Europa is the smallest of planet Jupiter’s four largest moons and the second moon
out from Jupiter. Until 1979, it was just another astronomy textbook statistic. Then
came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within
days, Europa was transformed-in our perception, at least-into one of the solar system’s
(5)most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the almost total lack of detail,
especially from far away. Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked
brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell. And this analogy is not far off the mark.
The surface of Europa is almost pure water ice, but a nearly complete absence of
craters indicates that Europa’s surface ice resembles Earth’s Antarctic ice cap. The
(10) eggshell analogy may be quite accurate since the ice could be as little as a few kilometers
thick –a true shell around what is likely a subsurface liquid ocean that , in turn, encases
a rocky core. The interior of Europa has been kept warm over the eons by tidal forces
generated by the varying gravitational tugs of the other big moons as they wheel around
Jupiter. The tides on Europa pull and relax in an endless cycle. The resulting internal heat
(15) keeps what would otherwise be ice melted almost to the surface. The cracklike marks on
Europa’s icy face appear to be fractures where water or slush oozes from below.
Soon after Voyager 2’s encounter with Jupiter in 1979, when the best images of
Europa were obtained, researchers advanced the startling idea that Europa’s subsurface
ocean might harbor life. Life processes could have begun when Jupiter was releasing a
(20 )vast store of internal heat. Jupiter’s early heat was produced by the compression of the
material forming the giant planet. Just as the Sun is far less radiant today than the primal
Sun, so the internal heat generated by Jupiter is minor compared to its former intensity.
During this warm phase, some 4.6 billion years ago, Europa’s ocean may have been liquid
right to the surface, making it a crucible for life. 【題組】
1.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)The effect of the tides on Europa’s interior
(B)Temperature variations on Jupiter’s moons
(C)Discoveries leading to a theory about one of Jupiter’s moons
(D)Techniques used by Voyager 2 to obtain close-up images.
3.【題組】3.In line 7, the another mentions “cracks in an eggshell” in order to help readers
(A)visualize Europa as scientists saw it in the Voyager 2 images
(B)appreciate the extensive and detailed information available by viewing Europa from far away
(C)understand the relationship of Europa to the solar system
(D)recognize the similarity of Europa to Jupiter’s other moons
4.【題組】4. It can be inferred from the passage that astronomy textbooks prior to 1979
(A) provided many contradictory statistics about Europa
(B) considered Europa the most important of Jupiter’s moons
(C) did not emphasize Europa because little information of interest was available
(D) did nor mention Europa because it had not yet been discovered
5.【題組】5. what does the author mean by stating in line 7 that “this analogy is not far off the mark”?
(A) The definition is not precise.
(B) The discussion lacks necessary information.
(C) The differences are probably significant.
(D) The comparison is quite appropriate.
6.【題組】6. IT can be inferred from the passage that Europa and Antarctica have in common which of the following?
(A) Both appear to have a surface with many craters.
(B) Both may have water beneath a thin, hard surface.
(C) Both have an ice can that is melting rapidly.
(D) Both have areas encased by a rocky exterior.
8.【題組】8. According to the passage, what is the effect of Jupiter’s other large moons on Europa?
(A) They prevent Europa’s subsurface waters from freezing.
(B) They prevent tides that could damage Europa’s surface.
(C) They produce the very hard layer of ice that characterizes Europa.
(D) They assure that the gravitational pull on Europa is maintained at a steady level.
9.【題組】9 According to the passage, what is believed to cause the thin lines seen on Europa’s surface?
(A) A long period of extremely high tides
(B) Water breaking through from beneath the surface ice
(C) The continuous pressure of slush on top of the ice
(D) Heat generated by the hot rocky core
Both in what is now the eastern and the southwestern United States, the peoples of
the Archaic era (8,000-1,000 B.C) were, in a way, already adapted to beginnings of
cultivation through their intensive gathering and processing of wild plant foods. In both
areas, there was a well-established ground stone tool technology, a method of pounding
(5)and grinding nuts and other plant foods, that could be adapted to newly cultivated foods.
By the end of the Archaic era, people in eastern North America had domesticated certain
native plants, including sunflowers; weeds called goosefoot, sumpweed, or marsh elder;
and squash or gourds of some kind. These provided seeds that were important sources of carbohydrates and fat in the diet.
(10) The earliest cultivation seems to have taken place along the river valleys of the
Midwest and the Southeast, with experimentation beginning as early as 7,000 years ago
and domestication beginning 4,000 to 2,000 years ago. Although the term “Neolithic” is
not used in North American prehistory, these were the first steps toward the same major subsistence changes that took place during the Neolithic (8,000-2,000 B.C.) period
(15)elsewhere in the world.
Archaeologists debate the reasons for beginning cultivation in the eastern part of the
continent. Although population and sedentary living were increasing at the time, there is
little evidence that people lacked adequate wild food resources; the newly domesticated
foods supplemented a continuing mixed subsistence of hunting, fishing, and gathering
(20)wild plants, Increasing predictability of food supplies may have been a motive. It has been suggested that some early cultivation was for medicinal and ceremonial plants rather than
for food. One archaeologist has pointed out that the early domesticated plants were all
weedy species that do well in open, disturbed habitats, the kind that would form around
human settlements where people cut down trees, trample the ground, deposit trash, and
(25)dig holes. It has been suggested that sunflower, sumpweed, and other plants almost
domesticated themselves, that is , they thrived in human –disturbed habitats, so humans intensively collected them and began to control their distribution. Women in the Archaic communities were probably the main experimenters with cultivation, because
ethnoarchaeological evidence tells us that women were the main collectors of plant food
and had detailed knowledge of plants.
【題組】10. The passage mainly discusses which of the following aspects of the life of Archaic peoples?
(A) The principal sources of food that made up their diet
(B) Their development of ground stone tool technology
(C) Their development of agriculture
(D) Their distribution of work between men and women
12.【題組】12 According to the passage, when did the domestication of plants begin in North America?
(A) 7,000 years ago
(B) 4,000 to 2,000 years ago
(C) Long after the Neolithic period
(D) Before the Archaic period
14.【題組】14. According to the passage, which of the following was a possible motive for the cultivation of plants in eastern North America?
(A) Lack of enough wild food sources
(B) The need to keep trees from growing close to settlements
(C) Provision of work for an increasing population
Desire for the consistent availability of food
16.【題組】16. The plant “sumpweed” is mentioned in line 25 in order to
(A) contrast a plant with high nutritional value with one with little nutritional value
(B) explain the medicinal use of a plant
(C) clarify which plants grew better in places where trees were not cut down
(D) provide an example of a plant that was easy to domesticate
18.【題組】18. According to the passage, which of the following is true about all early domesticated plants?
(A) They were varieties of weeds.
(B) They were moved from disturbed areas.
(C) They succeeded in areas with many trees.
(D) They failed to grow in trampled or damaged areas.
Many ants forage across the countryside in large numbers and undertake mass
migrations; these activities proceed because one ant lays a trail on the ground for the others
to follow. As a worker ant returns home after finding a source of food, it marks the route
by intermittently touching its stinger to the ground and depositing a tiny amount of trail
(5 )pheromone—a mixture of chemicals that delivers diverse messages as the context changes. These trails incorporate no directional information and may be followed by other ants in
Unlike some other messages, such as the one arising from a dead ant, a food trail has to
be kept secret from members of other species. It is not surprising then that ant species use
(10)a wide variety of compounds as trail pheromones. Ants can be extremely sensitive to these signals. Investigators working with the trail pheromone of the leafcutter ant Atta texana calculated that one milligram of this substance would suffice to lead a column of ants three times around Earth.
The vapor of the evaporating pheromone over the trail guides an ant along the way,
(15)and the ant detects this signal with receptors in its antennae. A trail pheromone will
evaporate to furnish the highest concentration of vapor right over the trail, in what is called a vapor space. In following the trail, the ant moves to the right and left, oscillating from side
to side across the line of the trail itself, bringing first one and then the other antenna into
the vapor space. As the ant moves to the right, its left antenna arrives in the vapor space.
(20)The signal it receives causes it to swing to the left, and the ant then pursues this new course
until its right antenna reaches the vapor space. It then swings back to the right, and so
weaves back and forth down the trail.
【題組】20. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The mass migration of ants
(B) How ants mark and follow a chemical trail
(C) Different species of ants around the world
(D) The information contained in pheromones
24.【題組】24. According to the passage, why do ants use different compounds as trail pheromones?
(A) To reduce their sensitivity to some chemicals
(B) To attract different types of ants
(C) To protect their trail from other species
(D) To indicate how far away the food is
25.【題組】25. The author mentions the trail pheromone of the leafcutter ant in line 11 to point out
(A) how little pheromone is needed to mark a trail
(B) the different types of pheromones ants can produce
(C) a type of ant that is common in many parts of the world
(D) that certain ants can produce up to one milligram of pheromone
26.【題組】26. According to the passage, how are ants guided by trail pheromones?
(A) They concentrate on the smell of food.
(B) They follow an ant who is familiar with the trail
(C) They avoid the vapor spaces by moving in a straight line.
(D) They sense the vapor through their antennae.
29.【題組】29. According to the passage, the highest amount of pheromone vapor is found
(A) in the receptors of the ants
(B) just above the trail
(C) in the source of food
(D) under the soil along the trail
Native Americans probably arrived from Asia in successive waves over several
millennia, crossing a plain hundreds of miles wide that now lies inundated by 160 feet
of water released by melting glaciers. For several periods of time, the first beginning
around 60,000 B.C. and the last ending around 7,000 B.C., this land bridge was open. The
(5 )first people traveled in the dusty trails of the animals they hunted. They brought with them
not only their families, weapons, and tools but also a broad metaphysical understanding,
sprung from dreams and visions and articulated in myth and song, which complemented
their scientific and historical knowledge of the lives of animals and of people. All this they
shaped in a variety of languages, bringing into being oral literatures of power and beauty.
(10) Contemporary readers, forgetting the origins of western epic, lyric, and dramatic
forms, are easily disposed to think of “literature” only as something written. But on
reflection it becomes clear that the more critically useful as well as the more frequently employed sense of the term concerns the artfulness of the verbal creation, not its mode of presentation. Ultimately, literature is aesthetically valued, regardless of language, culture,
(15)or mode of presentation, because some significant verbal achievement results from the
struggle in words between tradition and talent. Verbal art has the ability to shape out a compelling inner vision in some skillfully crafted public verbal form.
Of course, the differences between the written and oral modes of expression are not without consequences for an understanding of Native American literature. The essential
(20)difference is that a speech event is an evolving communication, an “emergent form,” the shape, functions, and aesthetic values of which become more clearly realized over the
course of the performance. In performing verbal art , the performer assumes responsibility
for the manner as well as the content of the performance, while the audience assumes the responsibility for evaluating the performer’s competence in both areas. It is this intense
(25)mutual engagement that elicits the display of skill and shapes the emerging performance.
Where written literature provides us with a tradition of texts, oral literature offers a
tradition of performances. 【題組】30. According to the passage, why did the first people who came to North America leave their homeland?
(A) They were hoping to find a better climate.
(B) They were seeking freedom.
(C) They were following instructions given in a dream.
(D) They were looking for food.
34.【題組】34. What is the main point of the second paragraph?
(A) Public performance is essential to verbal art.
(B) Oral narratives are a valid form of literature.
(C) Native Americans have a strong oral tradition in art.
(D) The production of literature provides employment for many artists.
35.【題組】35. What can be inferred about the nature of the Native American literature discussed in the passage?
(A) It reflects historical and contemporary life in Asia.
(B) Its main focus is on daily activities.
(C) It is based primarily on scientific knowledge.
(D) It is reshaped each time it is experienced.
36.【題組】36. According to the passage, what responsibility does the audience of a verbal art performance have ?
(A) They provide financial support for performances.
(B) They judge the quality of the content and presentation.
(C) They participate in the performance by chanting responses.
(D) They determine the length of the performance by requesting a continuation.
37.【題組】37. Which of the following is NOT true of the Native American literature discussed in the passage?
(A) It involves acting.
(B) It has ancient origins.
(C) It has a set form.
(D) It expresses an inner vision.
38.【題組】38. What can be inferred from the passage about the difference between written and oral literature?
(A) Written literature reflects social values better than oral literature does.
(B) Written literature involves less interaction between audience and creator during the creative progress than oral literature does.
(C) Written literature usually is not based on historical events, whereas oral literature is.
(D) Written literature is not as highly respected as oral literature is.
39.【題組】39. What is the author’s attitude toward Native American literature?
(A) Admiring of its form
(B) Critical of the cost of its production
(C) Amused by its content
(D) Skeptical about its origins
The cities in the United States have been the most visible sponsors and beneficiaries
of projects that place art in public places. They have shown exceptional imagination in
applying the diverse forms of contemporary art to a wide variety of purposes. The
activities observed in a number of “pioneer” cities sponsoring art in public places—a
(5 ) broadening exploration of public sites, an increasing awareness among both sponsors
and the public of the varieties of contemporary artistic practice, and a growing public enthusiasm—are increasingly characteristic of cities across the country. With many
cities now undergoing renewed development, opportunities are continuously emerging
for the inclusion or art in new or renewed public environments, including buildings,
(10)plazas, parks, and transportation facilities. The result of these activities is a group of
artworks that reflect the diversity of contemporary art and the varying character and
goals of the sponsoring communities.
In sculpture, the projects range from a cartoonlike Mermaid in Miami Beach by
Roy Lichtenstein to a small forest planted in New York City by Alan Sonfist. The use
(15) of murals followed quickly upon the use of sculpture and has brought to public sites the
work of artists as different as the realist Thomas Hart Benton and the Pop artist Robert Rauschenberg. The specialized requirements of particular urban situations have further expanded the use of art in public places: in Memphis, sculptor Richard Hunt has created
a monument to Martin Luther King, Jr., who was slain there; in New York, Dan Flavin
(20) and Bill Brand have contributed neon and animation works to the enhancement of mass
transit facilities. And in numerous cities, art is being raised as a symbol of the
commitment to revitalize urban areas.
By continuing to sponsor projects involving a growing body of art in public places,
cities will certainly enlarge the situations in which the public encounters and grows
(25)familiar with the various forms of contemporary art. Indeed, cities are providing artists
with an opportunity to communicate with a new and broader audience. Artists are
recognizing the distinction between public and private spaces, and taking that into account
when executing their public commissions. They are working in new, often more durable
media, and on an unaccustomed scale.
【題組】40. What is the passage mainly about?
(A) The influence of art on urban architecture in United States cities
(B) The growth of public art in United States cities.
(C) The increase in public appreciation of art in the United States
(D) The differences between public art in Europe and the United States.
42.【題組】42. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 1 as results of the trend toward installing contemporary art in public places in the United States EXCEPT
(A) the transfer of artwork from private to public sites
(B) artworks that represent a city’s special character
(C) greater interest in art by the American public
(D) a broader understanding of the varieties of contemporary art
43.【題組】43. According to the passage, new settings for public art are appearing as a result of
(A) communities that are building more art museums
(B) artists who are moving to urban areas
(C) urban development and renewal
(D) an increase in the number of artists in the United States.
44.【題組】44.The author mentions Roy Lichtenstein and Alan Sonfist in line 14 in order to
(A) show that certain artist are famous mostly for their public art
(B) introduce the subject of unusual works of art
(C) demonstrate the diversity of artworks displayed in public
(D) contrast the cities of Miami Beach and New York
45.【題組】45.It can be inferred from the passage that the city of Memphis sponsored a work by Richard Hunt because the city authorities believed that
(A) the sculpture would symbolize the urban renewal of Memphis
(B) Memphis was an appropriate place for a memorial to Martin Luther Ling, Jr.
(C) the artwork would promote Memphis as a center for the arts
(D) the sculpture would provide a positive example to other artists.
50.【題組】50. According to paragraph 3, artists who work on public art projects are doing all of the following EXCEPT
(A) creating artworks that are unusual in size
(B) raising funds to sponsor various public projects
(C) exposing a large number of people to works of art
(D) using new materials that are long—lasting.