1.25.II．Grammar and Vocabulary
Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A,B,C and D. Choose the one answer that best completes the sentence.
John became a football coach in Sealion Middle School the beginning of March.
(A)on (B)for (C)with (D)at
Directions: For each blank in the following passages there are four words or phrases marked A, B,C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
Are your table manners much better when you are eating at a friend’s home or in a restaurant than they are at your own home ?Probably so , 45 you are aware that people judge you by your table manners .You take special pains when you are eating 46 .Have you ever stopped to realize how much less self-conscious you would be on such occasions if 47 table manners had become a habit for you ?You can make them a habit by 48 good table manners at home.
Good manners at mealtimes help you and those around you to feel 49 .This is true at home as much as it is true in someone else’s home or in a restaurant. Good 50 make meals more enjoyable for everyone at the table.
By this time you probably know quite well what good table manners are .You 51 that keeping your arms on the table ,talking with your 52 full ,and wolfing down your food are not considered good manners .You know also that if you are mannerly ,you say “Please” and “Thank you” and ask for things to be passed to you.
Have you ever thought of a pleasant attitude as being 53 to good table manners ? Not only are pleasant mealtimes enjoyable ,but they aid digestion .The dinner table is a 54 for enjoyable conversation. It should never become a battleground. You are definitely growing in social maturity（成熟）when you try to be an agreeable table companion. 【題組】45
(A)because (B)but (C)unless (D)though
There is a tendency to think of each of the arts as a separate area of activity . Many artists. 55 would prove that there has always been a warm relationship between the various areas of human activity. 56 , in the late nineteenth century the connections between music and painting were particularly 57 .Artists were invited to design clothes and settings for operas and ballets ,but sometimes it was the musicians who were inspired （给……以灵感）by the work of contemporary painters .Of the musical compositions that were considered as 58 to the visual arts ,perhaps the most famous is Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition.
Mussorgsky composed the piece in 1874 after the death ,at the age of 39, of the artist Victor Hartmann. 59 their friendship had not been a particularly long-fasting one .Mussorgsky was shocked by Hartmann’s 60 death.The following year the critic .Vladimir. Stasov who decided to hold an exhibition of Hartmann’s work,suggested that Mussorgsky try to 61 his grief by writing something in memory of Hartmann.
The exhibition served as Mussorgsky’s inspiration. The ten pieces that make up Pictures at an Exhibition are intended as 62 rather than representations of the paintings in the exhibition .Between each is a promenade（舞曲中的行进）, 63 the composer walks from one painting to another .The music is sometimes witty and playful sometimes almost alarming and frightening . Through a range of surprising 64 .Mussorgsky manages to convey the spirit of the artist and his work. 【題組】55.
(A)therefore (B)however (C)moreover (D)otherwise
Directions: Read the following four passages . Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements .For each or them there are four choices marked A,B,C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
You either have it , or you don’t –a sense of direction ,that is .But why is it that some people could find their way across the Sahara without a map ,while others can lose themselves in the next street?
Scientists say we’re all born with a sense of direction ,but it is not property understood how it works .One theory is that people with a good sense of direction have simply worked harder at developing it. Research being carried out at Liverpool University supports this idea and suggests that if we don’t use it. we lose it .
“Children as young as seven have the ability to find their way around.” says Jim Martland .Research Director of the project . “However if they are not allowed out alone or are taken everywhere by car ,they never develop the skills”
Jim Martland also emphasizes that young people should be taught certain skills to improve their sense of direction .He makes the following suggestions.
●If you are using a map ,turn it so it relates to the way you are facing.
●If you leave your bike in a strange place ,put it near something like a big stone or a tree.
Note landmarks on the route as you go away from your bike .When you return ,go back
along the same route
●Simplify the way of finding your direction by using lines such as streets in a town,
streams ,or walls in the countryside to guide you .Count your steps so that you know how
far you have gone and note any landmarks such as tower blocks or hills which can help to
find out where you are.
Now you need never get lost again! 【題組】65
Scientists believe that .
(A)some babies are born with a sense of direction
(B)people learn a sense of direction as they grow older
(C)people never lose their sense of direction
(D)everybody posses a sense of direction from birth
42.【題組】66．What is true of seven-year-old children according to the passage?
(A)They never have a sense of direction without maps.
(B)They should never be allowed out alone if they lack a sense of direction.
(C)They have a sense of direction and can find their way around.
(D)They can develop a good sense of direction if they are driven around in a car.
43.【題組】67．If you leave your bike in a strange place ,you should .
(A)tie it to a tree so as to prevent it from being stolen
(B)draw a map of the route to help remember where it is
(C)avoid taking the same route when you come back in it
(D)remember something easily recognizable on the route
44.【題組】68．According to the passage the best way to find your way around is to .
(A)ask policemen for directions
(B)use walls . streams , and streets to guide yourself .
(C)remember your route by looking out for steps and stairs .
(D)count the number of landmarks that you see .
“Come in . Kim . Have a seat , please .” said Bill Williams , the manager . This was Kim’s first experience with an assessment . After only six months he was due for a raise if this assessment was satisfactory
“Kim,” began Bill Williams . “I am very pleased with the quality of your work . I have nothing but praise for your devotion and your hard work . My only concern is that you are not active enough in putting forward your suggestions .”
“But.” Replied Kim. “I have always completed every assignment you have given me . Mr. Williams.”
“I know that , Kim . And please, call me Bill .But what I expect is for you to think independently and introduce new ideas . I need more input from you —more feedback on how things are going I don’t need a “yes man”. You never tell me what you think . You just smile as though everything is fine .”
“But,” said Kim,” “ I feel that since you are my superior , it would he presumptuous of me to tell you what to do .”
“I’m not asking you to tell me what to do, but what you think we could do .To make suggestions . I employed you because I respect your experience in this field, but you are not communicating your thoughts to me .”
“Yes . I see I’m not accustomed to this , but I will try to do as you say …, Bill”
“Good, then , I expect to hear more from you at staff meetings or at any other time you want to discuss an idea with me .”
“Yes , of course . Thank you Mr. Will…Bill .”
Kim is the sort of employee who .
(A)does not speak out his own ideas (B)is not devoted to the job
(C)laughs too much over work (D)can not finish his work on time
47.【題組】71．From the passage ,we can learn that .
(A)Kim has been invited to take charge of the staff meetings
(B)the manager appreciates those who just do what he tells them to do
(C)the manager is pleased with Kim’s hard work and his suggestions
(D)Kim is likely to have a higher salary if he can pass the assessment
48.cross the world , 11 billion people have no access to clean drinking water . More than2.6 bullion people lack basic sanitation (卫生设备) .
The combination proves deadly . Each year . diseases related to inadequate water and sanitation kill between 2 and 3 million people and cause an estimated 80 percent of all sicknesses in the developing world . Safe thinking water is a precondition for health and the fight against child death rate , inequality between men and women, and poverty .
Consider these facts :
●The average distance that women in Africa and Asia walk to collect water is 6 kilometers .
●Only 58 percent of children in sub-Saharan Africa are drinking safe water, and only 37 percent of children in South Asia have access to even a basic toilet .
●Each year in India alone, 73 million working days are lost to water-borne diseases .
Here are three ways you can help :
1) Write Congress
Current U.S. foreign aid for drinking water and sanitation budgets only one dollar per year per American citizen . Few members of Congress have ever received a letter from voters , about clean drinking water abroad .
2) Sponsor a project with a faith-based organization
Many U.S. religious groups already sponsor water and sanitation projects, working with partner organizations abroad . Simply put , a single project by a U.S. organization can make safe water a reality for thousands of people .
3) Support nonprofit water organizations
Numerous U.S.-based nonprofits work skillfully abroad in community-led projects related of drinking water and sanitation . Like the sample of non-profits noted as follows , some organizations are large , others small-scale , some operate worldwide , others are devoted to certain areas in Africa , Asia , or Latin America . Support them generously . 【題組】72.
The three facts presented in the passage the used to illustrate that .
(A)poverty can result in water-borne diseases
(B)people have no access to clean drinking water
(C)women’s rights are denied in some developing countries .
(D)safe drinking water should be a primary concern
50.【題組】74．The main purpose of the passage is to call on people to ___________.
(A)get rid of water-related diseases in developing countries
(B)donate money to people short of water through religious groups
(C)fight against the worldwide water shortage and sanitation problem
(D)take joint action in support of some nonprofit water organizations
51.【題組】75．What information will probably be provided following the last paragraph?
(A)A variety of companies and their worldwide operation.
(B)A list of nonprofit water organizations to make contact with.
(C)Some ways to get financial aids from U.S. Congress.
(D)A few water resources exploited by some world-famous organizations.
Equipped only with a pair of binoculars(双筒望远镜) and ready to spend long hours waiting in all weathers for a precious glance of a rare bullfinch(红腹灰雀). Britain’s birdwatchers had long been supposed to be lovers of a minority sport. But new figures show birdwatching is fast becoming a popular pastime, with almost three million of us absorbed in our fluttering feathered friends.
Devoted birdwatchers, those prepared to travel thousands of miles for a sighting of a rare Siberian bird are fast being joined by a new breed of follower whose interest is satiated by watching a few finches(雀科鸣鸟) on a Sunday walk or putting up a bird-box in the back garden.
“Almost three million UK birdwatchers is certainly possible if you include everyone with only a casual interest.” Stephen Moss said in his newly published book－A Bird in the Bush a Social History of Birdwatching－which records the pursuit from the rich Victorian Englishman’s love of shooting rare birds to the less offensive observational tendencies of birdwatchers today.
Television wildlife programmes have helped to fuel the new trend . Last summer ,BBC 2’s Britain Goes Wild was a surprise success .It pulled in three million viewers and led to bird-houses selling out across the UK as 45,000 people promised to put up a box.
Birdwatchers’ networking system first came to the attention of the nation in 1989, when a birdwatcher caught sight of the first Vermivora chrysoptera-a golden –winged songbird from North America－to be seen in Britain. He put a message our on the network service Birdline, and the next day 3,000 birdwatchers proved the fell pull of a truly rare bird as they visited the Tesco car park in Kent, where it had settled. Today, birdwatchers can log on to www.birdline.co.uk or have news of the latest sightings texted to their phones.
“Multimillion-pound spending on, binoculars, bird food and boxes point to the increasing numbers of birdwatchers,” said David Cromack, the editor of Bird Watching magazine “The number of people involved is so big that they have great potential to influence government decisions affecting the environment.” 【題組】76.
The word “satiated” in paragraph 2 can best be replaced by “ ”.
(A)affected (B)shared (C)satisfied (D)narrowed
53.【題組】77．What happened after the message of seeing a Vermivora chrysoptera was put on the network?
(A)Birdwatchers helped the rare bird settle in Kent.
(B)Large numbers of birdwatchers went to view the bird.
(C)Many birdwatchers logged on to the website for details.
(D)Birdwatchers showed their determination to protect the rare bird.
54.【題組】78．Which of the following CANNOT be true according to the passage?
(A)Television wildlife programmes started the popular pastime of birdwatching.
(B)The network service has contributed to the rapid development of birdwatching.
(C)Birdwatching in Britain was long considered a sport with a small group of followers.
(D)The current situation of birdwatching may promote the protection of the environment.
55.【題組】79．The passage mainly tells us about ___________ in UK.
(A)the history of birdwatchig (B)a growing passion for birdwatching
(C)the impact of media on birdwatching (D)birdwatcing as a popular expensive sport
Directions: Read the following text and choose the most suitable heading from A-F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.
Auctions are public sales of goods, conducted by an officially approved auctioneer. He asks the crowd assembled in the auction-room to make offers, or “bids”, for the various items on sale. He encourages buyers to bid higher figures, and finally names the highest bidder as the buyer of the goods. This is called “knocking down” the goods, for the bidding ends when the auctioneer strikes a small hammer on a table at which he stands.
The ancient Roman probably invented sales by auction, and the English word comes from the Latin auctio, maning “increase” The Romans usually sold in this way the goods taken in war. In England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, goods were often sold “by the candle”: a short candle was lit by the auctioneer, and bids could be made while it stayed alight.
Practically all goods whose qualities vary are sold by auction. Among these are coffee, skins, wool, tea, furs, silk and wines. Auction sales are also usual for land and property, furniture, pictures, rare books, old china and similar works of art.
An auction is usually advertised beforehand with full particulars of the articles to be sold and where and when they can be viewed by potential buyers. If the advertisement cannot give full details, catalogues are printed, and each group of goods to be sold together, called a “lot”, is usually given a number. The auctioneer need not begin with Lot I and continue in the order of numbers: he may wait until he notices the fact that certain buyers are in the room and then produce the lots they are likely to be interested in.
The auctioneer’s services are paid for in the form of a percentage of the price the goods are sold for. The auctioneer therefore has a direct interest in pushing up the bidding as high as possible. He will not waste time by starting the bidding too low. He will also play on the opponents among his buyers and succeed in getting a high price by encouraging two business competitors to bid against each other.