Hunting is at best a precarious way of procuring food, even when the diet is supplemented with
seeds and fruits. Not long after the last Ice Age, around 7,000 B.C. (during the Neolithic period),
some hunters and gatherers began to rely chiefly on agriculture for their sustenance. Others
continued the old pastoral and nomadic ways. Indeed, agriculture itself evolved over the course of
(5) time, and Neolithic peoples had long known how to grow crops. The real transformation of human
life occurred when huge numbers of people began to rely primarily and permanently on the grain
they grew and the animals they domesticated.
Agriculture made possible a more stable and secure life. With it Neolithic peoples flourished,
fashioning an energetic, creative era. They were responsible for many fundamental inventions and
(10)innovations that the modern world takes for granted. First, obviously, is systematic agriculture---
that is, the reliance of Neolithic peoples on agriculture as their primary, not merely subsidiary,
source of food.
Thus they developed the primary economic activity of the entire ancient world and the basis of all
modern life. With the settled routine of Neolithic farmers came the evolution of towns and
(15)eventually cities. Neolithic farmers usually raised more food than they could consume, and their
surpluses permitted larger, healthier populations. Population growth in turn created an even
greater reliance on settled farming, as only systematic agriculture could sustain the increased
numbers of people. Since surpluses o food could also be bartered for other commodities, the
Neolithic era witnessed the beginnings of large-scale exchange of goods. In time the increasing
(20)complexity of Neolithic societies led to the development of writing, prompted by the need to keep
records and later by the urge to chronicle experiences, learning, and beliefs.
The transition to settled life also had a profound impact on the family. The shared needs and
pressures that encourage extended-family ties are less prominent in settled than in nomadic
societies. Bonds to the extended family weakened. In towns and cities, the nuclear family was
(25)more dependent on its immediate neighbors than on kinfolk.
【題組】 1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Why many human societies are dependent on agriculture
(B) the changes agriculture brought to human life
(C) How Neolithic peoples discovered agriculture
(D) Why the first agricultural societies failed
2.【題組】2. The word "precarious" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
3.【題組】3. The author mentions "seeds and fruits" in line 2 as examples of
(A) the first crops cultivated by early agricultural societies
(B) foods eaten by hunters and gatherers as a secondary food source
(C) types of food that hunters and gatherers lacked in their diets
(D) the most common foods cultivated by early agricultural societies
4.【題組】4. The word "settled" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
5.【題組】5. According to the passage, agricultural societies produced larger human populations because
(A) created more varieties of food
(B) created food surpluses
(C) resulted in increases in leisure time
(D) encouraged bartering
6.【題組】6. According to the passage, all of the following led to the development of writing EXCEPT the
(A) need to keep records
(B) desire to write down beliefs
(C) extraction of ink from plants
(D)growth of social complexity
7.【題組】7. The word "chronicle" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
8.【題組】8. According to the passage, how did the shift to agricultural societies impact people's family
(A) the extended family became less important.
(B) Immediate neighbors often became family members.
(C) the nuclear family became self-sufficient.
(D) Family members began to wok together to raise food.
9.【題組】9. The author mentions all of the following as results of the shift to agricultural societies EXCEPT
(A) an increase in invention and innovation
(B) emergence of towns and cities
(C) development of a system of trade
(D) a decrease in warfare
10.【題組】10. Which of the following is true about the human diet prior to the Neolithic period?
(A) It consisted mainly of agricultural products
(B) It varied according to family size.
(C) It was based on hunting and gathering.
(D) It was transformed when large numbers of people no longer depended on the grain they grew
In the North American colonies, red ware, a simple pottery fired at low temperatures, and stone
ware, a strong, impervious grey pottery fired at high temperatures, were produced from two
different native clays. These kind of pottery were produced to supplement imported European
pottery. When the American Revolution (1775-1783) interrupted the flow of the superior European
(5) ware, there was incentive for American potters to replace the imports with comparable domestic
goods. Stoneware, which had been simple, utilitarian kitchenware, grew increasingly ornate
throughout the nineteenth century, and in addition to the earlier scratched and drawn designs,
three-dimensional molded relief decoration became popular. Representational motifs largely
replaced the earlier abstract decorations. Birds and flowers were particularly evident, but other
(10)subjects---lions, flags, and clipper ships--- are found. Some figurines, mainly of dogs and lions,
were made in this medium. Sometimes a name, usually that of the potter, was die-stamped onto a
As more and more large kilns were built to create the high-fired stoneware, experiments revealed
that the same clay used to produce low-fired red ware could produce a stronger, paler pottery if
(15)fired at a hotter temperature. The result was yellow ware, used largely for serviceable items; but a
further development was Rockingham ware--- one of the most important American ceramics of the
nineteenth century. (The name of the ware was probably derived from its resemblance to English
brown-glazed earthenware made in South Yorkshire.) It was created by adding a brown glaze to
the fired clay, usually giving the finished product a mottled appearance. Various methods of
(20)spattering or sponging the glaze onto the ware account for the extremely wide variations in color
and add to the interest of collecting Rockingham. An advanced form of Rockingham was flint
enamel, created by dusting metallic powders onto the Rockingham glaze to produce brilliant
Articles for nearly every household activity and ornament could be bought in Rockingham ware:
(25)dishes and bowls, of course; also bedpans, foot warmers, cuspidors, lamp bases, doorknobs,
molds, picture frames, even curtain tiebacks. All these items are highly collectible today and are
eagerly sought. A few Rockingham specialties command particular affection among collectors and
correspondingly high prices.
【題組】11. Why did the potters discussed in the passage change the kind of pottery they made?
(A) They discovered a new kind of clay.
(B) They were compensation for the loss of an overseas supplier.
(C) They studied new techniques in Europe.
(D) The pottery they had been producing was not very strong.
12.【題組】12. The word "ornate" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
13.【題組】13. The passage suggests that the earliest stoneware
(A) was decorated with simple, abstract designs
(B) used three-dimensional decorations
(C) was valued for its fancy decorations
(D) had no decoration
14.【題組】14. How did yellow ware achieve its distinctive color?
(A) By sponging on a glaze
(B) By dusting on metallic powders
(C) By brown-glazing
(D) By firing at a high temperature
15.【題組】15. The phrase "derived from" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A) ruined by
(B) warned against
(C) based on
(D) sold by
16.【題組】16. The word "It" in line 20 refers to
(A) red ware
(B) yellow ware
(C) Rockingham ware
(D) English brown-glazed earthenware
17.【題組】17. The word “Various" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
18.【題組】18. The phrase "account for" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
19.【題組】19. What was special about flint enamel?
(A) Its even metallic shine
(B) Its mottled appearance
(C) Its spattered effect
(D) Its varicolored streaks
20.【題組】20. Which of the following kinds of Rockingham ware were probably produced in the greatest
(A) Picture frames
(B) Dishes and bowls
(C) Curtain tiebacks
21.【題組】21. The passage would most probably continue with a discussion of
(A) what bedpans, foot warmers, and cuspidors were used for
(B) well-known, modern-day potters who make Rockingham ware
(C) examples of Rockingham ware that collectors especially want
(D) pieces of Rockingham ware that are inexpensive in today's market
Archaeological discoveries have led some scholars to believe that the first Mesopotamian
inventors of writing may have been a people the later Babylonians called Subarians. According to
tradition, they came from the north and moved into Uruk in the south. By about 3100B.C, They
were apparently subjugated in southern Mesopotamia by the Sumerians, whose name became
(5) synonymous with the region immediately north of the Persian Gulf, in the fertile lower valleys of the
Tigris and Euphrates. Here the Sumerians were already well established by the year 3000B.C.
They had invented bronze, an alloy that could be cast in molds, out of which they made tools and
weapons. They lived in cities, and they had begun to acquire and use capital. Perhaps most
important, the Sumerians adapted writing (probably from the Subarians) into a flexible tool of
Archacologists have known about the Sumerians for over 150 years. Archacologists working at
Nineveh in northern Mesopotamia in the mid-nineteenth century found many inscribed clay tablets.
Some they could decipher because the language was a Semitic one (Akkadian), on which scholars
had already been working for a generation. But other tablets were inscribed in another language
(15)that was not Semitic and previously unknown. Because these inscriptions mad reference to the
king of Sumer and Akkad, a scholar suggested that the mew language be called Sumerian.
But it was not until the 1890's that archaeologists excavating in city-states well to the south o f
Nieveh found many thousands of tablets inscribed in Sumerian only. Because the Akkadians
thought of Sumerian as a classical language (as ancient Greek and Latin are considered today),
(20)they taught it to educated persons and they inscribed vocabulary, translation exercised, and other
study aids on tablets. Working from known Akkadian to previously unknown Sumerian, scholars
since the 1890's have learned how to read the Sumerian language moderately well. Vast quantities
of tablets in Sumerian have been unearthed during the intervening years from numerous sites.
【題組】22. According to the passage, the inventors of written language in Mesopotamia were probably the
23.【題組】23. The word "subjugated" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
24.【題組】24. The phrase "synonymous with" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) equivalent to
(B) important for
(C) respected in
(D) familiar with
25.【題組】25. According to the passage, by the year 3000 B.C. the Sumerians had already done all of the
(A) They had abandoned the area north of the Persian Gulf.
(B) They had established themselves in cities.
(C) They had started to communicate through
(D) They had created bronze tools and weapons.
26.【題組】26. The word "some" in line 14 refers to
(D) clay tablets
27.【題組】27. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the Sumerians?
(A) They were descendants of the Persians.
(B) They were the first people to cultivate the valley of the Tigris.
(C) They were accomplished musicians.
(D)They had the beginnings of an economy.
28.【題組】28. According to the passage, when did archaeologists begin to be able to understand tablets inscribed in Sumerian?
(A)IN the early nineteenth century
(B) More than 150 years ago
(C) After the 1890's
(D) In the mid-eighteenth century
29.【題組】29. According to the passage, in what way did the Sumerian language resemble ancient Greek
(A) It was invented in Mesopotamia.
(B) It became well established around 3000 B.C.
(C) It became a classical language.
(D) It was used exclusively for business transactions.
30.【題組】30. The word "excavating" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
31.【題組】31. According to the passage, how did archaeologists learn to read the Sumerian language?
(A) By translating the work of the Subarians
(B) By using their knowledge of spoken Semitic languages
(C) By comparing Sumerian to other classical languages
(D) By using their knowledge of Akkadian
Generally, in order to be preserved in the fossil record, organisms must possess hard body parts
such as shells or bones. Soft, fleshy structures are quickly destroyed by predators pr decayed by
bacteria. Even hard parts left on the surface for and length of time will be destroyed Therefore,
organisms must be buried rapidly to escape destruction by the elements and to be protected
(5) agents of weathering and erosion Marine organisms thus are better candidates for
fossilization than those living on the land because the ocean is typically the site of sedimentation,
whereas the land is largely the site of erosion.
The beds of ancient lakes were also excellent sites for rapid burial of skeletal remains of
freshwater organisms and skeletons of other animals, including those of early humans Ancient
(10)swamps were particularly plentiful with prolific growths of vegetation, which fossilized in
abundance. Many animals became trapped in bogs overgrown by vegetation. The environment of
the swamps kept bacterial decay to a minimum, which greatly (aideD)in the preservation of plants
and animals. The rapidly accumulating sediments in flood plains, deltas, and stream channels
buried freshwater organisms, along with other plants and animals that happened to fall into the
Only a small fraction of all the organisms that have ever lived are preserved as fossils. Normally,
the remains of a plant or animal are completely destroyed through predation and decay. Although
it seems that fossilization is common for some organisms, for others it is almost impossible. For
the most part, the remains of organisms are recycled in the earth, which is fortunate because
(20)otherwise soil and water would soon become depleted of essential nutrients. Also, most of the
fossils exposed on Earth’s surface are destroyed by weathering processes. This makes for an
incomplete fossil record with poor or no representation of certain species.
The best fossils are those composed of unaltered remains. Generally, it is the inorganic hard parts,
composed mostly of calcium carbonate, that form the vast majority of unaltered fossils. Calcite and
(25)aragonite also contributed to a substantial number of fossils of certain organisms.
【題組】32. According to the passage, an organism without hard body parts
(A)is not likely to appear in the fossil record
(B)is not heavy enough to sink below the surface
(C)is not attractive to predators
(D)takes a long time to decay
33.【題組】33. The word "agents" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
34.【題組】34. Why are marine organisms good candidates for fossilization?
(A) they have more fleshy structures than land organisms.
(B) It is likely that they will be buried rapidly
(C) The water environment speeds the decay caused by bacteria.
(D) It takes longer for them to be preserved.
35.【題組】35. The fact that the "land is largely the site of erosion" (line 7) is significant because
(A) erosion is less destructive than sedimentation
(B) fossils are most common in areas subject to erosion
(C) erosion contributes to the destruction of skeletal remains
(D) few organisms live in areas that experience extensive erosion
36.【題組】36. According to the passage, why were the remains of organisms trapped in swamps better
preserved for the fossil record than those that were not?
(A) The swamp environment reduced the amount of bacterial decay.
(B) Swamp waters contained higher amounts of materials such as calcium carbonate.
(C) There were fewer sediments in swamps than in other bodies of water.
(D) Swamp vegetation accelerated the decomposition of organisms.
37.【題組】37. The word "aided" in line 12 is closest in meaning to
38.【題組】38. It can be inferred that flood plains, deltas, and stream channels (lines 13-14) are similar in
which of the following ways?
(A) Animals rather than plants have been preserved at such locations.
(B) Such locations are likely to be rich sources of fossils.
(C) Fossilized human remains are only rarely found in such locations.
(D) Rapid sedimentation in such locations makes it difficult to locate fossils.
39.【題組】39. What is the author's main point in paragraph 3?
(A) Weathering makes it impossible to identify many fossils.
(B) Many fossils have been buried forever under the soil.
(C) Fossils provide a limited sample of ancient organisms.
(D) It is easier to find the remains of plants than animals.
40.【題組】40. Why does the author mention "aragonite" in line 26
(A) To explain why fossils are rare
(B) To compare aragonite fossils and calcite fossils
(C) To argue that certain fossils are more informative than others
(D) To illustrate the kinds of inorganic hard parts that can form fossils
Naturalists and casual observers alike have been struck by the special relationship
between squirrels and acorns (the seeds of oak trees). Ecologists, though, cannot observe
These energetic mammals scurrying up and down oak trees and eating and burying acorns
without wondering about their complex relationship with trees. Are squirrels dispersers
(5) and planters of oak forests or pesky seed predators? The answer is not simple. Squirrels
may devour many acorns, but by storing and failing to recover up to 74 percent of them
(as they do when seeds are abundant), these arboreal o
odents can also aid regeneration
and dispersal of the oaks.
Their destructive powers are well documented. According to one report, squirrels
(10)destroyed tens of thousands of fallen acorns from an oak stand on the University of
Indiana campus. A professor there estimated that each of the large while oaks had
Produced between two and eight thousand acorns, but within weeks of seed maturity,
Hardly an intact acorn could be found among the fallen leaves.
Deer, turkey, wild pigs, and bears also feed heavily on acorns, but do not store them,
(15)And are therefore of no benefit to the trees. Flying squirrels, chipmunks, and mice are
Also unlikely to promote tree dispersal--- whose behavior of caching (hiding) acorns below
The leaf litter often promotes successful germination of acorns --- and perhaps blue jays,
Important long-distance dispersers, seem to help oaks spread and reproduce.
Among squirrels, though, there is a particularly puzzling behavior pattern. Squirrels
(20)pry off the caps of acorns, bite through the shells to get at the nutritious inner kernels,
and then discard them half-eaten. The ground under towing oaks is often littered with
thousands of half -eaten acorns, each one only bitten from the top. Why would any animal
waste so much time and energy and risk exposure to such predators as red-tail hawks only
to leave a large part of each acorn uneaten? While research is not conclusive at this point,
(25)one thing that is certain is that squirrels do hide some of the uneaten portions, and these
acorn halves, many of which contain the seeds, may later germinate.
【題組】41. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The ecology of oak trees
(B) Factors that determine the feeding habits of Squirrels
(C) Various species of animals that promote the dispersal of tree seeds
(D) The relationship between squirrels and oak trees
42.【題組】42. The word "they" in line 7 refers to
(A) oak forests
43.【題組】43. According to the passage, what do squirrels do when large quantities of acorns are available?
(A) They do not store acorns.
(B) They eat more than 74 percent of available acorns.
(C) They do not retrieve all the acorns that they have stored.
(D) They hide acorns in tree cavities.
44.【題組】44. The word "estimated" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
45.【題組】45. Why does the author mention “the University of Indiana campus" in line 10-11
(A) To provide evidence that intact acorns are hard to find under oak trees
(B) To indicate a place where squirrels can aid seed dispersal of oaks
(C) To argue in favor of additional studies concerning the destructive force of squirrels
(D) To support the claim that squirrels can do great damage to oak stands
46.【題組】46. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that chipmunks do not aid in the dispersal of oak trees
(A)they store their acorns where they cannot germinate
(B) they consume most of their stored acorns
(C) their stored acorns are located and consumed by other species
(D) they cannot travel the long distance required for dispersal
47.【題組】47. According to the passage, which of the following do squirrels and blue jays have in common?
(A) They travel long distances to obtain acorns.
(B) They promote the reproduction of oak trees.
(C) They bury acorns under fallen leaves.
(D) They store large quantities of acorns.
48.【題組】48. The phrase “pry off" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
49.【題組】49. The word "littered" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
50.【題組】50. According to the passage, scientists cannot explain which of the following aspects of squirrel
(A) Where squirrels store their acorn caches
(B) Why squirrels prefer acorns over other seeds
(C) Why squirrels eat only a portion of each acorn they retrieve
(D) Why squirrels prefer acorns from a particular species of oak trees