1.1. So ______ is language in our lives that it is easy to take it for granted, dismissing it as commonplace or even unremarkable.
(A) percussive (B) perceptive (C) persuasive (D) pervasive
2.2. Language surrounds us, both in ______and visual modes.
(A) virtual (B) cerebral (C) aural (D) modular
3.3. One common practice for identifying language minority students is to send a language survey to newly ______students’
parents or guardians, asking them about language use in their homes.
(A) formed (B) constructed (C) identified (D) enrolled
4.4. The ______of computer use in foreign and second language education has brought with it an expansion of research into the
area of computer-assisted language learning.
(A) proliferation (B) suspension (C) recreation (D) consumption
5.5. Through language, humans make their demands known to others, express their feelings,______ their opinions, and negotiate
(A) assume (B) assess (C) articulate (D) abandon
6.6. The scientist _____ her research paper to the Environmental affairs Committee for consideration.
(A) submitted (B) commended (C) conceded (D) resumed
7.7. According to the memo, the human resources department will _____ a new identification card to each employee.
(A) propose (B) control (C) review (D) issue
8.8. The manager should _____ to the customers for the lengthy delay in their shipment of merchandise.
(A) apologize (B) scrutinize (C) patronize (D) criticize
9.9. The senior executives refused to _____ the deadline for the report on the proposed merger.
(A) extend (B) exhale (C) exhibit (D) extract
10.10. Several venture capital firms believe that Mr. Warriner’s organization has immense commercial _____.
(A) account (B) potential (C) process (D) supplement
11.11. After the excitement of his European vacation, it was difficult for John to return to the __________ daily life of a small
town in the Pennsylvanian countryside.
(A) remedial (B) uncanny (C) mundane (D) egregious
12.12. When the band started playing that old song, my grandfather was overcome with _______ for his days as a young medical
student in Boston.
(A) hegemony (B) nostalgia (C) viability (D) adversity
13.13. Scott McGovern made a fortune on the stock market before he was twenty, but then __________ it all on an extremely
lavish lifestyle that included sports cars, jewelry, and a private jet.
(A) protruded (B) refuted (C) incarcerated (D) squandered
14.14. This house is very big and beautiful. I think the rent must be ________ as that one.
(A) three times more (B) three times as much
(C) as many three times (D) as three times more
15.15. At the City University this year ________are enrolled in special semesters in writing for radio and television.
(A) more students as before ever (B) many students than before ever
(C) more students than ever before (D) many students as ever before
16.16. The debate between the two legislation groups ______.
(A) are not to be solved in an easy way (B) will not be concluded easy
(C) will not be easily settled (D) can not be brought together easily
17.17. Only when the marauding militants had completely left the town _________ in the surrounding forest ____ to emerge.
(A) those who were hiding / dared (B) are those hiding / daring
(C) those hiding / dared (D) did those hiding / dare
18.18. Our profits have risen dramatically this year, ____________ the national economy has gone into recession.
(A) due to the fact that (B) in spite of the fact that
(C) not least because (D) on account of
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19.19. ____________the results of the election been publicly announced than the government announced heavy tax increases.
(A) No sooner had (B) As soon as
(C)The sooner (D) Sooner than
20.20. The chairman of our company is a very wealthy man, but _____________ a fortune in the casino recently.
(A) he is said to lose (B) he was lost
(C) it is said that he lost (D) he would lose
Greek Mythology has played an important role in shaping Western culture. Today, its stories are frequently 21 to
in speech, in writing, and in art. 22 , there is the story of Sisyphus, the most 23 and cunning knave on earth. He
was condemned in Tartarus to forever roll a boulder to the top of a mountain. Every day he 24 slowly up the hill. His
hard labor never paid off though, for once he reached the 25 , the boulder would roll back down, and Sisyphus would
have to start over again. This scene, which can be seen in paintings 26 in sculptures, has since become a symbol of
human’s 27 never-ending struggle to improve themselves.
【題組】21. (A) alluded (B) alliterated (C) illusion (D) illustration
22.【題組】22. (A) To tell the truth (B) For example (C) As a matter of fact (D) On the other hand
23.【題組】23. (A) famous (B) notable (C) noticeable (D) notorious
24.【題組】24. (A) soiled (B) toiled (C) took a walk (D) ran
26.【題組】26. (A) as soon as (B) as far as (C) as well as (D) as long as
27.【題組】27. (A) festival (B) future (C) fertile (D) futile
28.This year’s FIFA World Cup was notable for high scoring, close results, and exciting finishes. As expected, the
competition was dominated by European and South American teams, but there were still many surprising results. The
Netherlands caused a major 28 by defeating former title-holders Spain in the first round, while the quarter final between
Brazil and Chile 29 penalties before the hosts managed to scrape through. Generally speaking, the competition was
conducted in good spirit, showing that FIFA’s efforts to 30 unsportsmanlike behavior have been largely successful.
However, Uruguayan champion Suarez courted controversy in a first round match when he apparently bit his Italian opponent.
The incident caused outrage around the world, with many pundits arguing it 31 criminal assault. Video replays provided
clear evidence of the transgression, and Suarez was suspended for four months, forcing his Uruguayan teammates to 32
the services of their most potent striker for the remainder of the competition.
【題組】28. (A) discrepancy (B) annulment (C) misdemeanor (D) upset
29.【題組】29. (A) went down to (B) faced up to (C) measured up to (D) fell back on
30.【題組】30. (A) send off (B) stamp out (C) bear out (D) factor in
31.【題組】31. (A) accounted for (B) resorted to (C) bordered on (D) opted for
32.【題組】32. (A) go without (B) frown upon (C) knock out (D) lose out
33.Obesity, the excessive accumulation of body fat, is one of the most common human health problems. 33 , public
health sources estimate that 40-50% of the population of the United States is obese. 34 principally by the intake of food
in excess of the body’s requirements, obesity of significance can be generally defined as a body weight 20% above the ideal
weight for a given population.
A person’s degree of obesity was 35 determined by measuring the individual’s height and weight and referring to
the standard height and weight tables assembled by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. However, it was subsequently
discovered that there were fallacies in this system. For example, a football player who has a marked increase in musculature
and normal carcass fat, and a person with fluid buildup in the tissues due to heart problems may appear obese when measured
by this standard, when in actuality they are not. A more 36 method of measuring obesity is caliper measurement of
skinfold thickness in such areas as the subscapular region of the triceps. A thickness of over 23 mm in males and 30 mm in
females constitutes obesity in persons aged 30 to 50.
Two broad clinical types of obesity have been identified: lifelong obesity, in which sufferers tend to be grossly overweight,
with body fat distributed uniformly; and adult-onset obesity, which is usually manifested as “middle-aged spread,” and is
characterized by centralized distribution of body fat. The prognosis for the former is 37 , whereas those suffering from the
latter are frequently able to return to normal body weight.
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【題組】33. (A) Nevertheless (B) In addition (C) On the contrary (D) In fact
34.【題組】34. (A) Affected (B) Caused (C) As a result (D) Although
37.【題組】37. (A) promising (B) not favorable (C) auspicious (D) terminal
38.IV. Reading Comprehension
Birds, like mammals, have a four-chambered heart that separates oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The blood
temperature of birds is from 2˚ to 14˚ higher than that of other mammals. Though the use of the phrase “bird-brain” as an insult
would suggest otherwise, birds in fact have a relatively large brain. They also possess keen sight and acute hearing, though they
have little sense of smell. Birds are highly adapted for flight; their body structures combine lightness and strength. Body weight
is reduced by the presence of a horny bill instead of heavy jaws and teeth and by air sacs in their hollow bones as well as in
other parts of the body. Compactness and firmness are achieved by the fusion of bones in the pelvic region and in other parts of
the skeleton. The heavier parts of bird bodies – the gizzard, intestines, flight muscles, and thigh muscles – are all strategically
located for maintaining balance in flight. Feathers, despite their lightness, are highly protective against cold and wet. Feathers
used for flight, especially, have great strength. Some birds, such as the ostrich, the penguin, and the chicken, lack the power of
flight and have a flat sternum or breastbone, without the prominent keel to which the well-developed flight muscles of other
birds are attached.
In the majority of species of bird there are differences between males and females in plumage coloring. Male birds are
usually the more brilliant or the more distinctly marked and are the aggressors in courtship. Most birds build a nest in which to
lay their eggs. Some birds, such as the oriole, weave an intricate structure, while others lay their eggs directly on the ground
among a few seemingly carelessly assembled twigs. Eggs vary in size, number, color, and shape. In spring and fall many birds
migrate. Not all of the factors motivating this behavior are fully understood. These trips often involve flights of hundreds and
even thousands of miles over mountains and oceans.
【題組】38. What is the writer’s primary purpose?
(A) To point out the differences between birds and mammals.
(B) To provide information about birds.
(C) To explain bird mating rituals.
(D) To offer advice to bird watchers.
39.【題組】39. What is the author’s point about the phrase “bird-brain”?
(A) It is something people call each other to be insulting.
(B) It denotes praise for the intelligence of birds.
(C) It is a misnomer because birds actually have good-sized brains.
(D) It is an accurate description of a bird’s brain.
40.【題組】40. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a reason why birds are able to fly?
(A) Their bones are hollow.
(B) They have hard beaks instead of jaws.
(C) They have flat breastbones.
(D) Their feathers are light.
41.【題組】41. Which of the following is true about the plumage of birds?
(A) Females are more brightly colored.
(B) Males are more brightly colored.
(C) Males and females have the same appearance.
(D) Appearance varies by season.
42.【題組】42. What is the meaning of the word “migrate,” used in the last paragraph?
(A) To motivate.
(B) To watch over one’s young.
(C) To move from one place to another.
(D) To change spouses.
Carnivorous plants are various types of flowering plants and fungi that capture and digest prey animals. In order to be
classified as carnivorous, plants must fabricate attractants to lure prey, which must be captured and die in their clutches. The
prey must also be digested and its nutrients assimilated by the plant. Carnivorous plants use animal nutrients to compensate
for low levels of nitrogen and phosphates in their habitat, lack of which inhibits normal processes of photosynthesis. Since the
animals they capture are chiefly insects, carnivorous plants are sometimes called insectivorous plants. Some species, however,
capture mollusks such as slugs, or even vertebrates such as small frogs and birds.
Trap types include pitfalls and “lobster traps,” adhesive traps, and various kinds of mechanical traps. Pitfalls consist of
tubular leaves, or arrays of leaves, that are filled with water. Insects are captured when they fall into the fluid, which often
contains wetting agents and digestive enzymes. So-called lobster pots also consist of tubular leaves. In this type of trap,
however, the tube is often horizontal and is lined with hairs that guide the prey along a path leading to the digestive part of the
trap. Adhesive traps exist in several plant families. Typically, flying insects are captured when they adhere to slime secreted by
hairs covering the leaf. In some genera, such as Drosera, the leaf actively moves the prey to the center and wraps around it.
Sticky-seeded adhesive traps have only recently been observed, but may be widespread. The seed of the shepherd’s purse,
Capsera, a common lawn weed, attracts, captures, and utilizes nutrients from prey; soil bacteria do the digesting. Mechanical
traps include so-called snap traps, such as those of the Venus’s flytrap. In these plants the prey is trapped by rapid closure of a
set of lobes around the animal when it touches sensory hairs that trigger the closure. The action results from acid growth in the
lobes within less than a second. Suction traps, found in the aquatic Bladderwort Ultricularia are similar to the style of mouse
trap in which a door allows the mouse to enter, but not to exit. The prey trips a lever on the plant “door,” which allows water
and the prey to be sucked into the trap when the plant’s concave side puffs outward. Snare traps are found in carnivorous fungi.
One type, in the genus Arthrobotrys, has a trap that looks like a small lasso with three segments around the loop. When
triggered by a nematode, the segments bulge out to capture the worm. The fungus then grows into the prey and digests it.
【題組】43. Which of the following statements about carnivorous plants is NOT true?
(A) They are found in nutrient-deficient environments.
(B) Their prey are exclusively insectivorous.
(C) They develop methods of enticing animals.
(D) They kill the animals they consume.
44.【題組】44. Traps which cause insects to be trapped by sticky fibers are called __________.
(A) Pitfall traps
(B) Lobster traps
(C) Adhesive traps
(D) Mechanical traps
45.【題組】45. Which kinds of traps catch animals in cylindrically shaped leaves?
(A) Pitfall traps and lobster traps
(B) Lobster traps and adhesive traps
(C) Adhesive traps and mechanical traps
(D) Lobster traps and snap traps
46.【題組】46. Which of the following statements is true?
(A) Lobster pots cause insects to fall into a trap.
(B) Traps employing sticky seeds have been the subject of extensive research.
(C) In some snap traps, a chemical change activates the snaring mechanism.
(D) Suction traps are more commonly found in arid environments.
Economics is the systematic study of three areas of human activity: production, exchange, and consumption. The nature
and magnitude of these activities and their implications for individual and social welfare constitute the focus of economics
and the policies that economists make.
The basic objective of all economic activity is to achieve the highest possible level of consumption of goods and
services that is compatible with the supply of human and material resources available to produce them. When human and
material resources are scarce, the mechanism of price is used to control demand. Choice, therefore, is the essence of
economic decision making.
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The choice process occurs both at the level of the household and at that of the business firm. Households that are free to
exercise their choices in the marketplace are assumed to behave in a manner that will yield maximum satisfaction or utility.
The essence of rational behavior for a household is to spend its income on those items or services which will provide the
greatest possible utility. Such choices act as signals to business about consumers’ preferences.
Rational behavior in the business sector implies that firms direct their efforts toward maximizing profits. To do this they
must, first, be responsive to the demands of the household sector for goods and services, and, second, combine the labor and
material resources they employ in such a way as to minimize their production costs. This is the essence of efficient
Inquiry into the nature and results of the choices that households and business firms make is the concern of
microeconomic analysis, the focus of which is the behavior of the individuals, organizations, and institutions in the economy.
However, the study of the behavior of households and business firms is only one part of economic analysis. The other
part is the study of the behavior of economic aggregates – macroeconomics. The results of economic performance can be
measured in terms of production and income. Chief among the “yardsticks” that measure the economy’s overall performance
is gross national product (GNP), which aggregates the market value of all goods and direct services produced during the year.
Production costs (wages, rent, interest, depreciation, managerial profits, and taxes) that are incorporated into consumer prices
constitute an income stream that corresponds to GNP.
The size of the GNP reflects the level of employment, another important macroeconomic aggregate. The level of
employment is dependent on aggregate demand, which consists of the consumption demands of households and businesses.
Macroeconomic aggregates are thus critically linked to the microeconomic decisions made in the household and business
sectors of the economy. A major concern of macroeconomics is the influence of the government and the central bank on the
aggregate demand through implementation of fiscal policy and monetary policy respectively.
【題組】47. The phrase “compatible with” in paragraph two is closest in meaning to:
(A) gets along with
(B) similar to
(C) suitable for
(D) in excess of
48.【題組】48. According to the article, which of the following is NOT discussed as an element of microeconomic decision making?
(A) The achievement of maximum utility through consumer choices
(B) Reducing the cost of labor and material resources to achieve efficient production
(C) The kinds of choices made by companies and families, and their outcomes
(D) The implementation of fiscal and monetary policy by the government and the central bank
49.【題組】49. Which of the following is NOT discussed as an element of macroeconomic analysis?
(A) The behavior of individuals, organizations and institutions in the economy
(B) The total value of goods and services produced in a year
(C) The overall level of employment in the society
(D) The roles of the government and the central bank
50.【題組】50. What example does the author provide of how macroeconomic aggregates are related to microeconomic decisions?
(A) The results of economic performance can be measured in terms of production and income.
(B) Production costs are incorporated into consumer prices.
(C) Household and business consumption affect employment levels
(D) The government and central bank influence fiscal and monetary policy