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109 年 - 109-1 桃園高中教師甄選初試:英文科#86581 

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1.1. Before the coronavirus COVID-19 accelerated in the U.K., Prime Minister Boris Johnson exhibited a more_____________ attitude about the illness. His stance changed when he was tested positive for coronavirus.
(A)laconic
(B) audacious
(C) nonchalant
(D) ephemeral

2.2. Although essentially he is a polite person, his attitude can be very _____________at times.
(A)brusque
(B) stagnant
(C) unobtrusive
(D) incredulous

3.3. If words or messages are _________, they are not clear and are very difficult to understand, often giving a false idea of the facts.
(A)truncated
(B) garbled
(C) delineated
(D) hurdled

4.4. His scheme may look very _____________on the surface, but it lacks details for implementation.
(A)pedantic
(B) astringent
(C) grandiose
(D) ostentatious

5.5. War, famine, and disease would certainly _____________a political turmoil in any country.
(A)precipitate
(B) assuage
(C) placate
(D) desiccate

6.6. A _____________is a piece of writing, a drawing, etc. that criticizes a famous person or a public organization in a humorous way, allowing their or its bad qualities to be seen and making them seem stupid.
(A)misanthrope
(B) pedant
(C) lampoon
(D) propriety

7.7. I've always been_____________ of politicians. I don’t usually believe what they say.
(A)loquacious
(B) leery
(C) lethargic
(D) obdurate

8.8. There is a_____________ of information on the ingredients of many cosmetics. Customers should avoid purchasing those risky products.
(A) adulteration
(B) reproach
(C) animosity
(D) paucity

9.9. Some upright stones in wild places are the_____________ of ancient religions. They might present priceless historical values.
(A)dissonance
(B) vestige
(C) ostentation
(D) anomaly

10.10. The investor reaped huge profits from remodeling the house and flipping it at a(n)_____________ price.
(A) guileless
(B) florid
(C) exorbitant
(D) indelible

11.II. Passage Completion (10%) Please choose the best answer for each of the following blanks. The answers are CASE INSENSITIVE, and there is only ONE correct answer for each blank. (AB) jumps (AC) illicit (AD) sitting ducks (AE) debt (BC) then (BD) the above mentioned (BE) independence (CD) authoritarian (CE) Churchillian (DE) still more (ABC) grumbling (ABD) meant (ABE) poised (BCD) three times (BCE) resorted Emerging markets have long resented quantitative easing (QE). When America’s Federal Reserve began its third round of asset purchases in 2012, Guido Mantega, then Brazil’s finance minister, accused it of starting a “currency war”. In 2013 Raghuram Rajan, 11 the chief economic adviser to India’s government, expressed his displeasure in the manner of Winston Churchill: “Never in the field of economic policy has so much been spent, with so little evidence, by so few.” In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, much is being spent again. But not by so few. The central banks of America, the euro area, Britain and Japan are set to buy $6trn-worth of assets between them this year, according to Fitch, a rating agency, 12 what they bought in 2013, the previous peak. And emerging markets are no longer 13 on the sidelines. Monetary authorities in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Hungary, Indonesia, Poland, Romania, South Africa and Turkey have prepared or begun purchases of bonds of various kinds. 14 are contemplating it. Even in Brazil, congress has passed what it calls the “war budget” law, amending the constitution to give the central bank more freedom to buy government bonds and other assets during this crisis. The scale of emerging-market purchases is small so far in comparison with the 15 appetites of central banks in the rich world. Bank Indonesia, which already owns about 15% of tradable government bonds, may end up adding significantly to its holdings. The National Bank of Poland could end up owning bonds worth about 8.7% of GDP, according to UBS, a bank, if it buys all of the additional 16 required to finance the country’s stimulus plan. But no other central bank is 17 to buy bonds worth more than 5% of GDP, UBS calculates. By comparison, the Federal Reserve already held Treasuries equivalent to about 10% of GDP at the start of 2020, and is expected to roughly double that percentage over the course of the year. Critics nonetheless worry that QE is both more dangerous and less necessary in emerging markets than it is elsewhere. It imperils the hard-won 18 of monetary authorities that have struggled in the past to keep their distance from bigspending politicians. Brazil’s constitutional limits on the central bank, for example, reflect its history of hyperinflation, when governments 19 to the printing press to finance their populism. And although inflation is now firmly under control in most big emerging markets (exceptions include Argentina, Nigeria and Turkey), many of these countries still worry that monetary indiscipline can lead to destabilizing runs on their currency. Why then are central banks pressing ahead? They believe their bond purchases serve a distinct purpose. They are neither an unconventional way to lower borrowing costs nor an illicit one to finance the government. The aim instead is to stabilize financial markets. In Brazil the president of the central bank says its bond purchases will resemble foreign-exchange intervention. It will not try to peg bond yields any more than it pegs the real. But it will try to smooth out 20 . The South African Reserve Bank says that its purchases are not meant “to stimulate demand”, but to ensure a “smoothly functioning market”. (Adapted from the Economist, May 7th 2020 edition.)
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21.The scale of emerging-market purchases is small so far in comparison with the 15 appetites of central banks in the rich world. Bank Indonesia, which already owns about 15% of tradable government bonds, may end up adding significantly to its holdings. The National Bank of Poland could end up owning bonds worth about 8.7% of GDP, according to UBS, a bank, if it buys all of the additional 16 required to finance the country’s stimulus plan. But no other central bank is 17 to buy bonds worth more than 5% of GDP, UBS calculates. By comparison, the Federal Reserve already held Treasuries equivalent to about 10% of GDP at the start of 2020, and is expected to roughly double that percentage over the course of the year. Critics nonetheless worry that QE is both more dangerous and less necessary in emerging markets than it is elsewhere. It imperils the hard-won 18 of monetary authorities that have struggled in the past to keep their distance from bigspending politicians. Brazil’s constitutional limits on the central bank, for example, reflect its history of hyperinflation, when governments 19 to the printing press to finance their populism. And although inflation is now firmly under control in most big emerging markets (exceptions include Argentina, Nigeria and Turkey), many of these countries still worry that monetary indiscipline can lead to destabilizing runs on their currency. Why then are central banks pressing ahead? They believe their bond purchases serve a distinct purpose. They are neither an unconventional way to lower borrowing costs nor an illicit one to finance the government. The aim instead is to stabilize financial markets. In Brazil the president of the central bank says its bond purchases will resemble foreign-exchange intervention. It will not try to peg bond yields any more than it pegs the real. But it will try to smooth out 20 . The South African Reserve Bank says that its purchases are not meant “to stimulate demand”, but to ensure a “smoothly functioning market”. (Adapted from the Economist, May 7th 2020 edition.) III. Reading Comprehension (15%) Gravitational-wave astronomers have for the first time detected a collision between two black holes of substantially different masses—opening up a new vista on astrophysics and on the physics of gravity. The event offers the first unmistakable evidence from these faint space-time ripples that at least one black hole was spinning before merging, giving astronomers rare insight into a key property of these dark objects. “It’s an exceptional event,” said Maya Fishbach, an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago in Illinois. Similar mergers on which data have been published all took place between black holes with roughly equal masses, so this new one dramatically upsets that pattern, she says. The collision was detected last year, and was unveiled on 18 April by Fishbach and her collaborators at a virtual meeting of the American Physical Society, held entirely online because of the coronavirus pandemic. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)—a pair of twin detectors based in Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana—and the Virgo observatory near Pisa, Italy, both detected the event, identified as GW190412, with high confidence on 12 April 2019. The LIGO–Virgo collaboration, which includes Fishbach, posted its findings on the arXiv preprint server. The latest event is unique. One of the two black holes that merged had an estimated mass of around 8 solar masses, and the other was more than 3 times larger, at 31 solar masses. This imbalance made the larger black hole distort the space around it, so the other’s trajectory deviated from a perfect spiral. This could be seen in the resulting gravitational waves, which were created as the objects spiralled into each other. All the other merger events that have been unveiled produced a wave that forms a similar ‘chirp’ shape—which increases in both intensity and frequency up to the moment of collision. But GW190412 was different: its intensity didn’t simply rise as in a chirp. “This makes this system very interesting, just looking at the morphology of the signal,” Fishbach said. Physicists had eagerly awaited such ‘non-vanilla’ events because they provide new, more precise ways of testing Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity, the general theory of relativity. “We are in a new regime of testing general relativity,” said Maximiliano Isi at the Massachusetts Institution of Technology in Cambridge, another LIGO member who was presenting at the meeting. In particular, researchers were able to use this data to discern the ‘spin’ of black holes. “We know with confidence that this
【題組】21. According to reading passage, Maya Fishbach says GW190412 is “an exceptional event” because __________.
(A) it’s the first collision between two black holes that detected in human’s history.
(B) more than one observatory detected the event and named collaboratively.
(C) it is a collision of black holes with a strange mass discrepancy.
(D) it enables astrophysicist to know more about the Universe’s heavy chemical elements.

22.【題組】22. According to the reading passage, which of the following is FALSE about GW190412?
(A) In GW190412, at least one of the black holes spun before merging.
(B) In GW190412, the wave produced up to the moment of the collision is different from the ones in other merger events.
(C) The larger black hole deviated from its trajectory and formed a spiral.
(D) The smaller black hole had an estimated mass of around 8 solar masses.

23.【題組】23. What does “non-vanilla” in paragraph 5 possibly mean?
(A) Uncommon.
(B) Individual.
(C) Subsequent.
(D) Inevitable.

24.【題組】24. According to the passage, the discovery in GW190412 can be used to _____________.
(A) refute Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity in a more precise way.
(B) measure the size of black holes existing in the Milky Way.
(C) help researchers to have better understanding about the spin in black holes.
(D) estimate how many black holes are in our solar system and how far they are.

25.【題組】25. Which of the following best serves as the title of the reading passage?
(A) This Black-Hole Collision Just Made Gravitational Waves Even More Interesting.
(B) Black Hole Picture Captured for First Time in Space Breakthrough.
(C) Massive Black Hole Collisions Illuminated by X-Rays and Gravitational Waves.
(D) New Clues Discovered about the Formation of Black Holes.

26.heavier object had to be spinning,” said Isi. Previous events had left researchers baffled: observations of black holes in the Milky Way suggested that black holes should have high spins, but this did not show up in gravitational-wave data from the first two runs. Astrophysicists hope that detecting spins can shed light on how the black holes formed and came to orbit each other. The richer information in asymmetrical mergers helps to measure an event’s distance from the Milky Way with better precision. Accumulating many such measurements could provide a new way to map the history of expansion of the Universe. The LIGO–Virgo collaboration will continue to publish more results from its vast trove of unpublished data, including individual events that are particularly interesting or exciting, says Virgo’s Jo van den Brand, a physicist at the National Institute for Subatomic Physics in Amsterdam. “I think the harvest is quite good, let me put it like that.” (Adapted from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article)
【題組】26. What is the main idea of the article?
(A) The problems the Palace of Westminster are facing.
(B) The cause and effect of Notre Dame fire.
(C) The reasons why British lawmakers are unwilling to leave the House of Parliament.
(D) The history of the Palace of Westminster.

27.【題組】27. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about the Palace of Westminster?
(A)The old air-conditioning system may lead to a quick spread of fire.
(B) Lawmakers has been forced to stop working because of water leaking from the building.
(C) There was a devastating fire destroying most of the building in 1834.
(D)Lawmakers did not learn the risk that the Palace had until 2018.

28.【題組】28. The author mentioned Notre Dame because __________________.
(A)it was burned down in 2018.
(B) it is important to France as the House of Parliament to Britain.
(C) it has a longer history than the House of Parliament.
(D)the two buildings have similar architectural design.

29.【題組】29. What does “compartmentalizing” in Paragraph 6 possibly mean?
(A) Mitigating.
(B) Hoaxing.
(C) Separating.
(D) Slamming.

30.【題組】30. What can we infer from the passage?
(A)The renovation of the Palace of Westminster is processing well because of Brexit.
(B) The restoration will start before 2025 against all odds.
(C) Piper thinks that the House of Parliament is safe so far.
(D)There might be a change in the plan of renovation.

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四、 閱讀測驗10%(每題2分) Where are the bees? No one knows. America is losing its bees and no one knows where they are going. Bees make honey, but they do many other things, too. Bees...

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