may provide answers to historians’ and theologians’ questions regarding
a period in history about which they had only been able to speculate.
Since their discovery, the scrolls have been a constant source of controversy. They have been the subject of battles over accessibility,
monopolization, and publication delays. Most recently, debate has focused on copyrightability of the reconstructed scrolls and copyright infringement.
One of the unfortunate realities about archaeological artifacts is that they are rarely preserved and often are fragmented. Fragmentation of documents
makes it necessary for scientists and scholars to put the pieces back together, as if reassembling a jigsaw puzzle. Unfortunately, ancient document
reconstruction is not as simple as solving a jigsaw puzzle. In many cases, indistinguishable fragments belong to unidentified documents. Unlike a
puzzle, which has one answer, scholarly interpretation of reconstructed artifacts may yield different outcomes. A scholar or archaeologist must
determine which fragments belong together and how those pieces should be arranged to best recreate the original.
In pursuit of the correct combination, a scholar may devote his or her life to reassembly. One Israeli biblical scholar, Elisha Qimron, devoted eleven
years of work to one of the Dead Sea Scrolls. In an effort to give free access to all of the scroll manuscripts, Hershel Shanks, founder and current
director of the Biblical Archaeology Society, published a book that included an “unauthorized” facsimile of the document that Qimron had spent years
reconstructing. Subsequently, Qimron brought suit against Shanks in Israel asserting a claim of copyright infringement. This suit set an international
legal precedent. The Israeli decision, the first ruling of its kind in the world, found a copyright in the reconstruction of an ancient text.
The Israeli case and its ruling raise serious questions regarding the freedom to disseminate factual information and the consequences it may have on
scholarly research. The past still contains many mysteries that may be solved only through continuous research and free exchange of ideas. Conferring
a copyright on an artifact reconstruction presents a problem in this pursuit for answers because such a copyright may permit monopolization of ideas,
thereby forestalling future research. Although legal issues similar to those decided in the Israeli case have yet to be fully litigated in the United States,
the well-established U.S. system of copyright law makes the United States the logical forum for the continuation of this debate. In fact, two different
scholars have filed a similar case against Qimron in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. In anticipation of this future
litigation, this Comment analyzes Qimron v. Shanks’ and theorizes as to how U.S. copyright law might apply to reconstructed documents.
【題組】41. What is the main issue of this article?
(A)The future of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
(B)The pursuit of the correct combination.
(C)The controversy over Christianity monopolization.
(D)The copyright law and its application to reconstructed documents.
42.【題組】42. Why are the Dead Sea Scrolls mentioned in the article?
(A)They are valuable links between psalms and hymns.
(B)They are standard of historians’ and theologians’ research.
(C)They are considered to be the single greatest biblical archaeological find.
(D)They are archaeological artifacts that are preserved and are not fragmented.
43.【題組】43. Why is fragmentation of documents an influential factor of the main argument?
(A)It brings out the necessary controversy for scientists and scholars.
(B)It diminishes the unfortunate realities about archaeological artifacts.
(C)It proves that recreating the original is as simple as solving a jigsaw puzzle.
(D)It demonstrates that distinguishable pieces may belong to unidentified documents.
44.【題組】44. Which of the following statements may possibly be Elisha Qimron’s argument?
(A)Publishing a book to give free access to all of the scroll manuscripts is welcome.
(B)The freedom to disseminate factual information on scholarly research is vital.
(C)The Biblical Archaeology Society should own the overarching copyright.
(D)A copyright in the reconstruction of an ancient text should be needed.
45.【題組】45. What is the author’s attitude toward the argument as a U.S. citizen?
(A)Legal issues similar to the Israeli case have been fully litigated in the U.S.
(B)Conferring a copyright on an artifact may permit monopolization of ideas.
(C)The U.S. system of copyright law is too illogical to continue this debate.
(D)Copyright law should unconditionally apply to reconstructed documents.
A clef is a sign placed on a music staff that indicates what pitch is represented by each line and space on the staff. The history of Western musical
notation describes an effort toward the development of a simple, symbolic representation of pitch and rhythm. It begins near the end of the 9th century
when notation for the Plainsong of the Western Church, better known as Gregorian Chant, was first recorded with “neumes”. These were simple dashes
or dots above lyrics that indicated a relative change in pitch. At the end of the 10th century, musical scribes increased the precision of their early
notation by introducing a horizontal line to indicate a base pitch. The pitch of this line was indicated by a letter at its start – typically F or C and, as
higher range songs become more common, G. Neumes were no longer relative only to one another, but to a standard. This was the beginning of the
These initial letters evolved over time into the stylized representations that we know as clefs today. The treble clef is a standardized
representation of the letter G, while the bass clef, also known as the F-clef, is a more dramatic unrecognizable evolution of the letter F. A possible
addition to this evolution was suggested in a 1908 article in The Musical Times, which argued that the contemporary form of the treble clef is a result
of 17th century notational technique in which multiple symbols were used to indicate both pitch and vocal sound, with “G, Sol” being a common
combination that was eventually shortened to G.S. and then “gradually corrupted by careless transcription” into the treble clef.
In a time before mechanical reproducibility, the standardization of signs was an unfamiliar concept. These notations were all written by hand: the
inconsistencies and idiosyncrasies of each scribe naturally resulted in some variability of representation, sometimes even on the same page.
Additionally, the handwriting was noticeably fancier than today’s script. The scribes challenged by copying these notational manuscripts made
mistakes and additions, until eventually the copy bore little resemblance to the original.
Use of the C-clef has declined over the 20th century to be replaced by the alto clef and tenor clef. Today, the alto clef is used primarily in viola
music while the tenor is occasionally used for bassoon, trombone and cello. The F-clef is used for lower-brass notation as well as for the bass and,
every kid who was forced to take piano lessons knows, the left hand of keyboard instruments. The instruments that use treble clef include the violin,
woodwinds, higher brass instruments, and of course the right hand of keyboard instruments. Its wide use has led it becoming cartoon shorthand to
graphically indicate musicality. It seems appropriate that its development was incidental to the preservation and proliferation of the music itself.
【題組】46. In what way is the passage mainly written?
47.【題組】47. For whom is the passage most likely intended?
(A)College students majoring in artistic designs
(B)Historians specializing in medieval church history
(C)Company staff responsible for orchestra administration
(D)Those interested in learning the evolution of musical notation
48.【題組】48. What is the problem with the transcription of musical notation in the past?
(A)Some scribes copied clefs carelessly when duplicating music scores.
(B)A clef carried too much information and was therefore needed to be rewritten.
(C)Scribes invented new symbols to replace old ones during the process of transcription.
(D)Clefs were abbreviated because the characters were too long to be written on music staves.
49.【題組】49. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(A)The musical notation for pitch was invented after the 10th century.
(B)How the representation of the bass clef has been evolved is detailed in the passage.
(C)In the past, the deficiency of printing limited the precision of how clefs on music staves were duplicated.
(D)With the position on a music staff unchanged, a note on the tenor clef has a higher pitch than that on the alto clef.
50.【題組】50. According to the passage, how many types of clefs are prevalent nowadays?