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109 年 - 109年教師甄選英文科-國立中央大學附屬中壢高級中學 (中大壢中)#86594 

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1.1. A tragic car accident happened late last night. A husband died instantly in the accident but his wife and their 3-year-old daughter, amazingly, escaped_________ .
(A) unscathed
(B) nonchalant
(C) indefatigable
(D) incessant .

2.2. The car with the leather upholstery and thick rugs is beautiful but a bit _________for my simple tastes.
(A) extraneous
(B) factitious
(C) decrepit
(D) sumptuous .

3.3. Widespread bankruptcy could leave industry in a weakened state_________ of investment and innovation.
(A) reconfigured
(B) impeded
(C) depleted
(D) confounded .

4.4. By sheer luck—I think, for there seemed hardly a chance of escape—that she was able to avoid the truck rushing straight at her with, according to her recall, with simply a swift_________ .
(A) sediment
(B) maneuver
(C) oblivion
(D) apparition .

5.5. Probable as a longer_________ has been suspected, the CDC holds nevertheless onto the decision to define and enforce a 14-day quarantine for those prone to be infected with the novel coronavirus.
(A) lethargy
(B) acumen
(C) patriarchy
(D) incubation .

6.6. Ever since he took the_________ job in a tavern, moonlighting as a bartender the entire night, and proceed to attend curriculum at day, he grew wan and sallow, apparently unbearable about what he’d been shouldering.
(A) substantive
(B) rudimentary
(C) nocturnal
(D) artesian .

7.7. Abenomics was the answer to Japan’s problems of deflation and decline. Now, with the country sliding into_________ , has the policy reached its limits?
(A) accretion
(B) recession
(C) profusion
(D) propagation .

8.8. The coronavirus lands a major blow on an already reeling and crowded_________sector.
(A) aviation
(B) coalition
(C) renovation
(D) evolution .

9.9. A bribery scandal is souring this island’s public opinions on casinos, _________hopes for building resorts in the region.
(A) ratifying
(B) protruding
(C) enhancing
(D) jeopardizing .

10.10. Japan’s middle-aged salarymen are earning less as they take the_________ of company cost-cutting.
(A) debris
(B) brunt
(C) apathy
(D) presage .

11.第11~15 題為一題組 Amy Tan, the American-born daughter of Chinese immigrants, received the Commonwealth Club Gold Award in 1989 for her first work of fiction, the best-selling Joy Luck Club. The sixteen interrelated stories that constitute the work 11 between the tales of four Chinese immigrant mothers and their Americanized daughters, in an exploration of the generational and cultural tensions experienced by many first-generation daughters of immigrants. Tan’s parents, like many immigrants, had high expectations for their children and often set confusing standards, expecting Amy and her two brothers to think like Chinese but to speak perfect English, 12 academically, and take advantage of every circumstance that might lead to success. Tan, however, rebelled against her parents’ expectations, which included such 13 professions as neurosurgery, and devoted herself to being thoroughly American and dreaming of being a fiction writer. Tan obtained a bachelor’s degree in English and linguistics and a master’s degree in linguistics and eventually established herself as a highly successful business writer. Tan, however, was not satisfied despite her material success. Turning to her life long dream, she wrote her first short story, “Endgame,” and then a second, “Waiting between the Trees.” In 1987 Tan visited her half-sisters in China with her mother, a trip that proved to be a turning point in her life and career. Tan felt a sense of completeness, a(n) 14 with the country and its culture that she had never expected. Returning from China, Tan was surprised to learn that on the strength of her short stories she had received an advance from a publisher. Tan closed her business and wrote the remaining stories for Joy Luck Club. It was 15 success, well received by the critics and appearing on the New York Times bestseller list. It has been translated into seventeen languages, including Chinese, and made into a film in 1993. (AB) intensified (AC) exalted (AD) excel (AE) motivation (BC) resounding (BD) alternate (BE) bonding
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16.第16~20 題為一題組 Everyone seems to agree that the Earth was a violent place with volcanic eruptions, lightning and torrential rains. There was little if any free oxygen and no layer of ozone to absorb the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. By its photochemical action, the radiation may have helped to keep the atmosphere rich in reactive molecules and far from chemical 16 . Certainly, the first living systems were much simpler than any cells alive today. The transition from nonliving to living was gradual, and no single event led to life in all the modern 17 . There are two major scientific theories regarding how life came to be on Earth. It either evolved on Earth from nonliving chemicals, or elsewhere in the universe and was brought to Earth by comets or meteorites. Amino acids and other 18 have been found in meteorites, and so chemical evolution of these molecules might have been—and till may be—widespread in the cosmos. In May 1953, the graduate student Stanley Miller used a reflux apparatus to reproduce ancient atmospheric condition that existed prior to the chemical evolution of biological molecules. To do this, Miller recirculated water, vapor, and other gases (CH4, NH3 and H2) through a chamber where they were exposed to a continuous high voltage electrical discharge that 19 natural lightning. After a few days, the mixture was analyzed and found to contain some of the building blocks for life, nucleic acids. However, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) themselves were not formed! The experiment also produced compounds which would be 20 to most life forms. But these compounds, which include formaldehyde and cyanide, are necessary for creating important biochemical compounds, including amico acids. (AB) precursors (AC) insolvency (AD) equilibrium (AE) simulated (BC) proliferating (BD) complexity (BE) venomous
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21.第21~25 題為一題組 After a few more years of abortive attempts to treat Shicowich’s diabetes, doctor recommended that he try a new program designed to help patients like him. 21 Each week, Schicowich, who lives below the federal poverty line and food-insecure, picks up recipes and free groceries from the Farmacy’s food bank and has his nutrition questions answered and blood sugar monitored by the dietitians and health care managers assigned to the Farmacy. Geisinger’s program is one of a number of ground-breaking efforts that finally consider food a critical part of a patient’s medical care and treat food as medicine that can have as much power to heal as drugs. 22 Food is becoming a particular focus of doctors, hospitals, insurers and even employers who are frustrated by the slow progress drug treatments in reducing food-related diseases like Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and even cancer. They’re also encouraged by the growing body of research that supports the idea that when people eat well, they stay healthier and are more likely to control chronic diseases and perhaps even avoid them altogether. 23 For some, healthy foods simply aren’t available. And if they are, they aren’t affordable. So more hospitals and physicians are taking action to break down these barriers to improve their patients’ health. 24 The Cleveland Clinic sponsors farmers’ markets where local growers accept food assistance vouchers from federal programs like WIC as well as state-led initiatives. But doctors alone can’t accomplish this food transformation. 25 In February, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts began covering tailored meals from the nonprofit food program Community Servings for its members with congestive heart failure who can’t afford the low-fat, low-sodium meals they need. Congress also assigned a first ever bipartisan Food Is Medicine working group to explore how government-sponsored food programs could lower burgeoning health care costs when it comes to complications of chronic diseases. (AB)The idea of food as medicine will never completely subrogate overused drugs. (AC) Recognizing that healthier members not only live longer but also avoid expensive visits to the emergency room, insurers are starting to reward healthy eating by covering sessions with nutritionists and dietitians. (AD) Launched in 2017 by the Geisinger Health System at one of its community hospitals, the Fresh Food Farmacy offers healthy foods—heavy on fruits, vegetables, lean meats and low-sodium options—to patients in Pennsylvania and teaches them how to incorporate those foods into their daily diet. (AE)In cities where fresh produce is harder to access, hospitals have worked with local grocers to provide discounts on fruits and vegetables when patients provide a “prescription” written by their doctors. (BC) More studies are revealing that people’s health is the sum of much more than the medications they take and the tests they get; it is affected by how much people sleep and exercise, how much stress they’re shouldering and, yes, what they are eating at every meal. (BD) The problem, however, is that eating healthy isn’t as easy as popping a pill.
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26.26~28 題為一題組 Even in the best growing conditions—with moderate weather, predictable rainfall, and rounded seasons—growing food is hard. Add in climate volatility, erratic floods, and frequent drought, and the entire food system becomes an equation of anxiety, hope, and in some regions, dread. “We have a climate change threat to our food system and not many strategies to deal with it,” says Michael Puma of Columbia University’s Earth Institute. What will that mean for our plates? Global commodities such as corn and wheat are susceptible to dramatic shifts in growing regions and crop output. The UN says that without strategies for adapting, lower staple yields will lead to shortages and increased prices for human and livestock consumption, hitting developing tropical countries the hardest. More charismatic foods will morph in appearance, nutritional value, availability, and price as growing regions shift and farmers turn to warm-weather crops. Longer growing seasons are generally good news for farmers and plants, but lack of rainfall or insufficient cold weather could stunt even the best-laid seeds and plans. Innovation will be part of foods’ evolution, in the field and in the lab. Seed breeding and gene editing are helping some fruits and vegetables grow faster and bigger to outrun a season’s heightened probability of flood or drought. Other technologies help food last longer to be shipped farther, in some cases not requiring refrigeration at all. The UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that the planet won’t lose much arable land before 2050 and that few foods will disappear completely—but over the coming decades, crops and diets will evolve. Retaining the world’s favorite foods and making them accessible to more people will require eating smarter, says Charlotte Streck, director of Dutch-based think tank Climate Focus. That means less meat, more plants, and getting all you can from as close as possible.
【題組】 26. What is this passage mainly about?
(A)Your favorite foods are at risk from a rapidly warming planet.
(B) Your vegetarian choices are on the track of alternative produce.
(C) Your professional gourmets are in face of global food shortages.
(D)Your regular diets are at the expense of various pollution sources. .

27.【題組】27. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?
(A)Michael Puma is confident that we will know how to solve the problem with ease.
(B) Charlotte Streck believes that people’s eating habits will remain quite the same.
(C) Commodified produce is believed to be easily influenced, which requires more prevention measures.
(D)Developing countries are considered less susceptible due to their self-sustainability and self-sufficiency. .

28.【題組】28. What can be inferred from the passage?
(A)It is a pessimistic argument for the future of the planet.
(B) It is a neutral observation on the change of global climate.
(C) It is an objective description of the progress of land reform.
(D)It is an optimistic statement for the development of the produce. .

29.29~32 題為一題組 Despite its reputation for hi-tech wizardry, Japan can be stubbornly analogue. When the pandemic hit, only 40% of Japanese firms had used digitized contracts at all and just 30% had systems in place to enable remote working. Faxes remain ubiquitous; in many prefectures, doctors have been faxing coronavirus test results to public-health officials. The pandemic has also exposed Japan Inc’s unusually heavy reliance on face-to-face communication. Meeting clients or business partners in person is de rigueur. The Japanese style of collective decision-making depends on people huddling in a room together. Salarymen and women put in long days in the office to demonstrate their dedication to their company and colleagues—and then late nights of sake-fueled carousing to build camaraderie. Some firms are responding. Covid-19 is a headwind for revenues, but a tailwind “in terms of culture”, says Hagiwara Shinichi, boss of Mitsui Foods, a big wholesaler. He has instructed staff to hold regular Zoom meetings. Many firms are shifting to digital contracts. Virtual drinking parties, or Zoom-nomi, are all the rage; as Honda Masakazu, a columnist, recently put it on Toyo Keizai, a business-news site, “You don’t have to worry about catching the last train.” So far the changes have been halting and uneven. Large Japanese companies are shifting to flexible work regimes more rapidly; they were more likely to have computer systems in place, as well as cash on hand to make up for lost revenues and pay for investment in hardware and software. Small and medium-sized firms “don’t have that luxury”, admits Mr. Hagiwara. The evolution may not endure. Once restrictions are relaxed, managers may demand to see their subordinates back at their desks. On April 27th the prime minister, Abe Shinzo, called for a rapid review of the practice. Even his minister of technology policy conceded that their traditional culture presents an obstacle to teleworking.
【題組】 29. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
(A)Japanese offices struggle to adapt to social distancing.
(B)Japanese offices manage to change their social values.
(C)Japanese companies endeavor to escape from recession.
(D)Japanese companies attempt to keep their human resources. .

30.【題組】30. What does “de rigueur” mean in the first paragraph?
(A)Required.
(B) Flexible.
(C) Indecent.
(D) Unnecessary. .

31.【題組】31. Which of the following is true about the passage?
(A)Mr. Hagiwara believed that large companies are not adjustable to this epidemic.
(B) Small companies are more capable of adapting to prevention measures and change.
(C) Employees in Japan are praised for their long stay in the workplace and overtime.
(D)The administration holds a positive attitude toward the change of workplace culture. .

32.【題組】32. What can be inferred from the passage?
(A)The thought of alternative workplaces is not that welcome in Japan.
(B) The fear of coronavirus has changed the relationship in the workplace.
(C)Japan’s companies are glad that more people choose to work at home after this epidemic.
(D)Most of the Japanese employers are comfortable with online meeting and teleworking. .

33.33~36 題為一題組 Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago, is the land of the “midnight sun” with almost 24 hours of sunlight during the winter months. It is also home to one of the most important storage facilities in world farming—the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV). The seed vault was opened in 2008 in an effort to safeguard the world's food supply for future generations. Svalbard is the perfect frozen environment to house seed samples, set inside an Arctic mountain at 130 meters above sea level, so it is unlikely to be flooded. Low humidity, geological stability, and the surrounding permafrost can keep seed deposits cool and dormant, dry, and viable for centuries. Seed gene banks from around the world have sent food crop seeds as a fail-safe in case natural disaster or environmental damage destroys existing supplies. There are around one million seed samples from 80 institutes in the vault at present so there is a lot of spare capacity for the vegetables, grains, peas, beans, peppers, and legumes that are banked annually. On top of that, there are foraging grasses and rare flowers such as threatened orchid species from the Myanmar rain forests. Seeds themselves are not kept for farmers or gardeners to grow produce. Their true value is as a genetic resource in plant 
 breeding to create new crop varieties. “Think of the seeds as a collection of traits, or even more broadly as a collection of options our crops will have in the future, options such as disease and pest resistance, drought and heat tolerance, better nutrition,” said SGSV founder Cary Fowler. Among those collections we need more seeds from wild varieties, the cousins of domesticated crops, say scientists. As extreme weather conditions such as higher temperatures or drought affect food crops, the resilient traits of wild plant species can be added to domesticated plants to improve their resistance to hostile conditions. Seed banks prefer open-pollinated and heirloom seeds. Open-pollinated plants have been pollinated naturally by insects, wind, birds or other means and are more genetically diverse and adapted to their environment. Heirloom varieties are those that have been passed down over generations among communities. There is criticism of the Svalbard facility in that it grants access to large corporations who could commercialize plant varieties from the planet's shared natural resources. Co-founder of the Seed Savers Exchange in Iowa, Kent Whealy, said that seed deposits placed in Svalbard are under the control of a United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization treaty that opens them up to corporate scientists. That potential weakness is also one of SGSV's greatest strengths—the availability to tap into plant traits and genetics that can ensure a healthy food supply. What remains central to the work of seed banks and exchanges—where gardeners and farmers find or exchange seeds that they either want or have too many of—is supporting communities most affected by climate change, natural or man-made disasters. To grow plants in adverse conditions means keeping access to the planet's natural resources open, and that is what seed banks do best.

【題組】 33. Which of the following, as the article suggests, may be looming in the near future?
(A) Loss of biodiversity.
(B) Defrosted Scandinavia.
(C) Shortage of food supply.
(D) Atmosphere filled with carbon dioxide. .

34.【題組】34. Based on the article, what good would a plant do if it is open-pollinated?
(A) It’d be easier to domesticate.
(B) It’d be dormant when the weather requires.
(C) It’d be nutritious and help the pollinators grow.
(D) It’d be adaptive and hence able to endure different conditions. .

35.【題組】35. According to the article, which of the following statements is TRUE?
(A) Businesses’ granted access to SGSV ensures the latter being well-funded.
(B) Meteorological conditions inherent in Svalbard enable better deposits of seeds.
(C) SGSV aims to gather crop seeds rather than those of plants considered inedible.
(D) In Svalbard stands the official facility that commands the collection of world plants. .

36.【題組】36.What can be inferred from the article?
(A) High-latitude regions make perfect storage room.
(B) Coastal areas worldwide are to be first assisted by seed banks.
(C) Naturally grown crops are a less preferred choice of deposits.
(D) Engineered crops can be a solution to food shortage. .

37.37~40 題為一題組 Although the fossil record holds few clues to the evolution of cells, recent advances in biochemistry and molecular biology have provided powerful new means of reconstructing the past by probing the present. Hardly 300 years have elapsed since the day when a living cell was first glimpsed by the human eye. Throughout that period, every milestone about cell discovery bears the name of a new tool or instrument. The world of cells remained entirely unknown and unexplored until the middle of the 17th century, when individuals of prying minds served by skilled hands started grinding lenses and using them to extend their power of vision. One of the first designers of microscopes was the English scientist Robert Hooke—physicist, meteorologist, biologist, engineer, architect—a most remarkable product of his time. In 1665, he published a popular collection called Micrographia; among the beautiful drawings of his observations was one of a thin slice of cork showing a honeycomb structure, an array of what he called “microscopic pores” or “cells.” In his description of it, Hooke used the word “cell” in its original meaning of small chamber, as in the cell of a prisoner or a monk. The word has remained, not to describe the little holes that Hooke saw in dead bark, but rather to designate the little blobs of matter that are the inmates of the holes in the living tree. One of Hooke’s most gifted contemporaries was the Netherlander Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who made almost three hundred microscopes of a very distinct design--- a small bead of glass inserted in a copper plate. By holding this contraption close to his eye and peering through the glass bead at an object held of a needle he manipulated with a screw. Leeuwenhoek succeeded in obtaining magnification 270 times that of the naked eye. He was able to see for the first time what he called “animalcules” in blood, sperm and the water of marshes and ponds. Amazingly, he even saw bacteria, which he drew so accurately that specialists can identify them today. Not all early users of microscopes were as perceptive. The images they were able to observe with their simple instruments—especially when it came to objects as small as living cells—were so blurred that most details had to be filled in by the imagination. Many showed admirable restraint in the use of this faculty. Others took full advantage of it, as did the French scientist Gautier D’Agoty, who believed that a fully formed baby existed within a sperm cell. For a long time, microscopy did little more than hover around the world of cells until, in 1827, the Italian physicist Giovanni Battista Amici succeeded in correcting the major optical aberrations Section 2 How to Prepare for Academic Reading and Listening of lenses. Through three pairs of matched lenses that could deflect light without separating it into colors, the sharpness of the images was dramatically increased; so much so that only a few years later the generalized theory was formulated that plants and animals are made of one or more similar units—cells. This theory was proposed for plants in 1837 by the German botanist Mathias Schleiden and was extended to animals by his friend, the physiologist Theodor Schwann. The theory was subsequently completed by the pathologist Rudolf Virchow, when he proclaimed in 1855: “ Every cell arises from a cell,” an altered version of “ Every living being arises from an egg.” The latter was an assertion made by William Harvey, the English physician who discovered blood circulation and who had died shortly before Robert Hooke’s discovery. By the turn of the century, a number of important cell parts had been described and named. Later investigators found themselves confronting a new obstacle, seemingly insurmountable, as it was set by the very laws of physics. Even with a perfect instrument, no detail smaller than about half the wavelength of the light used can be perceived, which puts the absolute limit of resolution of a microscope utilizing visible light at .25 millionth of a meter. In the world of cells, such a dimension is quite large, relatively speaking. Just think of what we would miss in our own world if no detail smaller than inches could be distinguished, and what classical microscopists would have seen had they been able to magnify the living cell a millionfold.
【題組】 37. In Paragraph 4, why does the author introduce the statement “Many showed admirable restraint in the use of this faculty.” ?
(A) To ridicule the absurd theories made by “imaginative” scientists.
(B) To emphasize how limited the early microscope models were.
(C) To point out the wisdom of consulting with other scholars.
(D) To criticize the investigators for not being more imaginative. .

38.【題組】38. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage ? Later investigators found themselves confronting a new obstacle, seemingly insurmountable, as it was set by the very laws of physics.
(A)After a while, the scientist unexpectedly discovered a new principle in physics, even though it was difficult.
(B) Subsequent studies were deterred by unforeseen physical constraints that appeared to be unsolvable.
(C) Some of the scientists were convinced that they could find even more cell parts because they were working a novel branch of physics.
(D) Although it was too late for scientists with traditional backgrounds to tackle the problem, they were optimistic that the scientific barrier would be overcome. .

39.【題組】39. According to the passage, which of the following statements about Amici is TRUE?
(A) He used a glass droplet to enlarge the specimen almost 300 times.
(B) His enhanced image resolution led to the theory that plants contain similar cells.
(C) His drawings of microorganisms led to the popularization of the microscope in many circles.
(D) His microscopes allowed the viewer to see microorganisms, including bacteria. .

40.【題組】40. What does the author imply about William Harvey?
(A) He was not very competent at setting up experimental controls.
(B) He should not have borrowed descriptive language from a fellow scientist.
(C) He probably would have revised his theory had he lived a little longer.
(D) He lacked the tools to determine that blood circulates in the human body. .

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109 年 - 109年教師甄選英文科-國立中央大學附屬中壢高級中學 (中大壢中)#86594