By far the most important United States export product in the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries was cotton, favored by the European textile industry over flax or
wool because it was easy to process and soft to tile touch. Mechanization of spinning
Line and weaving allowed significant centralization and expansion in the textile industry during
(5) this period, and at the same time the demand for cotton increased dramatically. American
producers were able to meet this demand largely because of tile invention of the cotton gin
by Eli Whitney in 1793. Cotton could be grown throughout the South, but separating the
fiber---or lint--from the seed was a laborious process. Sea island cotton was relatively
easy to process by hand, because its fibers were long and seeds were concentrated at the
(10) base of the flower, but it demanded a long growing season, available only along the
nation's eastern seacoast. Short-staple cotton required a much shorter growing season,
but the shortness of the fibers and their mixture with seeds meant that a worker could
hand-process only about one pound per day. Whitney's gin was a hand-powered machine
with revolving drums and metal teeth to pull cotton fibers away from seeds. Using the gin,
(15) a worker could produce up to '50 pounds of lint a day. The later development of larger
gins, powered by horses, water, or steam, multiplied productivity further.
The interaction of improved processing and high demand led to the rapid spread of
the cultivation of cotton and to a surge in production. It became the main American
export, dwarfing all others. In 1802, cotton composed 14 percent of total American
(20))exports by value. Cotton had a 36 percent share by 1810 and over a 50 percent share
in 1830. In 1860, 61 percent of the value of American exports was represented by cotton.
In contrast, wheat and wheat flour composed only 6 percent of the value of American
exports in that year. Clearly, cotton was king in the trade of the young republic. The
growing market for cotton and other American agricultural products led to an
(25) unprecedented expansion of agricultural settlement, mostly in the eastern half of the
United States---west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River.
1. The main point of the passage is that the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were a time when
(A) the European textile industry increased its demand for American export products
(B) mechanization of spinning and weaving dramatically changed the textile industry
(C) cotton became a profitable crop but was still time-consuming to process
(D) cotton became the most important American export product
3.【題組】3. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as reasons for the increased demand for
(A) cotton's softness
(B) cotton's ease of processing
(C) a shortage of flax and wool
(D) the growth that occurred in the textile industry.
6.【題組】6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about cotton production in the United
States after the introduction of Whitney's cotton gin?
(A) More cotton came from sea island cotton plants than before.
(B) More cotton came from short-staple cotton plants than before.
(C) Most cotton produced was sold domestically.
(D) Most cotton produced was exported to England.
8.【題組】8. The author mentions "wheat and wheat flour" in line 22 in order to
(A) show that Americans exported more agricultural products than they imported.
(B) show the increase in the amount of wheat products exported.
(C) demonstrate the importance of cotton among American export products.
(D) demonstrate that wheat farming was becoming more profitable.
10.【題組】10. According to the passage, the Mississippi River was
(A) one of the boundaries of a region where new agricultural settlement took place
(B) a major source of water for agricultural crops
(C) the primary route by which agricultural crops were transported
(D) a main source of power for most agricultural machinery
The origins of nest-building remain obscure, but current observation of nest-building
activities provide evidence of their evolution. Clues to this evolutionary process can be
found in the activities of play and in the behavior and movements of birds during mating,
Line such as incessant pulling at strips of vegetation or scraping of the soil. During the early
(5) days of the reproductive cycle, the birds seem only to play with the building materials. In
preparation for mating, they engage in activities that resemble nest-building, and continue
these activities throughout and even after the mating cycle. Effective attempts at construction
occur only after mating.
Although nest-building is an instinctive ability, there is considerable adaptability in
(10) both site selection and use of materials, especially with those species which build quite
elaborate constructions. Furthermore, some element of learning is often evident since
younger birds do not build as well as their practiced elders. Young ravens, for example,
first attempt to build with sticks of quite unsuitable size, while a jackdaw's first nest
includes virtually any movable object. The novelist John Steinbeck recorded the contents
(15) of a young osprey nest built in his garden, which included three shirts, a bath towel, and
Birds also display remarkable behavior in collecting building materials. Crows have
been seen to tear off stout green twigs, and sparrowhawks will dive purposefully onto a
branch until it snaps and then hang upside down to break it off. Golden eagles, over
(20) generations of work, construct enormous nests. One of these, examined after it had been
dislodged by high winds, weighed almost two tons and included foundation branches
almost two meters long. The carrying capacity of the eagles, however, is only relative to
their size ant1 most birds are able to carry an extra load of just over twenty percent of their
【題組】11. The word "obscure" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
12.【題組】12. According to the passage, which of the following activities is characteristic of the early part of the reproductive cycle of birds?
(A) Selecting a mate
(B) Collecting nest-building materials
(C) Playing with nest-building materials
(D) Building a nest
14.【題組】14. The novelist John Steinbeck is mentioned in line 14 because he
(A) conducted a scientific study on the behavior of ospreys
(B) was the first to describe where ospreys built their nests
(C) described the materials ospreys can use to build their nests
(D) compared the size of osprey nests with the nests of other species
16.【題組】16. According to the passage, when gathering materials to build their nests, sparrowhawks do
which of the following?
(A) Hang upside down
(B) Select only green twigs
(C) Use objects blowing in the wind
(D) Collect more branches than necessary
19.【題組】19. The author mentions twenty percent in line 23 to indicate that
(A) eagles are twenty percent bigger than most birds
(B) twenty percent of all nests include foundation branches
(C) the nests of eagles are twenty percent of larger than those of other birds
(D) birds can carry twenty percent of their own weight
A survey is a study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire, that provides
information concerning how people think and act. In the United States, the best-known
surveys are the Gallup poll and the Harris poll. As anyone who watches the news during Line
campaigns presidential knows, these polls have become an important part of political life in
(5) the United States.
North Americans are familiar with the many "person on the street? interviews on local
television news shows. While such interviews can be highly entertaining, they are not
necessarily an accurate indication of public opinion. First, they reflect the opinions of only
those people who appear at a certain location. Thus, such samples can be biased in favor
(10) of commuters, middle-class shoppers, or factory workers, depending On which area the
newspeople select. Second, television interviews tend to attract outgoing people who are
willing to appear on the air, while they frighten away others who may feel intimidated by
a camera. A survey must be based on a precise, representative sampling if it is to genuinely
reflect a broad range of the population.
(15) In preparing to conduct a survey, sociologists must exercise great care in the wording
of questions. An effective survey question must be simple and clear enough for people to
understand it. It must also be specific enough so that there are no problems in interpreting
the results. Even questions that are less structured must be carefully phrased in order to elicit
the type of information desired. Surveys can be indispensable sources of information, but
(20) only if the sampling is done properly and the questions are worded accurately.
There are two main forms of surveys: the interview and the questionnaire. Each of these
forms of survey research has its advantages. An interviewer can obtain a high response rate
because people find it more difficult to turn down a personal request for an interview than
to throw away a written questionnaire. In addition, an interviewer can go beyond written
(25) questions and probe for a subject's underlying feelings and reasons. However, questionnaires
have the advantage of being cheaper and more consistent.
【題組】20. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The history of surveys in North America
(B) The principles of conducting surveys
(C) Problems associated with interpreting surveys
(D) The importance of polls in American political life
22.【題組】22. According to the passage, the main disadvantage of person-on-the-street interviews is that
(A) are not based on a representative sampling
(B) are used only on television
(C) are not carefully worded
(D) reflect political opinions
24.【題組】24. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is most important for an effective survey?
(A) A high number of respondents
(B) Carefully worded questions
(C) An interviewer's ability to measure respondents' feelings
(D) A sociologist who is able to interpret the results
27.【題組】27. It can be inferred from the passage that one reason that sociologists may become frustrated
with questionnaires is that
(A) respondents often do not complete and return questionnaires
(B) questionnaires are often difficult to read
(C) questionnaires are expensive and difficult to distribute
(D) respondents are too eager to supplement questions with their own opinions
28.【題組】28. According to the passage, one advantage of live interviews over questionnaires is that live
(A) cost less
(B) can produce more information
(C) are easier to interpret
(D) minimize the influence of the researcher
Perhaps one of the most dramatic and important changes that took place in the
Mesozoic era occurred late in that era, among the small organisms that populate the
uppermost, sunlit portion of the oceans--the plankton. The term "plankton" is a broad
Line one, designating all of the small plants and animals that float about or weakly propel
(5) themselves through the sea. In the late stages of the Mesozoic era. during the Cretaceous
period, there was a great expansion of plankton that precipitated skeletons or shells
composed of two types of mineral: silica and calcium carbonate. This development
radically changed the types of sediments that accumulated on the seafloor, because,
while the organic parts of the plankton decayed after the organisms died, their mineralized
(10) skeletons often survived and sank to the bottom. For the first time in the Earth's long
history, very large quantities of silica skeletons, which would eventually harden into rock,
began to pile up in parts of the deep sea. Thick deposits of calcareous ooze made up of
the tiny remains of the calcium carbonate-secreting plankton also accumulated as never
before. The famous white chalk cliffs of Dover, in the southeast of England, are just one
(15) example of the huge quantities of such material that amassed during the Cretaceous
period; there are many more. Just why the calcareous plankton were so prolific during
the latter part of the Cretaceous period is not fully understood. Such massive amounts
of chalky sediments have never since been deposited over a comparable period of time.
The high biological productivity of the Cretaceous oceans also led to ideal conditions
(20) for oil accumulation. Oil is formed when organic material trapped in sediments is slowly
buried and subjected to increased temperatures and pressures, transforming it into
petroleum. Sediments rich in organic material accumulated along the margins of the
Tethys Seaway, the tropical east-west ocean that formed when Earth's single landmass
(known as Pangaea) split apart during the Mesozoic era. Many of today's important oil
(25) fields are found in those sediments--in Russia, the Middle East, the Gulf of Mexico, and
in the states of Texas and Louisiana in the United States.
【題組】31. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) How sediments were built up in oceans during the Cretaceous period
(B) How petroleum was formed in the Mesozoic era
(C) The impact of changes in oceanic animal and plant life in the Mesozoic era
(D) The differences between plankton found in the present era and Cretaceous plankton
32.【題組】32. The passage indicates that the Creiaceous period occurred
(A) in the early part of the Mesozoic era
(B) in the middle part of the Mesozoic era
(C) in the later part of the Mesozoic era
(D) after the Mesozoic era
35.【題組】35. According to the passage, the most dramatic change to the oceans caused by plankton during
the Cretaceous period concerned
(A) the depth of the water
(B) the makeup of the sediment on the ocean floor
(C) the decrease in petroleum-producing sediment
(D) a decline in the quantity of calcareous ooze on the seafloor
36.【題組】36. The "white chalk cliffs of Dover" are mentioned in line 14 of the passage to
(A) show where the plankton sediment first began to build up
(B) provide an example of a plankton buildup that scientists cannot explain
(C) provide an example of the buildup of plankton sediment
(D) indicate the largest single plankton buildup on Earth
Of all modern instruments, the violin is apparently one of the simplest. It consists in
essence of a hollow, varnished wooden sound box, or resonator, and a long neck, covered
with a fingerboard, along which four strings are stretched at high tension. The beauty of
Line design, shape, and decoration is no accident: the proportions of the instrument are
(5) determined almost entirely by acoustical considerations. Its simplicity of appearance is
deceptive. About 70 parts are involved in the construction of a violin, Its tone and its
outstanding range of expressiveness make it an ideal solo instrument. No less important.
however, is its role as an orchestral and chamber instrument. In combination with the
larger and deeper-sounding members of the same family, the violins form the nucleus
(10) of the modern symphony orchestra.
The violin has been in existence since about 1550. Its importance as an instrument
in its own right dates from the early 1600's, when it first became standard in Italian
opera orchestras. Its stature as an orchestral instrument was raised further when in 1626
Louis XIII of France established at his court the orchestra known as Les vingt-quatre
(15) violons du Roy (The King's 24 Violins), which was to become widely famous later in
In its early history, the violin had a dull and rather quiet tone resulting from the fact
that the strings were thick and were attached to the body of the instrument very loosely.
During the eighteenth and nineteenth century, exciting technical changes were inspired
(20) by such composer-violinists as Vivaldi and Tartini. Their instrumental compositions
demanded a fuller, clearer, and more brilliant tone that was produced by using thinner
strings and a far higher string tension. Small changes had to be made to the violin's
internal structure and to the fingerboard so that they could withstand the extra strain.
Accordingly, ,a higher standard of performance was achieved, in terms of both facility
(25) and interpretation. Left-hand technique was considerably elaborated, and new fingering
patterns on the fingerboard were developed for very high notes.
【題組】40. The word "standard" in line 12 is closest in meaning to
41.【題組】41. "The King’s 24 Violins" is mentioned in line 15 to illustrate
(A) how the violin became a renowned instrument
(B) the competition in the 1600's between French and Italian orchestras
(C) the superiority of French violins
(D) why the violin was considered the only instrument suitable to be played by royalty
42.【題組】42. What is the main idea presented in paragraph 3?
(A) The violin has been modified to fit its evolving musical functions.
(B) The violin is probably the best known and most widely distributed musical instrument in the
(C) The violin had reached the height of its popularity by the middle of the eighteenth century.
(D) The technique of playing the violin has remained essentially the same since the 1600's.
43.【題組】43. The author mentions Vivaldi and Tartini in line 20 as examples of composers whose music
(A) inspired more people to play the violin
(B) had to be adapted to the violin
(C) demanded more sophisticated violins
(D) could be played only by their students
47.【題組】47. According to the passage, early violins were different from modern violins in that early violins
(A) were heavier
(B) broke down more easily
(C) produced softer tones
(D) were easier to play
50.【題組】50. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as contributing to the ability to play modern violin music EXCEPT
(A) more complicated techniques for the left hand
(B) different ways to use the fingers to play very high notes
(C) use of rare wood for the fingerboard and neck
(D) minor alterations to the structure of the instrument