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TOEFL(Test of English as a Foreign Language)題庫 下載題庫

2003年8月托福閱讀#20899 

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1.Question 1-11 If food is allowed to stand for some time, it putrefies .When the putrefied material is examined microscopically ,it is found to be teeming with bacteria. Where do these bacteria come from , since they are not seen in fresh food? Even until the mid-nineteenth century, many people believed that such microorganisms originated by spontaneous (5 ) generation ,a hypothetical process by which living organisms develop from nonliving matter. The most powerful opponent of the theory of spontaneous generation was the French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur(1822-1895).Pasteur showed that structures present in air closely resemble the microorganisms seen in putrefying materials .He did (10) this by passing air through guncotton filters, the fibers of which stop solid particles. After the guncotton was dissolved in a mixture of alcohol and ether, the particles that it had trapped fell to the bottom of the liquid and were examined on a microscope slide .Pasteur found that in ordinary air these exists a variety of solid structures ranging in size from 0.01 mm to more than 1.0 mm .Many of these bodies resembled the reproductive (15)structures of common molds, single-celled animals, and various other microbial cells . As many as 20 to 30 of them were found in fifteen liters of ordinary air ,and they could not be distinguished from the organisms found in much larger numbers in putrefying materials .Pasteur concluded that the organisms found in putrefying materials originated from the organized bodies present in the air .He postulated that these bodies are constantly (20)being deposited on all objects. Pasteur showed that if a nutrient solution was sealed in a glass flask and heated to boiling to destroy all the living organisms contaminating it, it never putrefied .The proponents of spontaneous generation declared that fresh air was necessary for spontaneous generation and that the air inside the sealed flask was affected in some way (25)by heating so that it would no longer support spontaneous generation. Pasteur constructed a swan-necked flask in which putrefying materials could he heated to boiling, but air could reenter. The bends in the neck prevented microorganisms from getting in the flask.. Material sterilized in such a flask did not putrefy.
【題組】 1,What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)Pasteur’s influence on the development of the microscope.
(B)The origin of the theory of spontaneous generation .
(C)The effects of pasteurization on food.
(D)Pasteur’s argument against the theory of spontaneous generation .
2.【題組】2,The phrase “teeming with ”in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A)full of
(B)developing into
(C)resistant to
(D)hurt by
3.【題組】3,Which of the following questions did the theory of spontaneous generation attempt to answer?
(A)What is the origin of the living organisms are seen on some food?
(B)How many types of organisms can be found on food?
(C)What is the most effective way to prepare living organisms for microscopic examination?
(D)How long can food stand before it putrefies?
4.【題組】4,The word “resemble” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A)benefit from
(B)appear similar to
(C)join together with
(D)grow from
5.【題組】5,The purpose of the “guncotton” mentioned in paragraph 2 was to
(A)trap particles for analysis
(B)slow the process of putrefaction
(C)increase the airflow to the microscopic slide
(D)aid the mixing of alcohol and ether
6.【題組】6,The author mention “1.0mm”in line 14 in describing the
(A)thickness of a layer of organisms that was deposited on an object
(B)diameter of the fibers that were in the guncotton filters
(C)thickness of the microscope slides that were used
(D)size of the particles that that were collected
7.【題組】7.The word “postulated”in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A)analyzed
(B)doubted
(C)persuaded
(D)suggested
8.【題組】8.The objects that Pasteut removed from the air in his experiment were remarkable because they were
(A)primarily single-celled organisms
(B)no different from objects found in putrefying materials
(C)fairly rare
(D)able to live in a mixture of alcohol and ether
9.【題組】9.The word “it” in line 22 refers to
(A)a nutrient solution
(B)a glass flask
(C)boiling
(D)spontaneous generation
10.【題組】10.According to paragraph 3,proponents of spontaneous generation believed that which of the following was important for the process to succeed ?
(A)A sealed container
(B)Fresh air
(C)Heat
(D)The presence of nutrients
11.【題組】11.It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that Pasteur employed a swam-necked flask to
(A)store sterilized liquids for use in future experiments
(B)prevent heat from building up in a solution
(C)disprove a criticism of his conclusions
(D)estimate the number of organisms in a liter of air
12.Questions 12-20 In the early decades of the United States ,the agrarian movement promoted the farmer as society’s hero. In the minds of agrarian thinkers and writers ,the farmer was a person on whose well-being the health of the new country depended .The period between the Revolution, which ended in 1783,and the Civil War ,which ended in 1865 ,was the age of (5 )the farmer in the United States .Agrarian philosophers ,represented most eloquently by Thomas Jefferson, celebrated farmers extravagantly for their supposed centrality in a good society, their political virtue ,and their Superior morality .And virtually all policy makers, whether they subscribed to the tenets of the philosophy held by Jefferson or not, recognized agriculture as the key component of the American economy .Consequently ,government at (10) all levels worked to encourage farmers as a social group and agriculture as economic enterprise. Both the national and state governments developed transportation infrastructure,building canals, roads, bridges, and railroads ,deepening harbors ,and removing obstructions from navigable streams .The national government imported plant and animal varieties and (15) launched exploring expeditions into prospective farmlands in the West .In addition , government trade policies facilitated the exporting of agricultural products. For their part ,farmers seemed to meet the social expectations agrarian philosophers had for them ,as their broader horizons and greater self-respect, both products of the Revolution ,were reflected to some degree in their behavior .Farmers seemed to become (20) more scientific ,joining agricultural societies and reading the farm newspapers that sprang up throughout the country .They began using improved implements, tried new crops and pure animal breeds , and became more receptive to modern theories of soil improvement . They also responded to inducements by national and state governments .Farmers streamed to the West ,filling frontier lands with stunning rapidity .But farmers responded (25) less to the expectations of agrarians and government inducements than to growing market opportunities .European demand for food from the United States seemed insatiable . War, industrialization , and urbanization all kept demand high in Europe . United States cities and industries grew as well; even industries not directly related to farming thrived because of the market, money ,and labor that agriculture provided .
【題組】12.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)The agrarian philosophy of Thomas Jefferson
(B)The role of the national government in the development of agriculture
(C)Improvements in farming techniques
(D)The impact of the increased importance of the farmer
13.【題組】13.The word “depended” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A)improved
(B)relied
(C)demanded
(D)explained
14.【題組】14.The author mentions Thomas Jefferson in paragraph 1 as an example of
(A)a leader during the Revolution
(B)an inventor of new farming techniques
(C)a philosopher who believed farmers were essential to the creation of a good society
(D)a farmer who guided the agrarian movement toward an emphasis on economic development
15.【題組】15.The phrase “subscribed to” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A)contributed to
(B)agreed with
(C)thought about
(D)expanded on
16.【題組】16.Which of the following statements is supported by the information in paragraph 1?
(A)All government policy makers accepted Jefferson’s views of agriculture and farmers.
(B)Agricultural production declined between 1783 and 1861.
(C)The majority of farmers worked for the government.
(D)Agriculture was a vital part of the nation’s economy.
17.【題組】17.According to the passage , the national and state governments did all of the following EXCEPT
(A)build roads
(B)import new plant varieties
(C)give farmers money for their crops
(D)develop policies that helped farmers export their products
18.【題組】18.All of the following are mentioned as examples of farmers’ meeting the expectations of agrarian philosophers EXCEPT
(A)obtaining information from farm newspapers
(B)accumulating personal wealth
(C)planting new crops
(D)becoming more scientific
19.【題組】19.The word “stunning” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A)predictable
(B)impressive
(C)famous
(D)gradual
20.【題組】20.Which of the following statements is best supported by paragraph 4?
(A)Agricultural development contributed to development in other parts of the economy.
(B)European agricultural products were of a higher quality than those produced in the United States.
(C)The growing settlement of the West led to a decrease in agricultural production.
(D)Farmers were influenced more by government policies than by market opportunities.
21.Question 21-29 The wide variety of climates in North America has helped spawn a complex pattern of soil regions. In general, the realm’s soils also reflect the broad environmental partitioning into “humid America” and “arid America.” Where annual precipitation exceeds 20 inches (50 centimeters),soils in humid areas tend to be acidic in chemical content, Since crops (5 ) do best in soils that are neither acidic(higher in acid content) nor alkaline(higher in salt content).fertilization is necessary to achieve the desired level of neutrality between the two. Arid America’s soils are typically alkaline and must be fertilized back toward neutrality by adding acidic compounds. Although many of these dryland soils, particularly in the Great Plains, are quite fertile, European settlers learned over a century ago that (10) water is the main missing ingredient in achieving their agricultural potential. In the 1970’s, certain irrigation methods were perfected and finally provided a real opportunity to expand more intensive farming west from the Central Lowland into the drier portions of the Great Plains. Glaciation also enhanced the rich legacy of fertile soils in the central United States,both from the deposition of mineral-rich glacial debris left by meltwater (15) and from thick layers of fine wind-blown glacial material, called loess, in and around the middle Mississippi Valley. Natural vegetation patterns could be displayed on a map of North America, but the enormous human modification of the North American environment in modern times has all but reduced this regionalization scheme to the level of the hypothetical. Nonetheless, (20) the humid America-arid America dichotomy is still a valid generalization: the natural vegetation of areas receiving more than 20 inches of water yearly is forest, whereas the drier climates give rise to a grassland cover. The forests of North America tent to make a broad transition by latitude. In the Canadian North, needle-leaf forests dominate, but these coniferous trees become mixed with broadleaf deciduous trees as one crosses the (25) border into the Northeast United States. As one proceeds toward the Southeast, broadleaf vegetation becomes dominant. Arid America mostly consists of short-grass prairies or stepper. The only areas of true desert are in the Southwest.
【題組】21 What aspect of North America does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The wide variety of climates
(B) Soil types and vegetation patterns
(C) Improved irrigation methods and the expansion of agriculture
(D) The change in precipitation patterns
22.【題組】22 The word “spawn ” in line 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) distinguish
(B) eliminate
(C) protect
(D) create
23.【題組】23 The word “partitioning” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) division
(B) modification
(C) opening
(D) circulating
24.【題組】24 According to the passage, acidic soils tent to be associated with
(A) a high salt content
(B) an increase in farming
(C) large amounts of rain
(D) glacial meltwater
25.【題組】25 The word “enhanced” in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) implied
(B) increased
(C) indicated
(D) informed
26.【題組】26 How did glacial meltdown affect the soil in North America?
(A) It redistributed the soil types
(B) It added salt to the soil
(C) It made the soil more neutral in content
(D) It added minerals to the soil
27.【題組】27 The phrase “this regionalization scheme” in line 19 refers to the
(A) movements of glacial deposits
(B) patterns of natural vegetation
(C) human modification of the North American environment
(D) distinction between humid America and arid America
28.【題組】28 The word “transition” in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) elevation
(B) change
(C) advantage
(D) condition
29.【題組】29 The passage supports which of the following statements?
(A) Arid America is not necessarily characterized by the presence of deserts
(B) Most of Canada and the northeastern United States consists of short-grass prairies wherever natural vegetation has not been modified by humans
(C) The accumulation of loess is primarily the result of irrigation
(D) Glaciation removed the fertile layer of soil from much of the Mississippi Valley
30.Questions 30-40 Most sources of illumination generate light over an appreciable period, and indeed if an object is lit for a very brief time(less that 1/25 second), the human eye will not react in time to see the object. A photographic emulsion---that is, a light-sensitive coating on photographic film, paper, or glass---will, however, record much shorter bursts of light. A (5 ) photographic flash can therefore be used to capture high-speed movement on film as well as to correct deficiencies of the normal surrounding lighting. Photoflash is now generated electronically, but the earliest form, first used in 1864, was a paper bag containing magnesium wire and some oxygen-rich substance, such as potassium chlorate. When the bag was ignited, the metal burned with an intense flash. A contemporary observer reported (10) that “this quite unsafe device seems to have done nothing worse that engulf the room in dense smoke and lead to pictures of dubious quality and odd poses.” The evolution of the photoflash was slow, flashbulbs, containing fine wire made of a metal, such as magnesium or aluminum, capable of being ignited in an atmosphere of pure oxygen at low pressure, were introduced only in the 1920’s. In the earliest type, the metal (15) was separated from the oxygen by a thin glass bulb. The flash was fired by piercing the bulb and allowing the oxygen to come into contact with the metal, which ignited spontaneously. Later bulbs were fired by an electric battery, which heated the wire by passing a small current through it. Other combinations, such as the pairing of oxygen difluoride with zirconium, have also been used. In each case enough energy is given out to (20) heat the oxidizable metal momentarily to a white-hot emission of visible light. The smoke particles are so small that they cool rapidly; but since they are white, they contribute to the brilliance by reflecting the light from their still-glowing neighbors. A slightly bigger form of the metal will burn for a longer time.
【題組】30 What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The history of the photoflash
(B) Theories about how the eye reacts to light
(C) The technology of modern photography
(D) The dangers of using the early photoflash
31.【題組】31 According to the passage,1/25 second is the minimum amount of time required for the
(A) recording of an image on film
(B) generation of artificial light
(C) creation of a photographic emulsion
(D) human eye to react to light
32.【題組】32 According to the passage, an advantage of using a photoflash is that it
(A) can produce repeated bursts of light
(B) intensities colors in photographs
(C) is short enough not to bother human eyes
(D) supplements existing lighting
33.【題組】33 The word “ignited” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) set on fire
(B) cut into
(C) opened
(D) shaken
34.【題組】34 Which of the following phrases is defined in paragraph 1?
(A)”appreciable period”(line 1)
(B)”photographic emulsion”(line 3)
(C)”high-speed movement”(line 5)
(D)”odd poses”(line 11)
35.【題組】35 The word “evolution” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A) publicity
(B) adoption
(C) development
(D) manufacture
36.【題組】36 The function of the glass in the first flashbulbs was to
(A) produce the spark that initiated the flash
(B) magnify the light produced by the flash
(C) protect the photographer from the heat of the flash
(D) keep the metal and oxygen apart before the flash
37.【題組】37 The word “it” in line 18 refers to
(A) oxygen
(B) battery
(C) wire
(D) current
38.【題組】38 The word “momentarily” in line 20 is closest in meaning to
(A) effortlessly
(B) briefly
(C) electronically
(D) gradually
39.【題組】39 According to the passage, the white color of the smoke particles generated by a flashbulb contributes to
(A) rapid cooling
(B) bright illumination
(C) electrical conductivity
(D) intense heat
40.【題組】40 According to the passage, a flashbulb can be made to burn longer by using
(A) thicker wire
(B) more oxygen
(C) thinner glass
(D) continuous electricity
41.Questions 41-50 The stylistic innovation in paining known as Impressionism began in the 1870’s. The Impressionists wanted to depict what they saw in nature, but they were inspired to portray fragmentary moments by the increasingly fast pace of modern life. They concentrated on the play of light over objects, people, and nature, breaking up seemingly solid surfaces, (5 ) stressing vivid contrast between colors in sunlight and shade, and depiction reflected light in all of its possibilities. Unlike earlier artists, they did not want to observe the world from indoors. They abandoned the studio, painting in the open air and recording spontaneous Impressions of their subjects instead of making outside sketches and then moving indoors to complete the work form memory. (10) Some of the Impressionists’ painting methods were affected by technological advances. For example, the shift from the studio to the open air was made possible in part by the advent of cheap rail travel, which permitted easy and quick access to the countryside or seashore, as well as by newly developed chemical dyes and oils that led to collapsible paint tubes, which enabled artists to finish their paintings on the spot. (15) Impressionism acquired its name not from supporters but from angry art lovers who felt threatened by the new painting. The term “Impressionism” was born in 1874,when a group of artists who had been working together organized an exhibition of their paintings in order to draw public attention to their work. Reaction from the public and press was immediate, and derisive. Among the 165 paintings exhibited was one called (20)Impression: Sunrise, by Claude Monet(1840-1926),Viewed through hostile eyes, Monet’s painting of a rising sun over a misty, watery scene seemed messy, slapdash, and an affront to good taste. Borrowing Monet’s title, art critics extended the term “Impressionism” to the entire exhibit. In response, Monet and his 29 fellow artists in the exhibit adopted the same name as a badge of their unity, despite individual differences. (25) From then until 1886 Impressionism had all the zeal of a “church”, as the painter Renoir put it. Monet was faithful to the Impressionist creed until his death, although many of the others moved on to new styles.
【題組】41 What aspect of painting in the nineteenth century does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The impact of some artists’ resistance to the fast pace of life
(B) The differences between two major styles of art
(C) A technological advance in the materials used by artists
(D) A group of artists with a new technique and approach to art
42.【題組】42 The word “depict” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) reorganize
(B) deform
(C) represent
(D) justify
43.【題組】43 According to the passage, which of the following was one of the distinguishing characteristics of Impressionist painting?
(A) The emphasis on people rather than nature scenes
(B) The way the subjects were presented from multiple angles
(C) The focus on small solid objects
(D) The depiction of the effects of light and color
44.【題組】44 Which of the following is a significant way in which Impressionists were different from the artists that preceded them?
(A) They began by making sketches of their subjects
(B) They painted their subjects out-of-doors
(C) They preferred to paint from memory
(D) They used subjects drawn from modern life
45.【題組】45 The word “advent” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A) achievement
(B) acceptance
(C) arrival
(D) advantage
46.【題組】46 The exhibition of paintings organized in 1874 resulted in all of the following EXCEPT
(A) attracting attention from the public
(B) a negative reaction from the press
(C) an immediate demand for the paintings exhibited
(D) creating a name for a new style of painting
47.【題組】47 The word “affront” in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(A) insult
(B) encouragement
(C) return
(D) credit
48.【題組】48 The rejection of the Impressionist exhibition by critics was caused by which of the following?
(A) The small number of paintings on display
(B) Lack of interest in exhibitions by young artists
(C) The similarity between all the paintings exhibited
(D) Anger about seemingly poorly painted art
49.【題組】49 The author mentions Renoir in line 25 to give an example of an artist who
(A) became as famous as Monet
(B) was consistently praised by art critics
(C) described the enthusiasm of the Impressionists for their work
(D) was in favor of a traditional style of painting
50.【題組】50 The word “others” in line 27 refers to
(A) art critics
(B) fellow artists
(C) individual differences
(D) new styles