Prehistoric mammoths have been preserved in the famous tar pits of Rancho La Brea
(Brea is the Spanish word for tar) in what now the heart of Los Angeles, California.
These tar pits have been known for centuries and were formerly mined for their natural
Line asphalt, a black or brown petroleum-like substance. Thousands of tons were extracted
(5) before 1875, when undertaken that established the significance of this remarkable site.
excavations were undertaken that established the significance of this remarkable site
The tar pits were found to contain the remains of scores of species of animals from the last
30,000 years of the Ice Age.
Since then, over 100 tons of fossils, 1.5 million from vertebrates, 2.5 million from
(10) invertebrates, have been recovered, often in densely concentrated tangled masses. The
creatures found range form insects and birds to giant ground sloth’s, but a total of 17
proboscides (animal with a proboscis or long nose)- including mastodons and
Columbian mammoths- have been recovered, most of them from Pit 9, the deepest
bone-bearing deposit, which was excavated in 1914. Most of the fossils date to between
(15) 40,000 and 10,000 years ago.
The asphalt at La Brea seeps to the surface, especially in the summer, and forms
shallow puddles that would often have been concealed by leaves and dust. Unwary
animals would become trapped on these thin sheets of liquid asphalt, which are extremely
sticky in warm weather. Stuck, the unfortunate beasts would die of exhaustion and
(20) hunger or fall prey to predators that often also became stuck.
As the animals decayed, more scavengers would be attracted and caught in their turn.
Carnivores greatly outnumber herbivores in the collection: for every large herbivore,
there is one saber-tooth cat, a coyote, and four wolves. The fact that some bones are
heavily weathered shows that some bodies remained above the surface for weeks or
(25) months. Bacteria in the asphalt would have consumed some of the tissues other than
bones, and the asphalt itself would dissolve what was left, at the same time impregnating
and beautifully preserving the saturated bones, rendering then dark brown and shiny.
1.What aspect of the La Brea tar pits does the
passage mainly discuss?
(A)The amount of asphalt that was mined there
(B) The chemical and biological interactions
between asphalt and animals
(C) The fossil remains that have been found
(D) Scientific methods of determining the age
of tar pits
8.【題組】8.Why does the author mention animals such as
coyotes and wolves in paragraph 4?
(A) To give examples of animals that are
classified as carnivores
(B) To specify the animals found least
commonly at La Brea
(C) To argue that these animals were especially
likely to avoid extinction.
(D) To define the term “scavengers”
The principal difference between urban growth in Europe and in the American
colonies was the slow evolution of cities in the former and their rapid growth in the latter.
In Europe they grew over a period of centuries from town economies to their present]
(Line) urban structure. In North America, they started as wilderness communities and developed
(5) to mature urbanism’s in little more than a century.
In the early colonial day in North America, small cities sprang up along the Atlantic
Coastline, mostly in what are now New America, small cities sprang up along the Atlantic
United States and in the lower Saint Lawrence valley in Canada. This was natural
because these areas were nearest England and France, particularly England, from which
(10 ) most capital goods (assets such as equipment) and many consumer goods were imported
Merchandising establishments were, accordingly, advantageously located in port cities
from which goods could be readily distributed to interior settlements. Here, too, were the
favored locations for processing raw materials prior to export. Boston, Philadelphia, New
York, Montreal, and other cities flourished, and, as the colonies grew, these cities
(15) increased in importance.
This was less true in the colonial South, where life centered around large farms, known
as plantations, rather than around towns, as was the case in the areas further north along
the Atlantic coastline. The local isolation and the economic self-sufficiency of the
plantations were antagonistic to the development of the towns. The plantations
maintained their independence because they were located on navigable streams and each
had a wharf accessible to the small shipping of that day. In face, one of the strongest
factors in the selection of plantation land was the desire to have it front on a water
When the United States became an independent nation in 1776, it did not have a single
city as large as 50,000 inhabitants, but by 1820 it had a city of more than 10,000 people,
and by 1880 it had recorded a city of over one million. It was not until after 1823, after
the mechanization of the spinning had weaving industries, that cities started drawing
young people away from farms. Such migration was particularly rapid following the Civil
【題組】9. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Factors that slowed the growth of cities in
(B) The evolution of cities in North America
(C) Trade between North American and
(D)The effects of the United Sates’
independence on urban growth in New
11.【題組】11. The passage compares early European and
North American cities on the basis of which
of the following?
(A) Their economic success
(B) The type of merchandise they exported
(C) Their ability to distribute goods to
(D)The pace of their development
13.【題組】13. According to the passage, early colonial cities
were established along the Atlantic coastline
of North America due to
(A) an abundance of natural resources
(B) financial support from colonial
(C) proximity to parts of Europe
(D) a favorable climate
14.【題組】14. The passage indicates that during colonial
times, the Atlantic coastline cities prepared
which of the following for shipment to
(A) Manufacturing equipment
(B) Capital goods
(C) Consumer goods
(D) Raw materials
15.【題組】15. According to the passage, all of the
following aspects of the plantation system
influenced the growth of southern cities
(A) location of the plantations
(B) access of plantation owners to shipping
(C) relationships between plantation
residents and city residents
(D) economic self-sufficiency of the
19.【題組】19. The passage mentions the period following
the Civil War (line28-29) because it was a
(A) significant obstacles to industrial growth
(B) decreased dependence on foreign trade
(C) increased numbers of people leaving
employment on farms
(D) increased migration from northern states to
During the second half of the nineteenth century, the production of food and feed crops
in the United States rose at an extraordinarily rapid rate.Com production increased by four
and a half times, hay by five times, oats and wheat by seven times. The most crucial factor
Line behind this phenomenal upsurge in productivity was the widespread adoption of
labor-saving machinery by northern farmers. By 1850 horse-drawn reaping machines that
cut grain were being introduced into the major grain-growing regions of the country.
Horse-powered threshing machines to separate the seeds from the plants were already in
general use. However, it was the onset of the Civil War in 1861 that provided the great
stimulus for the mechanization of northern agriculture. With much of the labor force
inducted into the army and with grain prices on the rise, northern farmers rushed to avail
themselves of the new labor-saving equipment. In 1860 there were approximately 80,000
reapers in the country; five years later there were 350,000.
After the close of the war in 1865, machinery became ever more important in northern
agriculture, and improved equipment was continually introduced. By 1880 a self-binding
(15) reaper had been perfected that not only cut the grain, but also gathered the stalks and
bound them with twine. Threshing machines were also being improved and enlarged, and
after 1870 they were increasingly powered by steam engines rather than by horses. Since
steam-powered threshing machines were costly items-running from $ 1,000 to $4,000
-they were usually owned by custom thresher owners who then worked their way from
farm to farm during the harvest season. “Combines” were also coming into use on the
great wheat ranches in California and the Pacific Northwest. These ponderous machines
—sometimes pulled by as many as 40 horses – reaped the grain, threshed it, and bagged
it, all in one simultaneous operation.
The adoption of labor-saving machinery had a profound effect upon the sale of
agricultural operations in the northern states-allowing farmers to increase vastly
their crop acreage. By the end of century, a farmer employing the new machinery
could plant and harvest two and half times as much corn as a farmer had using hand
methods 50 years before.
【題組】20. What aspect of farming in the United States in the nineteenth century does the Passage mainly discuss?
(A) How labor-saving machinery increased crop Production
(B) Why southern farms were not as
successful as Successful as northern farms (C) Farming practices before the Civil War
(D) The increase in the number of people
23.【題組】23. According to the passage, why was the Civil War a stimulus for mechanization?
(A) The army needed more grain in order to
feed the soldiers.
(B) Technology developed for the war could
also the used by farmers.
(C) It was hoped that harvesting more grain
would lower the price of grain.
(D) Machines were needed to replace a
disappearing labor force.
24.【題組】24.The passage supports which of the following statements about machinery after the Civil War?
(A) Many farmers preferred not to use the new machinery.
(B) Returning laborers replaced the use of
(C) The use of farm machinery continued to
(D) Poor-quality machinery slowed the pace
of crop production.
25.【題組】25.Combines and self-binding reapers were
similar because each
(A) could perform more than one function
(B) required relatively little power to operate
(C) was utilized mainly in California
(D) required two people to operate
27.【題組】27. It can be inferred from the passage that most farmers did not own threshing machines because.
(A) farmers did not know how to use the new machines
(B) farmers had no space to keep the machines
(C) thresher owner had chance to buy the
machines before farmers did
(D) the machines were too expensive for every farmer to own
The Native American peoples of the north Pacific Coast created a highly complex
maritime culture as they invented modes of production unique to their special
environment. In addition to their sophisticated technical culture, they also attained one of
the most complex social organizations of any nonagricultural people in the wold.
In a division of labor similar to that of the hunting peoples in the interior and among
foraging peoples throughout the world, the men did most of the fishing, and the women
processed the catch. Women also specialized in the gathering of the abundant shellfish
that lived closer to shore. They collected oysters, crabs, sea urchins, mussels, abalone,
and clams, which they could gather while remaining close to their children. The maritime
life harvested by the women not only provided food, but also supplied more of the raw
materials for making tools than did fish gathered by the men. Of particular
importance for the native tool than did the fish gathered by the men. Of particular
made from the larger mussel shells, and a variety of cutting edges that could be made
from other marine shells.
The women used their tools to process all of the fish and marine mammals brought in
by the men. They cleaned the fish, and dried vast quantities of them for the winter. They
sun-dried fish when practical, but in the rainy climate of the coastal area they also used
smokehouses to preserve tons of fish and other seafood annually. Each product had its
own peculiar characteristics that demanded a particular way of cutting or drying the meat,
(20) and each task required its own cutting blades and other utensils.
After drying the fish, the women pounded some of them into fish meal, which was an
easily transported food used in soups, stews, or other dishes to provide protein and
thickening in the absence of fresh fish or while on long trips. The women also made a
cheese-like substance from a mixture of fish and roe by aging it in storehouses or by
(25) burying it in wooden boxes or pits lined with rocks and tree leaves.
【題組】29. Which aspect of the lives of the Native
Americans of the north Pacific Coast does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Methods of food preservation
(B) How diet was restricted by the
(C) The contributions of women to the food supply
(D) Difficulties in establishing successful
32.【題組】32. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that the social organization of many agricultural
(A) more complex than that of hunters and
(B) less efficient than that of hunters and
(C) more widespread than that of hunters and foragers
(D) better documented than that of hunters and foragers
33.【題組】33. According to the passage, what is true of the “division of labor” mentioned in line 5?
(A) It was first developed by Native Americans of the north Pacific Coast.
(B) It rarely existed among hunting
(C) It was a structure that the Native
Americans of the north Pacific Coast
shared with many other peoples.
(D) It provided a form of social organization that was found mainly among coastal peoples.
35.【題組】35. All of the following are true of the north
Pacific coast women EXCEPT that they
(A) were more likely to catch shellfish than other kinds of fish
(B) contributed more materials for tool
making than the men did
(C) sometimes searched for food far inland
from the coast
(D) prepared and preserved the fish
37.【題組】37. The Native Americans of the north
Pacific Coast used smokehouses in order to
(A) store utensils used in food preparation
(B) prevent fish and shellfish from spoiling
(C) have a place to store fish and shellfish
(D) prepare elaborate meals
39.【題組】39. All of following are true of the cheese-like
substance mentioned in paragraph 4 EXCEPT
that it was
(A) made from fish
(B) not actually cheese
(C) useful on long journeys
(D) made in a short period of time
Archaeological literature is rich in descriptions of pot making. Unlike modern industrial
potters, prehistoric artisans created each of their pieces individually, using the simplest
technology but demonstrating remarkable skill in making and adorning their vessels.
Line The clay used in prehistoric pot making was invariably selected with the utmost care:
(5) often it was traded over considerable distances. The consistency of the clay was crucial:
it was pounded meticulously and mixed with water to make it entirely even in texture. By
careful kneading, the potter removed the air bubbles and made the clay as plastic as
possible, allowing it to be molded into shape as the pot was built up, When a pot is fired.
It loses its water and can crack, so the potter added a temper to the clay, a substance that
(10) Helped reduce shrinkage and cracking.
Since surface finishes provided a pleasing appearance and also improved the durability
In day-to-day use, the potter smoothed the exterior surface of the pot with wet hands. Often
A wet clay solution, known as a slip, was applied to the smooth surface. Brightly colored
Slips were often used and formed painted decorations on the vessel. In later times. glazes
(15) came into use in some areas. A glaze is a form of slip that turns to a glasslike finish during
high-temperature firing. When a slip was not applied, the vessel was allowed to dry slowly
until the external surface was almost like leather in texture. It was then rubbed with a
round stone or similar object to give it a shiny, hard surface. Some pots were adorned with
incised or stamped decorations.
(20) Most early pottery was then fired over open hearths. The vessels were covered with
Fast-burning wood; as it burned, the ashes would all around the pots and bake them
Evenly over a few hours. Far higher temperatures were attained in special ovens, known
As kilns, which would not only bake the clay and remove its plasticity, but also dissolve
Carbons and iron compounds. Kilns were also used for glazing, when two firings were
Needed, Once fired, the pots were allowed to cool slowly, and small cracks were repaired
Before they were ready for use.
【題組】40. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Why archaeologists study prehistoric pot making
(B) How early pottery was made and
(C) The development of kilns used by early potters
(D) The variety of decorations on Prehistoric pottery
42.【題組】42. Which of the following was a process used by prehistoric potters to improve the texture of
(A) Adding temper
(B) Removing the water
(C) Beating on the clay
(D) Mixing the clay with plastic substances
44.【題組】44. Prehistoric potters applied slips and glazes to their vessels in order to do which of the
(A) Improve the appearance of the vessels
(B) prevent the vessels from leaking
(C) Help the vessels a leather like quality
(D) Give the vessels a leather like quality
45.【題組】45. Which of the following was a method used by some potters to give vessels a glossy finish?
(A) Smoothing them with wet hands
(B) Mixing the clay with colored solutions
(C) Baking them at a very high temperature
(D) Rubbing them with a smooth hard object
48.【題組】48. According to the passage, the advantage of
kilns over open fires was that the kilns
(A) required less wood for burning
(B) reached higher temperatures
(C) kept ashes away from the pots
(D) baked vessels without cracking them
50.【題組】50.The passage mentions that when pottery is
fired under burning wood ,the ashes help
(A) prevent the clay from cracking
(B) produce a more consistently baked pot
(C) attain a very high temperature
(D) give the vessel a glasslike finish