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TOEFL(Test of English as a Foreign Language)題庫 下載題庫

2002年8月托福閱讀#20937 

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1.Question 1-9 Often enough the craft worker’s place of employment in ancient Greece was set in rural isolation. Potter, for instance, found it convenient to locate their workshops near their source of clay, regardless of its relation to the center of settlement, At Corinth and line Athens, however, two of the best-known potters’ quarters were situated on the cities’ outskirts, and potters and makers of terra-cotta figurines were also established well within the city of Athens itself. The techniques of pottery manufacture had evolved well before the Greek period, but marked stylistic developments occurred in shape and in decoration, for example, in the interplay of black and other glazes with the red surface of the fired pot. Athenian black-figure and red-figure decoration, which emphasized human figures rather than animal images, was adopted between 630 and 530 B.C.;its distinctive color and luster were the result of the skillful adjustments of the kiln’s temperature during an extended three-stage period if firing the clayware. Whether it was the potters or the vase-painters who initiated changes in firing is unclear; the functions of making and decorating were usually divided between them, but neither group can have been so specialized the they did not share in the concerns of the other. The broad utility of terra-cotta was such that workers in clay could generally afford to Confine themselves to either decorated ware and housewares like cooking pots and storage Jars or building materials like roof tiles and drainpipes. Some sixth-and fifth-century B.C. Athenian pottery establishments are known to have concentrated on a limited range of fine ware, but a rural pottery establishment on the island of Thasos produced many types of pottery and roof tiles too, presumably to meet local demand. Molds were used to create particular effects for some products, such as relief-decorated vessels and figurines; for other products such as roof tiles, which were needed in some quantity, they were used to facilitate mass production. There were also a number of poor-quality figurines and painted (25) pots produced in quantity by easy, inexpensive means- as numerous featureless statuettes and unattractive cases testify.
【題組】 1. The passage mainly discusses ancient Greek pottery and its
(A) production techniques
(B) similarity to other crafts
(C) unusual materials
(D) resemblance to earlier pottery
2.【題組】2. The phrase “regardless of” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) as a result of
(B) no matter what
(C) proud of
(D) according to
3.【題組】3. It can be inferred from the passage that most pottery establishments in ancient Greece were situated
(A) in city centers
(B) on the outskirts of cities
(C) where clay could be found
(D) near other potters’ workshops
4.【題組】4. The word “marked” in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) original
(B) attractive
(C) noticeable
(D) patterned
5.【題組】5. The word “confine” in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) adapt
(B) train
(C) restrict
(D) organize
6.【題組】6. It can be inferred from the passage that terra-cotta had which of the following advantages”
(A) It did not break during the firing process.
(B) It was less expensive than other available materials.
(C) Its surface had a lasting shine.
(D) It could be used for many purposes.
7.【題組】7. The word “presumably” in line 21 is closest in meaning to
(A) frequently
(B) practically
(C) preferably
(D) probably
8.【題組】8. The word “they” in line 23 refers to
(A) molds
(B) particular effects
(C) products
(D) vessels and figurines
9.【題組】9. According to the passage, all of the following are true of ancient Greek potters and vase painters EXCEPT:
(A) Their functions were so specialized that they lacked common concerns.
(B) They sometimes produced inferior ware.
(C) They produced pieces that had unusual color and shine.
(D) They decorated many of their works with human images.
10.Question 10-19 Geographers say that what defines a place are four properties: soil, climate, altitude, and aspect, or attitude to the Sun. Florida’s ancient scrub demonstrates this principle. Its soil is pure silica, so barren it supports only lichens as ground cover.( It does, however, sustain a sand-swimming lizard that cannot live where there is moisture or plant matter (5) the soil.) Its climate, despite more than 50 inches of annual rainfall, is blistering desert plant life it can sustain is only the xerophytic, the quintessentially dry. Its altitude is a mere couple of hundred feet, but it is high ground on a peninsula elsewhere close to sea level, and its drainage is so critical that a difference of inches in elevation can bring major changes in its plant communities. Its aspect is flat, direct, brutal—and subtropical. Florida’s surrounding lushness cannot impinge on its desert scrubbiness. This does not sound like an attractive place. It does not look much like one either; Shrubby little oaks, clumps of scraggly bushes, prickly pear, thorns, and tangles. “It appear Said one early naturalist,” to desire to display the result of the misery through which it has Passed and is passing.” By our narrow standards, scrub is not beautiful; neither does it meet our selfish utilitarian needs. Even the name is an epithet, a synonym for the stunted, the scruffy, the insignificant, what is beautiful about such a place? The most important remaining patches of scrub lie along the Lake Wales Ridge, a chain of paleoislands running for a hundred miles down the center of Florida, in most places less than ten miles wide. It is relict seashore, tossed up millions of years ago when ocean levels (20) were higher and the rest of the peninsula was submerged. That ancient emergence is precisely what makes Lake Wales Ridge so precious: it has remained unsubmerged, its ecosystems essentially undisturbed, since the Miocene era. As a result, it has gathered to itself one of the largest collections of rare organisms in the world. Only about 75 plant species survive there, but at least 30 of these are found nowhere else on Earth.
【題組】10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) How geographers define a place
(B) The characteristics of Florida’s ancient scrub
(C) An early naturalist’s opinion of Florida
(D)The history of the Lake Wales Ridge
11.【題組】11. The author mentions all of the following as factors that define a place EXCEPT
(A) aspect
(B) altitude
(C) soil
(D) life-forms
12.【題組】12. It can be inferred from the passage that soil composed of silica
(A) does not hold moisture
(B) is found only in Florida
(C) nourishes many kinds of ground cover
(D) provides food for many kinds of lizards
13.【題組】13. The word” sustain” in line 6 is closets in meaning to
(A) select
(B) strain
(C) support
(D) store
14.【題組】14. The author mentions the prickly pear (line 12) as an example of
(A) valuable fruit-bearing plants of the scrub area
(B) unattractive plant life of the scrub area
(C) a pant discovered by an early naturalist
(D) plant life that is extremely are
15.【題組】15. The author suggests that human standards of beauty are
(A) tolerant
(B) idealistic
(C) defensible
(D) limited
16.【題組】16. The word “insignificant” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
(A) unimportant
(B) undisturbed
(C) immature
(D) inappropriate
17.【題組】17. According to the passage, why is the Lake Wales Ridge valuable?
(A) It was originally submerged in the ocean.
(B) It is less than ten miles wide.
(C) It is located near the seashore.
(D) It has ecosystems that have long remained unchanged
18.【題組】18. The word “it” in line 22 refer to
(A) Florida
(B) the peninsula
(C) the Lake Wales Ridge
(D) the Miocene era
19.【題組】19. The passage probably continues with a discussion of
(A) ancient scrub found in other areas of the country
(B) geographers who study Florida’s scrub
(C) the climate of the Lake Wales Ridge
(D) the unique plants found on the Lake Wales Ridge
20.Question 20-30 It is estimated that over 99 percent of all species that ever existed have become extinct. What causes extinction? When a species is no longer adapted to a changed environment, it may perish. The exact causes of a species’ death vary from situation Line to situation. Rapid ecological change may render an environment hostile to a species. For example, temperatures may change and a species may not be able to adapt. Food Resources may be affected by environmental changes, which will then cause problems For a species requiring these resources. Other species may become better adapted to an Environment, resulting in competition and, ultimately, in the death of a species. The fossil record reveals that extinction has occurred throughout the history of Earth. (10) Recent analyses have also revealed that on some occasions many species became extinct at the same time—a mass extinction. One of the best-known examples of mass extinction occurred 65 million years ago with the demise of dinosaurs and many other forms of life. Perhaps the largest mass extinction was the one that occurred 225 million years ago, When approximately 95 percent of all species died, Mass extinctions can be caused by (15) a relatively rapid change in the environment and can be worsened by the close interrelationship of many species. If, for example, something were to happen to destroy much of the plankton in the oceans, then the oxygen content of Earth would drop, affection even organisms not living in the oceans. Such a change would probably lead to a mass extinction. One interesting, and controversial, finding is that extinctions during the past 250 Million years have tended to be more intense every 26 million years. This periodic extinction might be due to intersection of the Earth’s orbit with a cloud of comets, but this theory is purely speculative. Some researchers have also speculated tat extinction may often be random. That is, certain species may be eliminated and others may survive (25) for no particular reason. A species’ survival may have nothing to do with its ability or inability to adapt. If so, some of evolutionary history may reflect a sequence of essentially random events.
【題組】20. The word “it” in line 3 refers to
(A) environment
(B) species
(C) extinction
(D) 99 percent
21.【題組】21. The word “ultimately” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) exceptionally
(B) dramatically
(C) eventually
(D) unfortunately
22.【題組】22. What does the author say in paragraph 1 regarding most species in Earth’s history
(A) They have remained basically unchanged from their original forms.
(B) They have been able to adapt to ecological changes.
(C) They have caused rapid change in the environment.
(D) They are no longer in existence.
23.【題組】23. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 1 as resulting from rapid ecological change?
(A)Temperature changes
(B)Availability of food resources
(C)Introduction of new species
(D)Competition among species
24.【題組】24. The word “demise” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A) change
(B) recovery
(C) help
(D) death
25.【題組】25. Why is “ plankton” mentioned in line 17?
(A) To demonstrate the interdependence of different species
(B) To emphasize the importance of food resources in preventing mass extinction.
(C) To illustrate a comparison between organisms that live on the land and those that live in the ocean
(D) To point out that certain species could never become extinct.
26.【題組】26. According to paragraph 2, evidence from fossils suggests that
(A) extinction of species has occurred from time to time throughout Earth’s history.
(B) Extinctions on Earth have generally been massive
(C) there has been only one mass extinction in Earth’s history.
(D) dinosaurs became extinct much earlier than scientists originally believed.
27.【題組】27. The word “finding” in line 20 is closest in meaning to
(A) published information
(B) research method
(C) ongoing experiment
(D) scientific discovery
28.【題組】28. Which of the following can be in
(A) Many scientists could be expected to disagree with it
(B) evidence to support the theory has recently been found.
(C) The theory is no longer seriously considered.
(D) Most scientists believe the theory to be accurate.
29.【題組】29. In paragraph 3, the author makes which of the following statements about a species’ survival?
(A) It reflects the interrelationship of may species.
(B) It may depend on chance events.
(C) It does not vary greatly from species to species
(D) It is associated with astronomical conditions.
30.【題組】30. According to the passage, it is believed that the largest extinction of a species occurred
(A) 26 million years ago
(B) 65 million years ago
(C) 225 million years ago
(D) 250 million years ago
31.Question 30-40 Because the low latitudes of the Earth, the areas near the equator, receive more heat Than the latitudes near the poles, and because the nature of heat is to expand and move, Heat is transported from the tropics to the middle and high latitudes. Some of this heat is Line Moved by winds and some by ocean currents, and some gets stored in the atmosphere in (5) the form of latent heat. The term “latent heat” refers to the energy that has to be used to Convert liquid water to water vapor. We know that if we warm a pan of water on a stove, it will evaporate, or turn into vapor, faster than if it is allowed to sit at room temperature. We also know that if we hang wet clothes outside in the summertime they will dry faster than in winter, when temperatures are colder. The energy used in both cases to change (10) liquid water to water vapor is supplied by heat—supplied by the stove in the first case and by the Sun in the latter case. This energy is not lost. It is stored in water vapor in the atmosphere as latent heat. Eventually, the water stored as vapor in the atmosphere will condense to liquid again, and the energy will be released to the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, a large portion of the Sun’s incoming energy is used to evaporate (15) Water, primarily in the tropical oceans. Scientists have tried to quantify this proportion of the Sun’s energy. By analyzing temperature, water vapor, and wind data around the globe, they have estimated the quantity to be about 90 watts per square meter, or nearly 30 percent of the Sun’s energy. Once this latent heat is stored within the atmosphere, it can be transported, primarily to higher latitudes, by prevailing, large-scale winds. Or it (20) can be transported vertically to higher levels in the atmosphere, where it forms clouds and subsequent storms, which then release the energy back to the atmosphere.
【題組】31. The passage mainly discusses how heat
(A)is transformed and transported in the Earth’s atmosphere
(B)is transported by ocean currents
(C)can be measured and analyzed by scientists
(D)moves about the Earth’s equator
32.【題組】32. The passage mentions that the tropics differ from the Earth’s polar regions in which of the following ways?
(A)The height of cloud formation in the atmosphere
(B)The amount of heat they receive from the Sun
(C)The strength of their largescale winds.
(D)The strength of their oceanic currents
33.【題組】33. The word “convert” line 6 is closest in meaning to
(A)mix
(B)change
(C)adapt
(D)reduce
34.【題組】34. Why does the author mention “the stove” in line 10?
(A)To describe the heat of the Sun
(B)To illustrate how water vapor is stored
(C)To show how energy is stored
(D)To give an example of a heat source
35.【題組】35. According to the passage, most ocean water evaporation occurs especially
(A)around the higher latitudes
(B)in the tropics
(C)because of large-scale winds
(D)because of strong ocean currents
36.【題組】36. According to the passage, 30 percent of the Sun’s incoming energy
(A)is stored in clouds in the lower latitudes
(B)is transported by ocean currents
(C)never leaves the upper atmosphere
(D)gets stored as latent heat
37.【題組】37. The word “it” in line 18 refers to
(A)square meter
(B)the Sun’s energy
(C)latent heat
(D)the atmosphere
38.【題組】38. The word “primarily” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A)chiefly
(B)originally
(C)basically
(D)clearly
39.【題組】39. The word “prevailing” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A)essential
(B)dominant
(C)circular
(D)closest
40.【題組】40. All of the following words are defined in the passage EXCEPT
(A)low latitudes (line1)
(B)latent heat (line5)
(C)evaporate (line7)
(D)atmosphere (line140)
41.Question 41-50 The Moon, which has undergone a distinct and complex geological history, presents a striking appearance. The moon may be divided into two major terrains: the maria (dark lowlands) and the terrace( bright highlands). The contrast in the reflectivity (the capability of reflecting light ) of these two terrains suggested to many early observers that the two (5) terrains might have different compositions, and this supposition was confirmed by missions to the Moon such as Surveyor and Apollo. One of the most obvious differences between the terrains is the smoothness of the maria in contrast to the roughness of the highlands. This roughness is mostly caused by the abundance of craters; the highlands are completely covered by large craters( greater than 40-50 km in diameter), while the craters (10) of the maria tend to be much smaller. It is now known that the vast majority of the Moon’s craters were formed by the impact of solid bodies with the lunar surface. Most of the near side of the Moon was thoroughly mapped and studied from telescopic pictures years before the age of space exploration. Earth-based telescopes can resolve objects as small as a few hundred meters on the lunar surface. Close observation of (15) craters, combined with the way the Moon diffusely reflects sunlight, led to the understanding that the Moon is covered by a surface layer, or regolith, that overlies the solid rock of the Moon. Telescopic images permitted the cataloging of a bewildering array of land forms. Craters were studied for clues to their origin; the large circular maria were (20) seen. Strange, sinuous features were observed in the maria. Although various land forms were catalogued, the majority of astronomers’ attention was fixed on craters and their origins. Astronomers have known for a fairly long time that the shape of craters changes as they increase in size. Small craters with diameters of less than 10-15 km have relatively (25) simple shapes. They have rim crests that are elevated above the surrounding terrain, smooth, bowl-shaped interiors, and depths that are about one-fifth to one-sixth their diameters. The complexity of shape increases for larger craters.
【題組】41. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)What astronomers learned from the Surveyor and Apollo space missions
(B)Characteristics of the major terrains of the Moon
(C)The origin of the Moon’s craters
(D)Techniques used to catalogue the Moon’s land forms
42.【題組】42. The word ”undergone” in line1 is closest in meaning to
(A)altered
(B)substituted
(C)experienced
(D)preserved
43.【題組】43. According to the passage, the maria differ from the terrace mainly in terms of
(A)age
(B)manner of creation
(C)size
(D)composition
44.【題組】44. The passage supports which of the following statements about the Surveyor and Apollo missions?
(A)They confirmed earlier theories about the Moon’s surface.
(B)They revealed that previous ideas about the Moon’s craters were incorrect.
(C)They were unable to provide detailed information about the Moon’s surface.
(D)They were unable to identify how the Moon’s craters were made.
45.【題組】45. The word ”vast” in line 10 is closest in meaning to
(A) special
(B) known
(C) varied
(D) great
46.【題組】46. All of the following are true of the maria EXCEPT:
(A)They have small craters.
(B)They have been analyzed by astronomers.
(C)They have a rough texture.
(D)They tend to be darker than the terrace.
47.【題組】47. All of the following terms are defined in the passage EXCEPT
(A)Moon (line1)
(B)reflectivity(line3)
(C)regolith(line16)
(D)rays(line19)
48.【題組】48. The author mentions “wispy marks” in line 19 as an example of
(A)an aspect of the lunar surface discovered through lunar missions
(B)a characteristic of large craters
(C)a discovery made through the use of Earth-based telescopes
(D)features that astronomers observed to be common to Earth and the Moon
49.【題組】49. According to the passage, lunar researchers have focused mostly on
(A)the possibility of finding water on the Moon
(B)the lunar regolith
(C)cataloging various land formations
(D)craters and their origins
50.【題組】50. The passage probably continues with a discussion of
(A)the reasons craters are difficult to study
(B)the different shapes small craters can have
(C)some features of large craters
(D)some difference in the ways small and large craters were formed