The canopy ,the upper level of the trees in the rain forest, holds a plethora of climbing
mammals of moderately large size, which may include monkeys, cats, civets, and
porcupines. Smaller species, including such rodents as mice and small squirrels ,are not
line as prevalent overall in high tropical canopies as they are in most habitats globally.
(5) Small mammals, being warm blooded, suffer hardship in the exposed and turbulent
environment of the uppermost trees. Because a small body has more surface area per unit
of weight than a large one of similar shape, it gains or loses heat more swiftly. Thus, in
the trees, where shelter from heat and cold may be scarce and conditions may fluctuate, a
small mammal may have trouble maintaining its body temperature.
(10) Small size makes it easy to scramble among twigs and branches in the canopy for
insects, flowers, or fruit, but small mammals are surpassed, in the competition for food,
by large ones that have their own tactics for browsing among food-rich twigs. The weight
of a gibbon (a small ape) hanging below a branch arches the terminal leaves down so that
fruit-bearing foliage drops toward the gibbon’s face. Walking or leaping species of a
(15) similar or even larger size access the outer twigs either by snapping off and retrieving the
whole branch or by clutching stiff branches with the feet or tail and plucking food with
Small climbing animals may reach twigs readily, but it is harder for them than for large
climbing animals to cross the wide gaps from on tree crown to the next that typify the
(20) high canopy. A macaque or gibbon can hurl itself farther than a mouse can: it can achieve
a running start, and it can more effectively use a branch as a springboard, even bouncing
on a climb several times before jumping. The forward movement of a small animal is
seriously reduced by the air friction against the relatively large surface area of its body.
Finally, for the many small mammals that supplement their insect diet with fruits or seeds
(25) an inability to span open gaps between tree crowns may be problematic, since trees that
yield these foods can be sparse. 【題組】
1. The passage answers which of the following
(A) How is the rain forest different from other habitats?
(B) How does an animal’s body size influence
an animal’s need for food?
(C) Why does the rain forest provide an
unusual variety of food for animals?
(D) Why do large animals tend to dominate the
upper canopy of the rain forest?
4.【題組】4. According to paragraph 2, which of the
following is true about the small mammals in
the rain forest?
(A) They have body shapes that are adapted to
life in the canopy.
(B) They prefer the temperature and climate of
the canopy to that of other environments.
(C) They have difficulty with the changing
conditions in the canopy.
(D) They use the trees of the canopy for shelter
from heat and cold.
5.【題組】5. In discussing animal size in paragraph 3, the
author indicates that
(A) small animals require proportionately more
food than larger animals do
(B) a large animal’s size is an advantage in
obtaining food in the canopy
(C) small animals are often attacked by large
animals in the rain forest
(D) small animals and large animals are
equally adept at obtaining food in the
7.【題組】7. According to paragraph 4, what makes
jumping from one tree crown to another
difficult for small mammals?
(A) Air friction against the body surface
(B) The thickness of the branches
(C) The dense leaves of the tree crown
(D) The inability to use the front feet as hands
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, almost nothing was written about the
contributions of women during the colonial period and the early history of the newly
formed United States. Lacking the right to vote and absent from the seats of power, women
line were not considered an important force in history. Anne Bradstreet wrote some significant
5) poetry in the seventeenth century, Mercy Otis Warren produced the best contemporary
history of the American Revolution, and Abigail Adams penned important letters showing
she exercised great political influence over her husband, John, the second President of the
United States. But little or no notice was taken of these contributions. During these
Centuries, women remained invisible in history books.
Throughout the nineteenth century, this lack of visibility continued, despite the efforts
of female authors writing about women. These writers, like most of their male counterparts,
were amateur historians. Their writings were celebratory in nature, and they were uncritical
in their selection and use of sources.
During the nineteenth century, however, certain feminists showed a keen sense of
history by keeping records of activities in which women were engaged. National, regional,
and local women’s organizations compiled accounts of their doings. Personal
correspondence, newspaper clippings, and souvenirs were saved and stored. These sources
from the core of the two greatest collections of women’s history in the United States one at
the Elizabeth and Arthur Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College, and the other the Sophia
Smith Collection at Smith College. Such sources have provided valuable materials for later
Generations of historians.
Despite the gathering of more information about ordinary women during the nineteenth
Century, most of the writing about women conformed to the “great women” theory of
History, just as much of mainstream American history concentrated on “great men.” To
demonstrate that women were making significant contributions to American life, female
authors singled out women leaders and wrote biographies, or else important women
produced their autobiographies. Most of these leaders were involved in public life as
reformers, activists working for women’s right to vote, or authors, and were not
representative at all of the great of ordinary woman. The lives of ordinary people
continued, generally, to be untold in the American histories being published.
【題組】10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The role of literature in early American
(B) The place of American women in written
(C) The keen sense of history shown by
(D)The “great women” approach to history
used by American historians
12.【題組】12. In the first paragraph, Bradstreet, Warren, and
Adams are mentioned to show that
(A) a woman’s status was changed by marriage
(B) even the contributions of outstanding
women were ignored
(C) only three women were able to get their
(D) poetry produced by women was more
readily accepted than other writing by
15.【題組】15. In the second paragraph, what weakness in
nineteenth-century histories does the author
(A) They put too much emphasis on daily
(B) They left out discussion of the influence of
money on politics.
(C) The sources of the information they were
based on were not necessarily accurate.
(D) They were printed on poor-quality paper.
16.【題組】16. On the basis of information in the third paragraph, which of the following would most likely have been collected by nineteenth-century feminist organizations?
(A) Newspaper accounts of presidential
(B) Biographies of John Adams
(C) Letters from a mother to a daughter
advising her how to handle a family
(D) Books about famous graduates of the
country’s first college
17.【題組】17. What use was made of the nineteenth-century
women’s history materials in the Schlesinger
Library and the Sophia Smith Collection?
(A) They were combined and published in a
(B) They formed the basis of college courses in
the nineteenth century.
(C) They provided valuable information for
twentieth—century historical researchers.
(D) They were shared among women’s colleges
throughout the United States.
18.【題組】18. In the last paragraph, the author mentions all
of the following as possible roles of
nineteenth-century “great women” EXCEPT
(C) activists for women’s rights
The end of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth century were
Marked by the development of an international Art Nouveau style, characterized by sinuous
Lines, floral and vegetable motifs, and soft evanescent coloration. The Art Nouveau style
Line was an eclectic one, bringing together elements of Japanese art, motifs of ancient cultures,
(5) and natural forms. The glass objects of this style were elegant in outline, although often
deliberately distorted, with pale or iridescent surfaces. A favored device of the style was to
imitate the iridescent surface seen on ancient glass that had been buried. Much of the Art
Nouveau glass produced during the years of its greatest popularity had been generically
Termed “art glass.” Art glass was intended for decorative purposes and relied for its effect
(10) pon carefully chosen color combinations and innovative techniques.
France produced a number of outstanding exponents of the Art Nouveau style; among
The most celebrated was Emile Galle (1846-1904). In the United States, Louis Comfort
Tiffany (1843-1933) was the most noted exponent of this style, producing a great variety of
Glass forms and surfaces, which were widely copied in their time and are highly prized
(15) today. Tiffany was a brilliant designer, successfully combining ancient Egyptian, Japanese,
and Persian motifs.
The Art Nouveau style was a major force in the decorative arts from 1895 until 1915,
Although its influence continued throughout the mid-1920’s. It was eventually to be
Overtaken by a new school of thought known as Functionalism that had been present since
(20) the turn of the century. At first restricted to a small avant-garde group of architects and
designers, Functionalism emerged as the domiant influence upon designers after the First
World War. The basic tenet of the movement-that function should determine from-was
not a new concept. Soon a distinct aesthetic code evolved: from should be simple, surfaces
plain, and any ornament should be based on geometric relationships. This new design
(25) concept, coupled with the sharp postwar reactions to the styles and conventions of the
preceding decades, created an entirely new public taste which caused Art Nouveau types of
glass to fall out of favor. The new taste demanded dramatic effects of contrast, stark outline
and complex textural surfaces.
【題組】21. What does paragraph 1 mainly discuss?
(A) Design elements in the Art Nouveau style
(B) The popularity of the Art Nouveau style
(C) Production techniques for art glass
(D) Color combinations typical of the Art
22.【題組】23. Paragraph 1 mentions that Art Nouveau glass
was sometimes similar to which aspect of
ancient buried glass？
(A) The distortion of the glass
(B) The appearance of the glass surface
(C) The shapes of the glass objects
(D) The size of the glass objects
25.【題組】26. What does the author mean by stating that
“function should determine form” (line 22)?
(A) A useful object should not be attractive.
(B) The purpose of an object should influence
(C) The design of an object is considered more
significant than its function.
(D) The form of an object should not include
26.【題組】27. It can be inferred from the passage that one
reason Functionalism became popular was
(A) clearly distinguished between art and
(B) appealed to people who liked complex
(C) reflected a common desire to break from
(D) was easily interpreted by the general public
27.【題組】28. Paragraph 3 supports which of the following
statements about Functionalism?
(A) Its design concept avoided geometric
(B) It started on a small scale and then
(C) It was a major force in the decorative arts
before the First World War.
(D) It was not attractive to architects all
During most of their lives, surge glaciers behave like normal glaciers, traveling perhaps
only a couple of inches per day. However, at intervals of 10 to 100 years, these glaciers
move forward up to 100 times faster than usual. The surge often progresses along a glacier
line like a great wave, proceeding from one section to another. Subglacial streams of meltwater
(5) water pressure under the glacier might lift it off its bed, overcoming the friction between ice
and rock, thus freeing the glacier, which rapidly sliders downhill Surge glaciers also might
be influenced by the climate, volcanic heat, or earthquakes. However, many of these
glaciers exist in the same area as normal glaciers, often almost side by side.
(10) Some 800 years ago, Alaska’s Hubbard Glacier advanced toward the sea, retreated, and
advanced again 500 years later. Since 1895, this secentry-mile-long river of ice has been
flowing steadily toward the Gulf of Alaska at a rate of approximately 200 feet per year. In
June 1986, however, the glacier surged ahead as much as 47 feet a day. Meanwhile, a
western tributary, called Valerie Glacier, advanced up to 112 feet a day. Hubbard’s surge
(15) closed off Russell Fiord with a formidable ice dam, some 2,500 feet wide and up to 800
feet high, whose caged waters threatened the town of Yakutat to the south.
About 20 similar glaciers around the Gulf of Alaska are heading toward the sea. If
enough surge glaciers reach the ocean and raise sea levels, West Antarctic ice shelves could
rise off the seafloor and become adrift. A flood of ice would then surge into the Southern
(20) Sea. With the continued rise in sea level, more ice would plunge into the ocean, causing sea
levels to rise even highter, which in turn would release more ice and set in motion a vicious
cycle. The additional sea ice floating toward the tropics would increase Earth’s albedo and
lower global temperatures, perhaps enough to initiate a new ice age. This situation appears
to have occurred at the end of the last warm interglacial (the time between glacations),
(25) called the Sangamon, when sea ice cooled the ocean dramatically, spawning the beginning
of the Ice Age.
【題組】30.What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) The classification of different types of
(B) The causes and consequences of surge
(C) The definition of a surge glacier
(D) The history of a particular surge glacier
32.【題組】33.Which of the following does the author
mention as a possible cause of surging
(A) The decline in sea levels
(B) The occurrence of unusually large ocean
(C) The shifting Antractic ice shelves
(D) The pressure of meltwater underneath the
34.【題組】35. According to the passage, the Hubbard
(A) moves more often than the Valerie Glacier
(B) began movement toward the sea in 1895
(C) is 800 feet wide
(D) has moved as fast as 47 feet per day
37.【題組】38.The term “vicious cycle” in lines 21-22 refers
(A) movement pattern of surge glaciers
(B) effect surge glaciers could have on the
temperature of tropical areas
(C) effect that repeated rising sea levels might
have on glacial ice
(D) constant threat surge glaciers could pose to
the Gulf of Alaska
39.【題組】40.Which of the following statements is
supported by the passage?
(A) The movement of surge glaciers can be
(B) The next ice age could be caused by surge
(C) Surge glaciers help to support Antarctic ice
(D) Normal glaciers have little effect on
According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may
become recognized as the leader of a social group in the United States. In the family,
traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases,
line such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although
(5) there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally
through election or recruitment.
Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades
of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural
leaders.” It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common;
(10) rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that
meet the needs of that particular group.
Furthermore, although it is commonly supposed that social groups have a single leader,
research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by
different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion
(15) of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things”
done.” Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the
collective well-being of a social group’s member. Expressive leader are less concerned
with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group
members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them. Group members
(20) expect expressive leaders to maintain stable relationships within the group and provide
support to individual members.
Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group
members. They give orders and may discipline group members who inhibit attainment of
the group’s goals. Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to
(25) others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties or is
subjected to discipline, are quick to lighten a serious moment with humor ,and try to
resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. As the differences in these two roles
suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members;
instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a mote
【題組】41.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The problems faced by leaders
(B) How leadership differs in small and
(C) How social groups determine who will
(D) The role of leaders in social groups
41.【題組】42. The passage mentions all of the following
ways by which people can become leaders
(B) formal election process
(C) specific leadership training
(D) traditional cultural patterns
42.【題組】43. In mentioning “natural leaders” in lines 8-9,
the author is making the point that
(A) few people qualify as “natural leaders”
(B) there is no proof that “natural leaders”
(C) “natural leaders’ are easily accepted by the
members of a social group
(D) “natural leaders” share a similar set of
43.【題組】44.Which of the following statements about
leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2?
(A) A person who is an effective leader of a
particular group may not be an effective
leader in another group.
(B) Few people succeed in sharing a leadership
role with another person.
(C) A person can best learn how to be an
effective leader by studying research on
(D) Most people desire to be leaders but can
produce little evidence of their
44.【題組】45.The passage indicates that instrumental
leaders generally focus on
(A) ensuring harmonious relationships
(B) sharing responsibility with group members
(C) identifying new leaders
(D) achieving a goal
49.【題組】50. Paragraphs 3 and 4 organize the discussion
of leadership primarily in term of
(A) examples that illustrate a problem
(B) cause and effect analysis
(C) narration of events
(D) comparison and contrast