Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories __21__ on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior __22__ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through __23__ with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in __24__ to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, __25__ as a rejection of middle-class values.
Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, __26__ the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes __27__ lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are __28__ to criticism.
Changes in the social structure may indirectly __29__ juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that __30__ to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment __31__ make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in __32__ lead more youths into criminal behavior.
Families have also __33__ changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; __34__, children are likely to have less supervision at home __35__ was common in the traditional family __36__. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other __37__ causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased __38__ of drugs and alcohol, and the growing __39__ of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, __40__ a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.