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2001年10月托福閱讀#20936 

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1.Question 1-9 Composers today use a wider variety of sounds than ever before, including many that were once considered undesirable noises. Composer Edgard Varese (1883-1965) called thus the "liberation of sound...the right to make music with any and all sounds." Line Electronic music, for example—made with the aid of computers, synthesizers, and (5) electronic instruments—may include sounds that in the past would not have been considered musical. Environmental sounds, such as thunder, and electronically generated hisses and blips can be recorded, manipulated, and then incorporated into a musical composition. But composers also draw novel sounds from voices and nonelectronic instruments. Singers may be asked to scream, laugh, groan, sneeze, or to sing phonetic (10) sounds rather than words. Wind and string players may lap or scrape their instruments. A brass or woodwind player may hum while playing, to produce two pitches at once;a pianist may reach inside the piano to pluck a string and then run a metal blade along it. In the music of the Western world, the greatest expansion and experimentation have involved percussion instruments, which outnumber strings and winds in many recent compositions. (15) Traditional percussion instruments are struck with new types of beaters; and instruments that used to be couriered unconvennonal in Western music—tom-toms, bongos, slapsticks, maracas—are widelv used. In the search for novel sounds, increased use has been made in Western music of Microtones.Non-Western music typically divides and interval between two pitches more (20) finely than Western music does, thereby producing a greter number of distinct tones, or micro tones, within the same interval. Composers such as Krzysztof Pmderecki create sound that borders on electronic noise through tone clusters—closely spaced tones played together and heard as a mass, block, or band of sound. The directional aspect of sound has taken on new importance as well Loudspeakers or groups of instruments may be placed (25) at opposite ends of the stage, in the balcony, or at the back and sides of the auditorium. Because standard music notation makes no provision for many of these innovations, recent music scores may contain graphlike diagrams, new note shapes and symbols, and novel ways of arranging notation on the page.
【題組】 1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The use of nontraditional sounds in contemporary music
(B) How sounds are produced electronically
(C) How standard musical notation has beer, adapted for nontraditional sounds
(D) Several composers who have experimented with the electronic production of sound
2.【題組】2. The word "wider" in one 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) more impressive
(B) more distinctivc
(C) more controversial
(D) more extensive
3.【題組】3. The passage suggests that Edgard Varese is an example of a composer who
(A) criticized eletronic music as too noiselike
(B) modified sonic of the electronic instruments he used in his music
(C) believed that any sound could be used in music
(D) wrote music with environmental themes
4.【題組】4. The word "it" in line 12 refers to
(A) piano
(B)string
(C) blade
(D) music
5.【題組】5. According to the passage, which of the following types of instruments has played a role in much of the innovation in Western music?
(A)String
(B) Percussion
(C) Woodwind
(D) Brass
6.【題組】6. The word "thereby" m line 20 is closest in meaning to
(A) in return for
(B) in spite of
(C) by the way
(D) by that means
7.【題組】7. According to the passage, Krzysziof Pendereckj is known for which of the following practices?
(A) Using tones that are clumped together
(B) Combining traditional and nontradinonal instruments
(C) Seating musicians in unusual areas of an auditorium
(D) Playing Western music for non-Western audiences
8.【題組】8. According to the passage, which of the following would be considered traditional elements of Western music?
(A) Microtones
(B) Tom-toms and bongos
(C) Pianos
(D) Hisses
9.【題組】9. In paragraph 3, the author mentions diagrams as an example of a new way to
(A) chart the history of innovation in musical notation
(B) explain the logic of standard musical notation
(C) design and develop electronic instruments
(D) indicate how particular sounds should be produced
10.Questions 10-19 What unusual or unique biological train led to the remarkable diversification and unchallenged success of the ants for ever 50 million years? The answer appears to be that they were the first group of predatory ensocial insects that both lived and foraged Line primarily in the soil and in rotting vegetation on the ground. Eusocial refers tc a form (5) of insect society characterized by specialization of tasks and cooperative care of the young; it is rare among insects. Richly organized colonies of the land made possible by eusociality enjoy several key advantages over solitary individuals. Under most circumstances groups of workers arc better able to forage for food and defend the nest, because they can switch from individual to group response and back (10) again swiftly and according to need. When a food object or nest intruder is too large for one individual to handle, nestmates can be quickly assembled by alarm or recruitment signals. Equally important is the fact that the execution of multiple-step tasks is accomplished in a series-parallel sequence. That is, individual ants can specialize in particular steps, moving from one object (such as a larva to be fed) to another (a second (15) larva to be fed). They do not need to carry each task to completion from start to finish—. for example, to check the larva first, then collect the food, then feed the larva. Hence, if each link in the chain has many workers in attendance, a senes directed at any particular object is less likely to fail. Moreover, ants specializing in particular labor categories typically constitute a caste specialized by age or body form or both. There has bees some (20) documentation of the superiority in performance and net energetic yield of various castes for their modal tasks, although careful experimental studies are still relatively few. What makes ants unusual in the company of eusocial insects is the fact that they are the only eusocial predators (predators are animals that capture and feed on other animals) occupying the soil and ground litter. The eusocial termites live in the same places as ants and also have wingless workers, but they feed almost exclusively on dead vegetation.
【題組】10. Which of the following questions does the passage primarily answer?
(A) How do individual ants adapt to specialized tasks?
(B) What are the differences between social and solitary insects?
(C) Why are ants predators?
(D) Why have ants been able to thrive for such a long time?
11.【題組】11. The word "unique" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) inherited
(B) habitual
(C) singular
(D) natural
12.【題組】12. The word "rotting" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) decaying
(B) collected
(C) expanding
(D) cultivated
13.【題組】13. The word "key" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) uncommon
(B) important
(C) incidental
(D) temporary
14.【題組】14. According to the passage, one thing eusocial insects can do is rapidly switch from
(A) one type of food consumption to another
(B) one environment to another
(C) a solitary task to a group task
(D) a defensive to an offensive stance
15.【題組】15. The task of feeding larvae is mentioned in thepassage to demonstrate
(A) the advantages of specialization
(B) the type of food that larvae are fed
(C) the ways ant colonies train their young for adult tasks
(D) the different stages of ant development
16.【題組】16. The author uses the word "Hence" in line 16 to indicate
(A) a logical conclusion
(B) the next step in a senes of steps
(C) a reason for further study
(D) the relationship among ants
17.【題組】17. All of the following terms art defined in the passage EXCEPT
(A) eusocial (line 3)
(B) series-parallel sequence (line 13)
(C) caste (line 19)
(D) predators (line 23)
18.【題組】18. The word "they" in line 25 refers to
(A) termites
(B)ants
(C) places
(D) predators
19.【題組】19. It can be inferred from the passage that one main difference between termites and ants is that termites
(A) live above ground
(B) are eusocial
(C) protect their nests
(D) eat almost no animal substances
20.Questions 20-29 Glaciers are large masses of ice on land that show evidence of past or present movement. They grow by the gradual transformation of snow into glacier ice. A fresh snowfall is a fluffy mass of loosely packed snowflakes, small delicate ice constals grown in the atmosphere. As the snow ages on the ground for weeks or months, (5) the crystals shrink and become more compact, and the whole mass becomes squeezed together into a more dense form, granular snow. As new snow falls and buries the older snow, the layers of granular snow further compact to form firm, a much denser kind of snow, usually a year or more old, which has little pore space. Further burial and slow cementation—a process by which crystals become bound together in a mosaic of (10) intergrown ice crystals—finally produce solid glacial ice. In this process of recrystallization, the growth of new crystals at the expense of old ones, the percentage of air is reduced from about 90 percent for snowflakes to less than 20 percent for glacier ice. The whole process may take as little as a few years, but more likely ten or twenty years or longer. The snow is usually many meters deep by the time the lower layers art convened (15) into ice. In cold glaciers those formed in the coldest regions of the Earth, the entire mass of ice is at temperatures below the melting point and no free water exists. In temperate glaciers, the ice is at the melting point at every pressure level within the glacier, and free water is present as small drops or as larger accumulations in tunnels within or beneath the ice. (20) Formation of a glacier is complete when ice has accumulated to a thickness (and thus weight) sufficient to make it move slowly under pressure, in much the same way that solid rock deep within the Earth can change shape without breaking. Once that point is reached, the ice flows downhill, either as a tongue of ice filling a valley or as thick ice cap that flows out in directions from the highest central area where the most snow accumulates. The up down leads to the eventual melting of ice.
【題組】20. Which of the following does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The effect of glaciers on climate
(B) Damage from glaciers
(C) Glacier formation
(D) The location of glaciers
21.【題組】21. Which of the following will cause density within the glacier to increase?
(A) Increased water and air content
(B) Pressure from the weight of new snow
(C) Long periods of darkness and temperature variations
(D) Movement of the glacier
22.【題組】22. The word "bound" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) covered
(B) chosen
(C) planned
(D) held
23.【題組】23. Which of the following will be lost is a glacier forms?
(A) Air
(B) Pressure
(C) Weight
(D) Rocks
24.【題組】24. According to the passage, which of the following is the LEAST amount of time necessary for glacial ice to form?
(A) Several months
(B) Several years
(C) At least fifty years
(D) A century
25.【題組】25. The word "converted" in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) changed
(B) delayed
(C) promoted
(D) dissolved
26.【題組】26. What is the purpose of the material in paragraph three (lines 16-19)
(A) To define two types of glaciers
(B) To contrast glacier ice with non-glacier ice
(C) To present theories of glacier formation
(D) To discuss the similarities between glacial types
27.【題組】27. In temperate glaciers, where is water found?
(A) Only near the surface
(B) In pools a: various depths
(C) In a thin layer below the firm
(D) In tunnels
28.【題組】28. The word "it" in line 21 refers to
(A) formation
(B) ice
(C) thickcess
(D) weight
29.【題組】29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that a glacier
(A) can revert to a fluffy mass
(B) maintains the same shape throuthout the glacial process
(C) is too cold to be thoroughly studied
(D) can contribute water to lakes, rivers, or oceans
30.Questions 30-39 The lack of printing regulations and the unenforceabiliy of British copyright law in the American colonies made it possible for colonial printers occasionally to act as publishers. Although they rarely undertook major publishing project because it was difficult to sell books as cheaply as they could be imported from Europe, printers in (5) Philadelphia did publish work that required only small amounts of capital, paper, and type. Broadsides could be published with minimal financial risk. Consisting of only one sheet of paper and requiring small amounts of type, broadsides involved lower investments of capital than longer works. Furthermore, the broadside format lent itselt to subjects of high, if temporary, interest, enabling them to meet with ready sale. If the broadside printer (10) miscalculated, however, and produced a sheet that did not sell, it was not likely to be a major loss, and the printer would know this immediately, There would be no agonizing wait with large amounts of capital tied up, books gathering dust on the shelves, and creditors impatient for payment In addition to broadsides, books and pamphlets, consisting mainly of political tracts, (15) catechisms, primers, and chapbooks were relatively inexpensive to print and to buy. Chapbook were pamphlet-sized books, usually containing popular tales, ballads, poems, short plays, and jokes, small, both in formal and number of pages, they were generally bound simply, in boards (a form of cardboard) or merely stitched in paper wrappers (a sewn antecedent of modern-day paperbacks). Pamphlets and chapbooks did not require (20) fine paper or a great deal of type to produce they could thus be printed in large, costeffective editions and sold cheaply. By far, the most appealing publishing investments were to be found in small books that had proven to be steady sellers, providing a reasonably reliable source of income for the publisher. They would not, by nature, be highly topical or political, as such publications (25) would prove of fleeting interest. Almanacs, annual publications that contained information on astronomy and weather patterns arranged according to the days, week, and months of a given year, provided the perfect steady seller because their information pertained to the locale in which they would be used
【題組】30. Which aspect of colonial printing does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Laws governing the printing industry.
(B) Competition among printers
(C) Types of publications produced
(D) Advances in printing technology
31.【題組】31.According to the passage, why did colonial printers avoid major publishing projects?
(A) Few colonial printers owned printing machinery tha was large enough to handle major projects.
(B) There was inadequate shipping available in the colonies.
(C) Colonial printers could not sell their work for a competitive price.
(D) Colonial printers did not have the skills necessary to undertake large publishing projects.
32.【題組】32.Broadsides could be published with little risk to colonial printers because they
(A) required a small financial investment and sold quickly
(B) were in great demand in European markets
(C) were more popular with colonists than chapbooks and pamphlets
(D) generally dealt with topics of long-term interest to many colonists
33.【題組】33.The word "they" in line 17 refers to
(A) chapbooks
(B) tales
(C) jokes
(D) pages
34.【題組】34.The word "antecedent" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A) predecessor
(B)format
(C) imitation
(D) compontent
35.【題組】35. Chapbooks produced in colonial America were characterized by
(A) fine paper
(B) cardboard covers
(C) elaborate decoration
(D) a large number of pages
36.【題組】36. Thc word "appealing" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(A) dependable
(B) respectable
(C) enduring
(D) attractive
37.【題組】37. What were "steady sellers" (line 23) ?
(A) Printers whose incomes were quite large
(B) People who traveled from town to town selling Books and pamphlets
(C) Investors who provided reliable financial Support for new printers
(D) Publications whose sales were usually consistent from year to year
38.【題組】38. The word "locale" in line 28 is closest in meaning to
(A) topic
(B) season
(C) interest
(D) place
39.【題組】39. All of the following are defined in the passage EXCEPT
(A) "Broadsides" (line 6)
(B) "catechisms" (line 15)
(C) "chapbooks"(linel6)
(D) "Almanacs" (line 25)
40.Questions 40-50 Industrialization came to the United State after 1790 as North American entrepreneurs increased producuvity by reorganizing work and building factories. These innovations in manufacturing boosted output and living standards to an unprecedented extent; the average per capita wealth increased by nearly 1 percent per year—30 percent over (5) the course of a generation. Goods that had once been luxury items became part of everyday life. The impressive gain in output stemmed primarily from the way in which workers made goods, since the 1790's, North American entrepreneurs—even without technological improvements—had broadened the scope of the outwork system that mace manufacturing (10) more efficient by distributing materials to a succession of workers who each performed a single step of the production process. For example, during the 1820's and 1830's the shoe industry greatly expanded the scale and extend of me outwork system. Tens of thousands of rural women, paid according to the amount they produced, fabricated the "uppers" of shoes, which were bound to the soles by wage-earning journeymen shoemakers in dozens (15) of massachusetts towns, whereas previously journeymen would have made the enure shoe. This system of production made the employer a powerful "shoe boss" and eroded workers' control over the pace and conditions of labor. However, it also dramatically increased the output of shoes while cutting their price. For tasks that were not suited to the outwork system, entrepreneurs created an even (20) more important new organization, the modem factory, which used power-driven machines and assembly-line techniques to turn out large quantities of well-made goods. As early as 1782 the prolific Delaware inventor Oliver Evans had buiit a highly automated, laborsaving flour mill driven by water power. His machinery lifted the grain to the top of the mill, cleaned it as it fell into containers known as hoppers, ground the grain into flour, (25) and then conveyed the flour back to the top of the mill to allow it to cool as it desended into barrels. Subsequently, manufacturers made use of new improved stationary steam engines to power their mills. This new technology enabled them to build factories in the nation's largest cities, taking advantage of urban concentrations of inexpensive labor, good transportation networks, and eager customers.
【題組】40. What is the passage mainly about?
(A)The difficulties of industrialization in North America
(B)The influence of changes in manufacturing on the growth of urban centers
(C) The rapid speed of industrialization in North America
(D) Improved ways of organizing the manufacturing of goods
41.【題組】41. The word "boosted" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) ensured
(B) raised
(C) arranged
(D) discouraged
42.【題組】42.The word "scope" in line 9 is closest in meaningto
(A) value
(B) popularity
(C) extent
(D) diversity
43.【題組】43 .The author mentions the shoe industry in the second paragraph to provide an example of how
(A) entrepreneurs increased output by using an extended outwork system
(B) entrepreneurs used technological improvements to increase output
(C) rural workers responded to "shoe bosses"
(D) changes in the outwork system improved the quality of shoes
44.【題組】44. All of the following are mentioned as effects of changes in the shoe industry during the 1820's and 1830's EXCEPT
(A) an increase in the worker's dependence on entrepreneurs
(B) an increase in the wages paid to journeymen shoemakers
(C) a decline in the workers ability to control the speed of production
(D) a decrease in the price of shoes
45.【題組】45. All of the following are true of the outwork system EXCEPT
(A) It involved stages of production.
(B) It was more efficient than the systems used before 1790.
(C) It made many employers less powerful than they had been before.
(D) It did not necessarily involve any technological improvements.
46.【題組】46.The word "prolific" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(A) efficient
(B) productive
(C) self-employed
(D) progressive
47.【題組】47. According to the passage, how did later mills differ from the mills differ from the mill built by Oliver Evans?
(A) They were located away from large cities.
(B) They used new technology to produce power.
(C)They did not allow flour to cool before it was placed in Barrels.
(D)They combined technology with the outwork system.
48.【題組】48.The word "it" in line 24 refers to
(A) water power
(B) machinery
(C) grain
(D) mill
49.【題組】49. The passage mentions which of the following asa result of improvements in factory machinery?
(A) It become easier for factory' owners to find workers and customers.
(B) Manufacturers had to employ more highly skilled workers.
(C) The amount of power required for factories operate was reduced.
(D) Factories could operate more than one engin at a time.
50.【題組】50. The word "eager" in line 29 is closest in meaning to
(A) wealthy
(B) knowledgeable
(C) regular
(D) enthusiastic