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TOEFL(Test of English as a Foreign Language)題庫 下載題庫

2001年8月托福閱讀#20935 

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1.Questions 1-9 Glass fibers have a long history. The Egyptians made coarse fibers by 1600 B.C., and fibers survive as decorations on Egyptian pottery dating back to 1375 B c. During the Renaissance (fifteenth and sixteenth centuries A.D.), glassmakers from Venice used glass Line fibers to decorate the surfaces of plain glass vessels. However, glassmakers guarded their (5) secrets so carefully that no one wrote about glass fiber production until the early seventeenth century. The eighteenth century brought the invention of "spun glass" fibers. Rene-Antoine de Reaumur, a French scientist, tried to make artificial feathers from glass. He made fibers by rotating a wheel through a pool of molten glass, pulling threads of glass where the hot (10) thick liquid stuck to the wheel. His fibers were short and fragile, but he predicted that spun glass fibers as thin as spider silk would be flexible and could be woven into fabric. By the start of the nineteenth century, glassmakers learned how to make longer, stronger fibers by pulling them from molten glass with a hot glass tube. Inventors wound the cooling end of the thread around a yarn reel, then turned the reel rapidly to pull more fiber (15) from the molten glass. Wandering tradespeople began to spin glass fibers at fairs, making decorations and ornaments as novelties for collectors, but this material was of little practical use; the fibers were brittle, ragged, and no longer than ten feet, the circumference of the largest reels. By the mid-1870's, however, the best glass fibers were finer than silk and could be woven into fabrics or assembled into imitation ostrich feathers to decorate (20) hats. Cloth of white spun glass resembled silver; fibers drawn from yellow-orange glass looked golden. Glass fibers were little more than a novelty until the 1930's, when their thermal and electrical insulating properties were appreciated and methods for producing continuous filaments were developed. In the modern manufacturing process, liquid glass is fed (25) directly from a glass-melting furnace into a bushing, a receptacle pierced with hundreds of fine nozzles, from which the liquid issues in fine streams. As they solidify, the streams of glass are gathered into a single strand and wound onto a reel.
【題組】 1. Which of the following aspects of glass fiber does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The major developments in its production
(B) Its relationship with pottery making
(C) Important inventors in its long history
(D) The variety of its uses in modern industry
2.【題組】2. The word "coarse" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) decorative
(B) natural
(C) crude
(D) weak
3.【題組】3. Why was there nothing written about the making of Renaissance glass fibers until the seventeenth century?
(A) Glassmakers were unhappy with the quality of the fibers they could make.
(B) Glassmakers did not want to reveal the methods they used.
(C) Few people were interested in the Renaissance style of glass fibers.
(D) Production methods had been well known for a long time.
4.【題組】4. According to the passage, using a hot glass tube rather than a wheel to pull fibers from molten glass made the fibers
(A) quicker to cool
(B) harder to bend
(C) shorter and more easily broken
(D) longer and more durable
5.【題組】5. The phrase "this material" in line 16 refers to
(A) glass fibers
(B) decorations
(C) ornaments
(D) novelties for collectors
6.【題組】6. The word "brittle" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) easily broken
(B) roughly made
(C) hairy
(D) shiny
7.【題組】7. The production of glass fibers was improved in the nineteenth century by which of the following
(A) Adding silver to the molten glass
(B) Increasing the circumference of the glass tubes
(C) Putting silk thread in the center of the fibers
(D) Using yam reels
8.【題組】8. The word "appreciated" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) experienced
(B) recognized
(C) explored
(D) increased
9.【題組】9. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
(A) invention (line 7)
(B) circumference (line 17)
(C) manufacturing process (line 24)
(D) bushing (line25)
10.Questions 10-19 The most thoroughly studied cases of deception strategies employed by ground-nesting birds involve plovers, small birds that typically nest on beaches or in open fields, their nests merely scrapes in the sand or earth. Plovers also have an effective repertoire of tricks Line for distracting potential nest predators from their exposed and defenseless eggs or chicks. (5) The ever-watchful plover can detect a possible threat at a considerable distance. When she does, the nesting bird moves inconspicuously off the nest to a spot well away from eggs or chicks. At this point she may use one of several ploys. One technique involves first moving quietly toward an approaching animal and then setting off noisily through the grass or brush in a low, crouching run away from the nest, while emitting rodent like (10) squeaks. The effect mimics a scurrying mouse or vole, and the behavior rivets the attention of the type of predators that would also be interested in eggs and chicks. Another deception begins with quiet movement to an exposed and visible location well away from the nest. Once there, the bird pretends to incubate a brood. When the predator approaches, the parent flees, leaving the false nest to be searched. The direction in which (15) the plover "escapes" is such that if the predator chooses to follow, it will be led still further away from the true nest. The plover's most famous stratagem is the broken-wing display, actually a continuum of injury-mimicking behaviors spanning the range from slight disability to near-complete helplessness. One or both wings are held in an abnormal position, suggesting injury. The (20) bird appears to be attempting escape along an irregular route that indicates panic. In the most extreme version of the display, the bird flaps one wing in an apparent attempt to take to the air, flops over helplessly, struggles back to its feet, runs away a short distance, seemingly attempts once more to take off, flops over again as the "useless" wing fails to provide any lift, and so on. Few predators fail to pursue such obviously vulnerable prey. Needless to say, each short run between "flight attempts" is directed away from the nest.
【題組】10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The nest-building techniques of plovers
(B) How predators search for plovers
(C) The strategies used by plovers to deceive predators
(D) Why plovers are vulnerable to predators
11.【題組】11. The word "merely" in fine 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) often
(B) only
(C) usually
(D) at first
12.【題組】12. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about plovers?
(A) Their eggs and chicks are difficult to find.
(B) They are generally defenseless when away From their nests.
(C) They are slow to react in dangerous situations.
(D) Their nests are on the surface of the ground.
13.【題組】13. The word "emitting" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) bringing
(B) attracting
(C) producing
(D) minimizing
14.【題組】14. In the deception technique described in paragraph 2. the plover tries to
(A) stay close to her nest
(B) attract the predator's attention
(C) warn other plovers of danger
(D) frighten the approaching predator
15.【題組】15. The word "spanning" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(A) covering
(B) selecting
(C) developing
(D) explaining
16.【題組】16. According to paragraph 4, which of the following aspects of the plover's behavior gives the appearance that it is frightened?
(A) Abnormal body position
(B) Irregular escape route
(C) Unnatural wing movement
(D) Unusual amount of time away from the nest
17.【題組】17. The word "pursue" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A) catch
(B) notice
(C) defend
(D) chase
18.【題組】18. According to the passage, a female plover utilizes all of the following deception techniques EXCEPT
(A) appearing to be injured
(B) sounding like another animal
(C) pretending to search for prey
(D) pretending to sit on her eggs
19.【題組】19. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) A description of the sequence of steps involved in plovers nest building
(B) A generalization about plover behavior followed by specific examples
(C) A comparison and contrast of the nesting behavior of plovers and other ground nesting birds
(D) A cause-and-efleet analysis of the relationship between a prey and a predator
20.Questions 20-28 The interrelationship of science, technology, and industry is taken for granted today—summed up, not altogether accurately, as "research and development." Yet historically this widespread faith in the economic virtues of science is a relatively recent Line phenomenon, dating back in the United States about 150 years, and in the Western world (5) as a whole not over 300 years at most. Even in this current era of large scale, intensive research and development, the interrelationships involved in this process are frequently misunderstood. Until the coming of the Industrial Revolution, science and technology evolved for the most part independently of each other. Then as industrialization became increasingly complicated, the craft techniques of preindustrial society gradually gave way (10) to a technology based on the systematic application of scientific knowledge and scientific methods. This changeover started slowly and progressed unevenly. Until late in the nineteenth century, only a few industries could use scientific techniques or cared about using them. The list expanded noticeably after 1870, but even then much of what passed for the application of science was "engineering science" rather than basic science. (15) Nevertheless, by the middle of the nineteenth century, the rapid expansion of scientific knowledge and of public awareness-if not understanding-of it had created a belief that the advance of science would in some unspecified manner automatically generate economic benefits. The widespread and usually uncritical acceptance of this thesis led in turn to the assumption that the application of science to industrial purposes was a linear process, starting (20) with fundamental science, then proceeding to applied science or technology, and through them to industrial use. This is probably the most common pattern, but it is not invariable. New areas of science have been opened up and fundamental discoveries made as a result of attempts to solve a specific technical or economic problem. Conversely, scientists who mainly do basic research also serve as consultants on projects that apply research in practical ways. (25) In sum, the science-technology-industry relationship may flow in several different ways, and the particular channel it will follow depends on the individual situation. It may at times even be multidirectional.
【題組】20. What is the author's main purpose in the passage?
(A) To show how technology influenced basic science
(B) To describe the scientific base of nineteenth-century American industries
(C) To correct misunderstandings about the connections between science, technology, and industry
(D) To argue that basic science has no practical application
21.【題組】21. The word "altogether" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) completely
(B) realistically
(C) individually
(D) understandably
22.【題組】22. The word "intensive" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) decreased
(B) concentrated
(C) creative
(D) advanced
23.【題組】23. The "list" mentioned in line 13 refers to
(A) types of scientific knowledge
(B) changes brought by technology
(C) industries that used scientific techniques
(D) applications of engineering science
24.【題組】24. The understanding of research and development in the late nineteenth century is based on which of the following?
(A) Engineering science is not very important.
(B) Fundamental science naturally leads to economic benefits.
(C) The relationship between research and development should be criticized.
(D) Industrial needs should determine what areas fundamental science focuses on.
25.【題組】25. The word "it" in line 16 refers to
(A) understanding
(B) public awareness
(C) scientific knowledge
(D) expansion
26.【題組】26. The word "assumption" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A) regulation
(B) belief
(C) contract
(D) confusion
27.【題組】27. Why does the author mention "consultants" in line 24 ?
(A) To show how new areas of science have given rise to new professions
(B) To distinguish between scientists who work in industry and those who do not
(C) To explain the ways in which scientists find financial support for their work
(D) To show how scientists who work in basic research contribute to applied science
28.【題組】28. Which of the following statements does the passage support?
(A) The development of science and of industry is now interdependent.
(B) Basic scientific research cannot generate practical applications.
(C) Industries should spend less money on research and development.
(D) Science and technology are becoming more separate.
29.Questions 29-39 The economic depression in the late-nineteenth-century United States contributed significantly to a growing movement in literature toward realism and naturalism. After the 1870' s, a number of important authors began to reject the romanticism that had prevailed Line immediately following the Civil War of 1861-1865 and turned instead to realism. (5) Determined to portray life as it was, with fidelity to real life and accurate representation without idealization, they studied local dialects, wrote stories which focused on life in specific regions of the country, and emphasized the "true" relationships between people. In doing so, they reflected broader trends in the society, such as industrialization, evolutionary theory which emphasized the effect of the environment on humans, and the (10) influence of science. Realists such as Joel Chandler Harris and Ellen Glasgow depicted life in the South; Hamlin Garland described life on the Great Plains; and Sarah One Jewett wrote about everyday life in rural New England. Another realist, Bret Harte, achieved fame with stories that portrayed local life in the California mining camps. (15) Samuel Clemens, who adopted the pen name Mark Twain, became the country's most outstanding realist author, observing life around him with a humorous and skeptical eye. In his stories and novels, Twain drew on his own experiences and used dialect and common speech instead of literary language, touching off a major change in American prose style. Other writers became impatient even with realism. Pushing evolutionary theory to its (20) limits, they wrote of a world in which a cruel and merciless environment determined human fate. These writers, called naturalists, often focused on economic hardship, studying people struggling with poverty, and other aspects of urban and industrial life. Naturalists brought to their writing a passion for direct and honest experience. Theodore Dreiser, the foremost naturalist writer, in novels such as Sister Carrie, grimly (25) portrayed a dark world in which human beings were tossed about by forces beyond their understanding or control. Dreiser thought that writers should tell the truth about human affairs, not fabricate romance, and Sister Carrie, he said, was "not intended as a piece of literary craftsmanship, but was a picture of conditions."
【題組】29. Which aspect of late-nineteenth-century United States literature does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The influence of science on literature
(B) The importance of dialects for realist writers
(C) The emergence of realism and naturalism
(D) The effects of industrialization on romanticism
30.【題組】30. The word "prevailed" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) dominated
(B) transformed
(C) entered
(D) generalized
31.【題組】31. The word "they" in line 8 refers to
(A) authors
(B) dialects
(C) stories
(D) relationships
32.【題組】32. According to the passage, a highly significant factor in the development of realist and naturalist literature was
(A) the Civil War
(B) a recognition that romanticism was unpopular
(C) an increased interest in the study of common speech
(D) an economic depression
33.【題組】33. Realist writers took an interest in all of the following EXCEPT
(A) human relationships
(B) characteristics of different regions
(C) the idealization of life
(D) social and historical theories
34.【題組】34. The word "depicted" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
(A) emphasized
(B) described
(C) criticized
(D) classified
35.【題組】35. Why does the author mention mining camps in line 14 ?
(A) To contrast the themes of realist and naturalist writers
(B) To illustrate how Bret Harte differed from other authors
(C) As an example of a topic taken up by realist writers
(D) As an example of how setting can influence literary style
36.【題組】36. Which of the following wrote about life in rural New England?
(A) Ellen Glasgow
(B) Sarah Orne Jewett
(C) Hamlin Garland
(D) Mark Twain
37.【題組】37. Mark Twain is considered an important literary figure because he
(A) was the first realist writer in the United States
(B) rejected romanticism as a literary approach
(C) wrote humorous stories and novels
(D) influenced American prose style through his use of common speech
38.【題組】38. The word "foremost" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A) most difficult
(B) interesting
(C) most focused
(D) leading
39.【題組】39. Which of the following statements about Theodore Dreiser is supported by the passage?
(A) He mainly wrote about historical subjects such as the Civil War.
(B) His novels often contained elements of humor.
(C) He viewed himself more as a social commentator than as a literary artist.
(D) He believed writers should emphasize the positive aspects of life.
40.Questions 40-50 In 1900 the United States had only three cities with more than a million residents- New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. By 1930, it had ten giant metropolises. The newer ones experienced remarkable growth, which reflected basic changes in the economy. Line The population of Los Angeles (114,000 in 1900) rose spectacularly in the early (5) decades of the twentieth century, increasing a dramatic 1,400 percent from 1900 to 1930. A number of circumstances contributed to the meteoric rise of Los Angeles. The agricultural potential of the area was enormous if water for irrigation could be found, and the city founders had the vision and dating to obtain it by constructing a 225-mile aqueduct, completed in 1913, to tap the water of the Owens River. The city had a superb (10) natural harbor, as well as excellent rail connections. The climate made it possible to shoot motion pictures year-round; hence Hollywood. Hollywood not only supplied jobs; it disseminated an image of the good life in Southern California on screens all across the nation. The most important single industry powering the growth of Los Angeles, however, was directly linked to the automobile. The demand for petroleum to fuel gasoline engines (15) led to the opening of the Southern California oil fields, and made Los Angeles North America's greatest refining center. Los Angeles was a product of the auto age in another sense as well: its distinctive spatial organization depended on widespread private ownership of automobiles. Los Angeles was a decentralized metropolis, sprawling across the desert landscape over an (20) area of 400 square miles. It was a city without a real center. The downtown business district did not grow apace with the city as a whole, and the rapid transit system designed to link the center with outlying areas withered away from disuse. Approximately 800,000 cars were registered in Los Angeles County in 1930, one per 2.7 residents. Some visitors from the east coast were dismayed at the endless urban sprawl and dismissed Los (25) Angeles as a mere collection of suburbs in search of a city. But the freedom and mobility of a city built on wheels attracted floods of migrants to the city.
【題組】40. What is the passage mainly about?
(A) The growth of cities in the United States in the early 1900's
(B) The development of the Southern California oil fields
(C) Factors contributing to the growth of Los Angeles
(D) Industry and city planning in Los Angeles
41.【題組】41. The author characterizes the growth of new large cities in the United States after 1900 as resulting primarily from
(A) new economic conditions
(B) images of cities shown in movies
(C) new agricultural techniques
(D) a large migrant population
42.【題組】42. The word "meteoric" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
(A) rapid
(B) famous
(C) controversial
(D) methodical
43.【題組】43. The word "it" in line 8 refers to
(A) aqueduct
(B) vision
(C) water
(D) agricultural potential
44.【題組】44. According to the passage, the most important factor in the development of agriculture around Los Angeles was the
(A) influx of "new residents to agricultural areas near the city
(B) construction of an aqueduct
(C) expansion of transportation facilities
(D) development of new connections to the city's natural harbor
45.【題組】45. According to the passage, the initial success of Hollywood' s motion picture industry was due largely to the
(A) availability of many skilled workers
(B) beauty of the countryside
(C) region's reputation for luxurious lifestyles
(D) region's climate and good weather
46.【題組】46. It can be inferred from the passage that in 1930 the greatest number of people in the Los Angeles area were employed in
(A) farming
(B) oil refining
(C) automobile manufacturing
(D) the motion picture industry
47.【題組】47. According to the passage, the Southern California oil fields were initially exploited due to
(A) the fuel requirements of Los Angeles' rail system
(B) an increase in the use of gasoline engines in North America
(C) a desire to put unproductive desert land to good use
(D) innovative planning on the part of the city founders
48.【題組】48. The phrase "apace with" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
(A) anew with
(B) apart from
(C) as fast as
(D) at the middle of
49.【題組】49. It can be inferred from the passage that the spatial organization of Los Angeles contributed to the relative decline there of
(A) public transportation
(B) industrial areas
(C) suburban neighborhoods
(D) oil fields
50.【題組】50. The visitors from the east coast mentioned in the passage thought that Los Angeles
(A) was not accurately portrayed by Hollywood images
(B) lacked good suburban areas in which to live
(C) had an excessively large population
(D) was not really a single city