1.Prospecting for Gold
Post-World War II mining efforts were directed mainly toward locating base-metal ores rather than panning for placer deposits. A placer deposit is a concentration of mineral that has accumulated along with the sediment in a stream. Because of the length of time needed for gold to corrode and its relatively heavy weight in comparison to the sediment in the stream, gold tends to accumulate in placer deposits close to the rocks from which it came. 【題組】
1. Placer gold is to be found (A) in the rocks (B) in the stream (C) in the mine
(D) on the ground.
3.How Fast does a Tuna Fish Swim?
One reason for the tuna's high speed is its tail which beats an incredible 10 to 20 times per
second, as efficient, fisheries biologists say, as a rotating propeller on a boat. Another
reason is special muscles under the tuna's skin. 【題組】3. One of the reasons why the tuna swims so fast is because (A) its tail beats very fast (B) the shape of its tail is like a propeller on a boat (C) it has incredible beats (D) its tail beats 10 to 20 seconds each time.
5.Getting the Hang of It
Winds are important to hang gliding and techniques vary according to the terrain and the strength of prevailing winds. Usually, the beginner learns to take off by running down a slope into a slight headwind, holding the kite level and then pushing out on the frame to raise the nose until the glider begins to lift off by itself. It takes a wind of five to 12 mph to become airborne and an average airspeed of 20 mph to remain aloft 【題組】
5. A hang glider takes off by (A) standing against the wind (B) pushing out the
frame (C) running down a slope (D) the help of a plane.
7.Women and the Vote
The uphill struggle for women's suffrage began quietly in 1848 at a rights convention at Seneca Falls, N.Y. At the time, women had virtually no rights under the law. Men had complete control of children, complete and sole ownership of property and, if a wife worked, the employer was bound by law to pay her wages to her husband. Women were also denied the rights of survivorship. A man could, and often did, ignore his wife in his will leaving his
possessions to a male heir. The purpose of the convention was to balance the scales by gaining rights for women equal to those of men. 【題組】
7. The purpose of the convention was to (A) fight for women’s rights of
survivorship (B) fight for men (C) fight their husbands (D) fight for women’s
In many campgrounds, especially the heavily used ones, firewood is scarce and seldom supplied. Cutting forest and seaside vegetation in or near a campground is usually prohibited. Thus, camp cooking requires a camping stove. The barbecue-type pits often provided at campgrounds are fine for an occasional cookout or weenie roast. Charcoal cooking is just the thing for those summertime backyard cookouts. But, in general, both are inconvenient for cooking every meal while you're camping. 【題組】
9. Firewood _______ in popular campgrounds. (A) is usually easily available
(B) can be cut from vegetation (C) is hard to get (D) is very heavy
11. Choose the best answer for each blank.
What could go wrong for the ascending Chinese dragon? There are at least four different hypotheses proposed by those who expect it to stumble. The first is similar _____1_____ of inexorable ascent used to be made for Japan. It too was supposed to overtake the United States and to become the number one global economic superpower. So, the argument goes, China could one day suffer the fate of Japan after 1989, precisely because the economic and political systems are not truly competitive, a real-estate or stock-market bubble and bust could ____2____ the country with zombie banks, flat growth and deflation – the plight of Japan for the better part of two decades now.
A second possibility is that China might succumb to social unrest, as has so often happened in its past. After all, China remains a poor country, ranked eighty-sixth in the world in terms of per-capita income, with 150 million of its citizens– nearly one in ten –living on the ____3____ of $1.50 a day or less. Inequality has risen steeply since the introduction of economic reforms, so that the income distribution is now essentially American (though not quite Brazilian). An estimated 0.4 percent of Chinese households currently own around 70 percent of the country’s wealth. Add to these economic ______4____ chronic problems of air, water and ground pollution, and it is not surprising that the poorer parts of the Chinese rural hinterland are prone to outbreak of protest.
A third plausible scenario is that a rising middle class could, as so often in Western history, demand a bigger political say than they currently have. China was once a rural society. In 1990 three out of four Chinese lived in the countryside. Today 45 percent of people are ___5___ and by 2030 it could be as high as 70 percent. Not only is a middle class rapidly growing in urban China; the spread of mobile telephony and the internet means that
they can form their own spontaneous ____6____ networks as never before. The challenge this represents is personified not by the jailed dissident Liu Xiaobo, awarded the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize, who belongs to an earlier generation of activists, but by the burly, bearded artist Ai Weiwei, who has used his public ____7____ to agitate on behalf of the victims of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
The fourth and final pitfall is that China may so antagonize its neighbors that they gravitate toward a balancing coalition led by an increasingly realist United Sates. There is certainly no shortage of ___8___ in the rest of Asia about the way China throws its weight about these days. Chinese plans to ____9____ the water resources of the Quinghai-Tibetan plateau have troubling implications for Bangladesh, India and Kazakhstan. Relations with Japan took such a turn for the worse in a dispute over the tiny Senkaku/ Diaoyu Islands that China imposed an embargo on rare-earth exports, in _____10____ for the arrest of a stray Chinese fisherman. 【題組】
1. (A) disparities (B) resentment (C) horizontal (D) equivalent
(E) divert (AB) aptitude (AC) projections (AD) expenditure
(AE) saddle BC. retaliation (BD) city-dwellers (BE) prominence
Two great landmarks define the Mesopotamian achievement down to 1700 B.C. First, through the temple community organization of peasant life, the ancient Sumerians were able to create conditions for the emergence of civilization. Based upon a religious world-view, but sustained also by the practical services which the priestly colleges performed for the _____11____, the temple community permitted the concentration of a _____12_____ surplus of agricultural products and used this surplus to support priestly experts and a train of dependent craftsmen. Such specialization led to a rapid development of skill and to an early ___13_____ of artistic, intellectual, and technological traditions. By the end of the third millennium B.C., the temple communities of Sumer had been supplemented by other, lay types of agrarian social systems, within which landlords took over an economic role ____14____ to that of the priestly colleges, and were able to concentrate wealth in their own hands, not as agents of a divinity, but by virtue of military force or traditional prerogatives
of social leadership.
Agrarian communities of either the temple or lay type remained always thefundamental cell of ancient Mesopotamian society. Such communities provided the frame within which the vast majority of the population lived and worked; and their age-long ___15_____ over generations, centuries, and millennia – subject always to recurrent disruption by flood, famine, or war, but equally capable of rapid regeneration – gave Mesopotamian civilization its remarkable uniformity and extraordinary power of
___16____ in the face of disaster.
The second great Mesopotamian achievement was the slow and partial development of a looser social unit, the “great society,” which functioned like a fluid in the interstices between the separate agrarian communities and bound them into a larger whole. Its sanctions were partly religious, too, but less strongly so. In addition, law, administration, military force, and the impersonal relationship of the market all contributed to its organization. By comparison with the agrarian communities, the ___17___ of this greater
society was weak and liable to more drastic breakdown. The way of life of the “great society” directly affected only a small minority of the people who lived in the land, and never ___18___ deeply into the daily round of the basic agrarian communities. Yet for all
its initial weakness and instability, this type of social organization, especially in its___19____ aspects, was to provide the primary context for the future development of civilization in Mesopotamia itself and even more ____20___, beyond the borders of that ancient land. 【題組】
11. (A) modification (B) stability (C) penetrated (D) peasantry
(E) analogous(AB) conservatism (AC) secular (AD) considerable
(AE) recuperation BC. conspicuously (BD) crystallization BE. cohesion
【非選題】 31.[A] 克漏字：15%
請由下列短文中，設計出 5 題克漏字考題。選出的命題部分須在文字下方畫底線，標
Ex: One of the biggest changes 1. affecting newspapers is, of course, television.
__C 1. (A) affect (B) affected (C) affecting (D) to affect
It was 5:30 on Christmas Eve. Bob was still working in the office. He really wanted go home now. Actually, he should have been home half an hour before as he had promised his family that morning—he would come home earlier. On thinking of that, he mustered up his courage and said to his boss,
“Let’s call it a day and go home now. After all, it’s Christmas Eve.”
But, his boss simply gave him a cold stare and told him that he must work till 6:00 as usual if he wanted to keep his job. “Christmas is just a stupid excuse to waste time and money. Only fools fall for it!”
Bob couldn’t but bury himself in piles of papers for another 30 minutes. When the clock finally struck six, he rushed to the door as fast as he could. Suddenly, something flashed into his mind, he turned and said,
“May you have a merry Christmas, sir. Would you like to come to our Christmas party?The food might not be great, but…”
His boss burst into tears. For years, this poor old man had been left all alone at Christmas. He used to spend this joyful holiday with his beloved family until he lost them all in a fire. After he moved to this small town fifteen years ago and turned himself into a mean, stern workaholic, it was the first time that someone invited him to a Christmas party. He thought to himself it was time for him to change. And he embraced this opportunity with a loud “Yes” and a big smile accompanied by glistening teardrops.
【非選題】 32.[B] 閱讀測驗:
Please give three comprehension questions based on the article below. 15%
Among chimps and occasionally among the other apes (elsewhere in the animal kingdom) behaviors can be found that once were thought to be characteristic only of human beings. Tool use is a classic example. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools and weapons, crudely “manufacturing” some of them and sometimes using two or more types of tools in sequence to accomplish a goal. Like people, they raid neighbors’ territories and sometimes deliberately kill trapped members of rival “tribes” --- behavior that can be interpreted as a primitive form of warfare.
Chimps have also been shown to be capable of quite complex causal reasoning. For instance, presented with a food-containing box tied shut with string, they can be taught to smash stones in order to make sharp pieces to use in cutting the string. And they are, like us, skillful at forming alliances and at making up after quarrels. Chimps not only use tools but also, as noted earlier, have culture – a body of non-genetic information that is passed from individual to individual and from generation to generation. Chimp culture varies from community to community in the ways in which tools
are used and in patterns of grooming and of gaining attention. Chimp natures, like human natures, can differ from group to group.
Cultural transmission among chimps is best exemplified by individuals learning to use tools by observing other individuals, by the appearance of actual teaching sessions, and by local variation in the “tool kits” chimps develop, which indicates that each community has its own cultural tradition. Chimps also appear to become attached to some of these objects: they carry the stones around with them – conceivably an early form of the concept of possessions and of planning ahead. Hand preference, usually for the right hand, we know is a well-developed (but perhaps exaggerated) characteristic of Homo sapiens. Handedness can also be found in chimps for some tasks. Especially when using tools, chimps often preferentially use one hand, though some individuals favor the right hand and others the left.