1.People living today in the northwestern state of Washington who have many sources
of news in addition to newspapers must stretch their imaginations to understand the
importance of the press during much of the state's history. Beginning in 1852 with
The Cohumblan. the first paper in Washington Territory, ,lewspapers served to connect
settlers in frontier communities with each other and with the rnajor events of their times.
Unlike many mid-century papers, The Columbian, published every Saturday in Olympia,
one of Washington's larger towns, was "neutral in politics," meaning that it was not the
organ of a particular political party or religious group. For its first few years, it was the
only newspaper in the territory, but during the following decades, enterprising
Washingtonians founded many other papers. Few of these papers lasted long. Until the
turn of the century, most were the production of an individual editor, who might begin
with insufficient capital or fail to attract a steady readership. Often working with no
staff at all, these editors wrote copy, set type, delivered papers, oversaw billing, and
sold advertising. Their highly personal journals reflected their own tastes, politics, and
known as the "Oregon style"--graphic, torrid, and potentially libelous.
Early newspapers were thick with print, carrying no illustrations or cartoons.
Advertising was generally confined to the back pages and simply listed commodities
received by local stores. Toward the end of the century, newspapers in Washington
began to carry national advertising, especially from patent medicine companies, which
bought space from agencies that brokered ads in papers all over the country. By 1900,
Washington boasted 19 daily and 176 weekly papers. Especially in the larger cities, they
reflected less the personal opinions of the editor than the interests of the large businesses
they had become. They subscribed to the Associated Press and United Press news
services, and new technology permitted illustrations. Concentrating on features, crime
reporting, and sensationalism, they imitated the new mass-circulation papers that William
Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer were making popular throughout the United States. 【題組】
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Ways in which various newspapers were advertised in Washington
(B) The history of newspapers in Washington
(C) Editors of the first Washington newspapers
(D) The illustrations in early Washington newspapers
2.【題組】2. What does the passage imply about early Washington newspapers?
(A) People relied on them as their primary source of news.
(B) They contained important historical articles.
(C) They were not as informative as today's newspapers.
(D) They rarely reflected the views of any particular religion.
6.【題組】6. According to the passage, which of the following was true of curly Washington newspapers?
(A) Most were owned by part-time editors who worked at other jobs.
(B) Most were run by editors who had little or no earlier newspaper experience.
(C) Most received financial support from the town in which they were published.
(D) Most stayed in business for only a short while.
7.【題組】7. What does the author mention as typical of early newspaper editors from Washington?
(A) Their capital grew rapidly.
(B) Their political opinions changed with time.
(C) They had many types of responsibilities.
(D) They were generally members of the same political party.
8.【題組】8. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about advertising in Washington newspapers of the mid-nineteenth century?
(A) It contained information about patent medicines.
(B) It focused on local rather than national products.
(C) It was printed on entire pages distributed in local stores.
(D) It was the only part of the paper containing cartoons.
10.Europa is the smallest of planet Jupiter's four largest moons and the second moon
out from Jupiter. Until 1979, it was just another astronomy textbook statistic. Then
came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within
days, Europa was transformed--in our perception, at least--into one of the solar system's
most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the ahnost total lack of detail,
especially from far away. Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked
brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell. And this analogy is not far offthe mark.
The surface of Europa is almost pure water ice, but a nearly complete absence of
craters indicates that Europa's surface ice resembles Earth's Antarctic ice cap. The
eggshell analogy may be quite accurate since the ice could be as little as a few kilometers
thick--a tree shell around what is likely a subsurface liquid ocean that, in turn, encases
a rocky core. The interior of Europa has been kept warm over the cons by tidal forces
generated by the varying gravitational tugs of the other big moons as they wheel around
Jupiter. The tides on Europa pull and relax in an endless cycle. The resulting internal heat
keeps what would otherwise be ice melted almost to the surface. The cracklike marks on
Europa's icy face appear to be fractures where water or slush oozes from below.
Soon after Voyager 2's encounter with Jupiter in 1979, when the best images of
Europa were obtained, researchers advanced the startling idea that Europa's subsurface
ocean might harbor life. Life processes could have begun when Jupiter was releasing a
vast store of internal heat. Jupiter's early heat was produced by the compression of the
material forming the giant planet. Just as the Sun is far less radiant today than the primal
Sun, so the internal heat generated by Jupiter is minor compared to its former intensity.
During this warm phase, some 4.6 billion years ago, Europa's ocean may have been liquid
right to the surface, making it a crucible for life.
【題組】10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The effect of the tides on Europa's interior
(B) Temperature variations on Jupiter's moons
(C) Discoveries leading to a theory about one of Jupiter's moons
(D) Techniques used by Voyager 2 to obtain close-up images
12.【題組】12. In line 7, the author mentions "cracks in an eggshell" in order to help readers
(A) visualize Europa as scientists saw it in the Voyager 2 images
(B) appreciate the extensive and detailed informalion available by viewing Europa from far away
(C) understand the relationship of Europa to the solar system
(D) recognize the similarity of Europa to Jupiter's other moons
13.【題組】13. It can be inferred from the passage that astronomy textbooks prior to 1979
(A) provided many contradictory statistics about Europa
(B) considered Europa the most important of Jupiter's moons
(C) did not emphasize Europa because little information of interest was available
(D) did not mention Europa because it had not yet been discovered
14.【題組】14. What does the author mean by stating in line 7 that "this analogy is not far off the mark"?
(A) The definition is not precise.
(B) The discussion lacks necessary information.
(C) The differences are probably significant.
(D) The comparison is quite appropriate.
15.【題組】15. It can be inferred from the passage that Europa and Antarctica have in common which of the following?
(A) Both appear to have a surface with many craters.
(B) Both may have water beneath a thin, hard surface.
(C) Both have an ice cap that is melting rapidly.
(D) Both have areas encased by a rocky exterior.
17.【題組】17. According to the passage, what is the effect of Jupiter's other large moons on Eurnpa?
(A) They prevent Europa's subsurface waters from freezing.
(B) They prevent tides that could damage Europa's surface.
(C) They produce the very hard layer of ice that characterizes Europa.
(D) They assure that the gravitational pull on Europa is maintained at a steady level.
18.【題組】18. According to the passage, Voyager 2's images Ied rcsearchers to develop which of the following theories'?
(A) Jupiter may be hotter today than it once was.
(B) Europa is far older than scientists originally thought
(C) Europa's temperature is maintained by Jupiter's vast store of internal heat.
(D) The ocean waters of Europa could contain some forms of life.
20.The term "print" has several meanings, so it is important to understand exactly what is
meant by the artistic terminology. A print in the artistic sense is not a reproduction of a
work of art done in some other medium, such as painting or drawing. That can in no sense
be considered a work of art, since the artist had no involvement with it. A print is an original
work of art created by an indirect method. Instead of making an image directly on a surface,
as in drawing or painting, the artist works on a master surface, which may be a sheet of
metal, a block of stone, wood, plastic, or linoleum. From this master surface, numerous
impressions may be made by inking the surface, laying a sheet of paper on it, and then
subjecting both surface and paper to pressure, generally by means of a printing press.
A print may exist in several versions. Sometimes the printmaker alters the image between
impressions, so that each print is slightly different from the others. Any series of such prints
is referred to as multiples. The number of impressions (known as the edition) that are
possible from a single original varies with the material. Prints made from linoleum, which
wears readily, will be fewer than those made from a metal plate, which is capable of striking
fine-quality prints in the thousands. It is customary to number prints as they come off the
press, the earlier impressions being the finest and therefore the most desirable.
Prints incorporate the same compositional principles, as paintings. Line, shape, or texture
may be the predominant element according to the printing technique used. Some prints have
obvious decorative qualities while others may be filled with emotional impact.
Printmaking derives from two historical sources: early woodblocks into which an
image was cut and used to illustrate a book or playing cards, and the medieval practice of
decorating metal with incised designs, as in armor. Today most techniques fall into one of
four categories: relief( intaglio, lithography, and serigraphy. However, there are many
variations, combinations with photographic techniques, and considerable overlapping.
【題組】20. In the artistic sense, a print is a work of art created by
(A) making a painting from an original drawing
(B) drawing or painting similar images many times
(C) transferring an original image from one surface to another
(D)copying an original image made on paper onto a hard surface
25.【題組】25. A metal plate is compared favorably with linoleum as a meter surface because a metal plate
(B) is less expensive
(C) makes prints more quickly
(D) produces a greater variety of prints
28.【題組】28. It can be inferred that prints may differ from other works of art in terms of all of the following EXCEPT
(A) compositional principles
(B) use of line, shape, or texture
(C) decorative qualities
(D) emotional impact
29.Water projects in the United States gained a new rationale in the 1930's as the nation
suffered its worst cconomic depression and the Great Plains region suffered its worst drought
in recorded history. As the economy sank into a deep depression and unemployment rates
increased, the political climate for direct federal govermnent involvement in water projects
improved. President Franklin Rooseveh's first 100 days in office brought a number of new
laws to deal with the severe economic depression that became known as the Great
Depression. Two of these laws, the Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933 and the
National Recovery Act of I933 (NIRA), had particular significance for water resource
The natural pattern of the Tennessee River was characterized by large spring flows that
produced destructive floods and low summer flows that inhibited navigation. The intensily
and frequency of the events discouraged development and contributed to persistent poverty
in the valley. To counter these natural obstacles, the Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933
created the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), a public agency with broad powers to
promote development in the region, including the authority to build dams and reservoirs
and to generate and sell hydroelectric power. The TVA is a unique institution in that it
brings all the water-related functions of the federal government under a single body. The
TVA used its authority to transform the Tennessee River into one of the most highly
regulated rivers in the world within about two decades. The TVA inherited the Wilson Dam,
and by the beginning of the Second World War it had completed six additional multipurpose
dams with power plants and locks for navigation. Investments in dams and hydropower
facilities within the Tennessee Valley also received high priority during the war.
The NIRA authorized the creation of the Public Works Administration to create jobs
while undertaking work of benefit to the community. The NIRA also gave the United States
President unprecedented powers to initiate public works, including water projects. The
Public Works Administration provided loans and grants to state and local governments and
to federal agencies for municipal waterworks, sewage plants, irrigation, flood control, and
【題組】29. All of the following are mentioned as resulting from the Great Depression EXCEPT
(A) an increase in unemployment
(B) a change in political thinking
(C) a different approach to water projects
(D) a new study of the history of droughts
30.【題組】30. It can be inferred from the passage that before the 1930's the role of the federal government in water projects was
(A) restricted to the Great Plains region
(B) more important than its role in other conservation projects
(C) more limited than it was after 1930
(D) designed to help with drought recovery
32.【題組】32. Which of the following discouraged development of the Tennessee Valley prior to 1933 ?
(A) Laws imposed by the local government
(B) The effects of seasonal flows of the river
(C) The lack of suitable building materials
(D) The geographical features of the valley
34.【題組】34. The passage mentions "the authority to build dams and reservoirs" in line 15 as an example of the
(A) wide powers of the Tennessee Valley Authority
(B) responsibilities of regional governments
(C) federal government's interests in profit-making water projects
(D) development needed to generate hydroelectric power
36.【題組】36. According to the passage, the Tennessee Valley Authority decided to
(A) introduce rules to control the use of the Tennessee River
(B) build the Wilson Dam
(C) reduce investment in hydropower facilities in the Tennessee Valley
(D) increase the price of electricity
39.【題組】39. According to the passage, one of the functions of the Public Works Administration was to
(A) replace the NIRA
(B) regulate federal agencies
(C) influence presidential policy
(D) give financial support to state and local governments
40.Many of the most flexible examples of tool use in animals come from primates (the order that includes humans, apes, and monkeys). For example, many wild primates use objects to threaten outsiders. But there are many examples of tool use by other mammals, as well as by birds and other types of animals.
Tools are used by many species in the capture or preparation of food. Chimpanzees
use sticks and poles to bring out ants and termites from their hiding places. Among the
most complex tool use observed in the wild is the use of stones by Ivory Coast
chimpanzees to crack nuts open. They select a large flat stone as an anvil (a heavy block
on which to place the nuts) and a smaller stone as a hammer. Stones suitable for use as
anvils are not easy to find, and often a chimpanzee may carry a haul of nuts more than
40 meters to find a suitable anvil. The use of tools in chimpanzees is especially interesting
because these animals sometimes modify tools to make them better suited for their
intended purpose. To make a twig more effective for digging out termites, for example,
a chimp may first strip it of its leaves.
Surprisingly, there is also a species of bird that uses sticks to probe holes in the search
for insects. One of the species of Galapagos finch, the woodpecker finch, picks up or
breaks off a twig, cactus spine, or leaf stem. This primitive tool is then held in the beak
and used to probe for insects in holes in trees that the bird cannot probe directly with its
beak. Birds have been seen to carry twigs from tree to tree searching for prey.
Tools may also be used for defense. Hermit crabs grab sea anemones with their claws
and use them as weapons to repel their enemies. Studies have demonstrated that these
crabs significantly improve their chances against predators such as octopus by means of
this tactic. Also, many species of forest-dwelling primates defend themselves by throwing
objects, including stones, at intruders.
【題組】40. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Primates are superior to other animals in using tools.
(B) The use of stones as tools is similar across different animal species.
(C) Birds and primates use tools that are different from those of sea animals.
(D) Many animals have developed effective ways of using tools.
41.【題組】41. Why does the author mention ants and termites in line 6 ?
(A) To give an example of food that chimpanzees collect by using tools
(B) To emphasize that ants and termites often hide together in the same place
(C) To identify an important part of the chimpanzee diet
(D) To point out a difference between two closely related species
42.【題組】42. According to the passage, Ivory Coast chimpanzees are among the most remarkable of animal tool users because they
(A) use tools to gather food
(B) use more than one tool to accomplish a task
(C) transport tools from one place to another
(D) hide their tools from other animals
47.【題組】47. According to the passage, what is characteristic of the way in which woodpecker finches hunt insects?
(A) The finches use different plant parts as tools to capture insects.
(B) The finches make narrow holes in trees to trap insects.
(C) The finches pick up insects that they find on leaves.
(D) The finches catch insects in the air as they fly from tree to tree.
48.【題組】48. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the behavior of the woodpecker finch?
(A) It uses its beak as a weapon against its enemies.
(B) It uses the same twig to look for food in different trees.
(C) It uses twigs and leaves to build its nest.
(D) It avoids areas where cactus
49.【題組】49. According to the passage, studies have shown that hermit crabs manage to turn octopus away by
(A) attacking the octopus with their claws
(B) using stones as weapons
(C) defending themselves with sea anemones
(D) hiding under sea plants
50.【題組】50. Forest primates and certain sea animals are mentioned in the passage as examples of animals that use tools for
(B) food preparation
(C) hunting prey
(D) building nests or home plants grow.