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1.Questions 1-9 Color in textiles is produced by dyeing, by printing, or by painting. Until the nineteenth century, all dyes were derived from vegetable or, more rarely, animal or mineral sources, Line Since madder plants could be grown practically everywhere, the roots of some 5 species of the madder plant family were used from the earliest period to produce a whole range of reds. Red animal dyes, derived! from certain species of scale insects, were also highly valued from ancient times through the Middle Ages. Blues were obtained from indigo, which was widely .cultivated in India and exported from there, and from woad, a plant common in Europe and also used in the Near East from the beginning of the 10 Christian era. Before the first, nonfading "solid" green was invented in the early nineteenth century, greens were achieved by the overdyeing or overprinting of yellow and blue. However, yellow dyes± whether from weld or some other plant source such as saffron or turmeric, invariably fade or disappear. This accounts for the bluish tinge of what were once bright greens in, for example, woven tapestry. The range of natural colors was hugely expanded and, indeed, superseded by the chemical dyes developed during the eighteen hundreds. By 1900 a complete range of synthetic colors had been evolved, many of them reaching a standard of resistance to fading from exposure to light and to washing that greatly exceeded that of natural dyestuffs. Since then, [he petroleum industry has added many new chemicals, and from hese other types of dyestuffs have been developed. Much of the research in dyes was stimulated by the peculiarities of some of the new synthetic fibers- Acetate rayon, for example, seemed at first to have no affinity for dyes and a new range of dyes had to be developed; nylon and Terylene presented similar problems. The printing of textiles has involved a number of distinct methods. With the exception 25 of printing patterns directly onto the cloth, whether by block, roller, or screen, all of these arc based on dyeing; that is, the immersion of the fabric in a dye bath.
【題組】 1. The passage mainly discusses the
(A) development of synthetic colors foe textiles during the nineteenth century
(B) advantages of chemical dyes over dyes derived from plants and animals
(C) differences between dyeing textiles and printing ihem
(D) history of the use of natural and chemical dyes to color textiles

2.【題組】2. According to the passage, what was the source of most textile dyes that were used before the nineteenth century?
(A) Animals
(B) Minerals
(C) Plants
(D) Chemicals

3.【題組】3. What was the advantage of using madder plants for different shades of red?
(A) It was possible to cultivate madder plants in almost every location,
(B) Madder plants produced brighter colors than other plant sources.
(C) Plant sources produced more lasting colors than animal sources.
(D) Dyes derived from the madder plants were easier to work with than other dyes-

4.【題組】4. The word "invariably" ID line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) without exception
(B) steadily
(C) after some time
(D) noticeably

5.【題組】5. It can be inferred from the passage that the green areas in woven tapestries developed a bluish tinge because
(A) a darker color, like blue, dominates a light color, like yellow
(B) light changed some of the green dye used in the tapestries to blue
(C) the yellow dye. that was used in the tapestries had faded
(D) the dyes used to color woven tapestries were made from minerals

6.【題組】6. The word "superseded" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
(A) strengthened
(B) improved
(C) replaced
(D) complemented

7.【題組】7. According to the passage, how did chemical dyes compare to natural dyes?
(A) The chemical dyes had less attractive colors.
(B) The chemical dyes were less easy to use.
(C) The chemical dyes lost their brightness more quickly when exposed to light.
(D) The chemical dyes held up belter after washing.

8.【題組】8 According to the passage, what problem led to the development of new dyes after 1900 ?
(A) Previously developed dyes did not work on new types of fibers.
(B) Dyes derived from petroleum caused damage to new synthetic fibers.
(C) New synthetic fibers required brighter colors tijan natural fibers did.
(D) New fabrics easily lost their colors when washed.

9.【題組】9. Why does the author mention "block, roller, or screen" in line 25 ?
(A) To give examples of textile printing techniques that are based on dyeing
(B) To argue that all methods of printing patterns onto textiles involve dyeing
(C) To emphasize the variety of special tools used in me process of dyeing textiles
(D) To give examples of textile printing techniques mat do not involve dyeing

10.Questions 10-19 The strangest-looking fish in the Everglades wetland region of southern Florida is the Florida gar, whose unusual appearance includes sharp needlelike teeth that ftil a long snout. Young gars have numerous dark spots and patches on an olive to yellow, Line long, slender body. Gars darken with age so that adults appear mostly dark brown, 5 especially when seen from above. Several types of gar exist in eastern and central North America, some of which are extremely large. The aptly named alligator gar is occasionally mistaken for an alligator and occurs from the lower Mississippi drainage basin to the rivers of the western panhandle of Florida. Only the relatively small Florida gar, seldom longer than two feet, lives in the Everglades. (The much larger long-nose gar as occasionally been found in the Everglades hut historically occurs only north of the region.) As with all gars, the Florida gar is predatory and is adept at catching smaller fish from schools by using a fast sideways snap of the jaws. It is also capable of catching individual prey, pursuing them along the bottom or in douse tangles of vegetation. Using a slow, stealthy approach, tins technique is effective on fish and grass shrimp. 15 Florida gars are sometimes seen in huge numbers, which is the result of low water that confines individuals from the expanses of the marshes to limited aquatic habitats where they remain during the dry season. At these times, gars become prey for the alligator. The sight of a gar held in an alligator's jaws is a vision of prehistoric imagery. In fact, gars have changed little from their ancestors that dominated Earth's waters when 20 the dinosaurs flourished; they even have primitive interlocking scales that differ greatly from those of most fish. They also have the dual ability to breathe air and water and can be observed regularly rising to the surface of the water to renew the air in their swim bladders. Florida gars are sometimes confused with a similarly shaped but unrelated needlefish, which are marine but commonly enter freshwater. Needlefish are greenish, 25 bluish, or silvery and have a translucent appearance, hi marked contrast to the darker and opaque Florida gars.
【題組】10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The different types of gar that live in North America
(B) The type of gar that is common in the Everglades region
(C) The similarities between the Florida gar and alligators
(D) The different types of fish that live in the Everglades region

11.【題組】11 Which of ihe following physical characteristics of the Florida gar is NOT described?
(A) Length of snout
(B) Strength of bones
(C) Type of teeth
(D) Shape of body

12.【題組】12. The passage mentions which of the following as changes that occur when young gars grow to be adults?
(A) The number of spots and patches on their bodies increase*.
(B) They become extremely large.
(C) Their teeth become sharper.
(D) They become darker.

13.【題組】13. The word "seldom" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) slightfy
(B) similarly
(C) rarely
(D) apparently

14.【題組】14. The word "adept" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
(A) skilled
(B) unusual
(C) alone
(D) observed

15.【題組】15. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a method that Florida gars use to obtain food?
(A) Using a sideways movement
(B) Following prey slowly
(C) Finding prey that swim near the surface
(D) Catching prey that swim in large groups

16.【題組】16. According to the passage, why are Florida gars sometimes concentrated in large numbers?
(A) Low water restricts them to certain areas.
(B) Swimming in groups protects them from predators.
(C) They form large groups to reproduce
(D) They migrate from the marshes each year.

17.【題組】17. The word "they" in line 17 refers to
(A) individuals
(B) expanses .
(C) marshes
(D) habitats

18.【題組】18. The word "dual” in line 21 is closet in meaning to
(A) complex
(B) useful
(C) deep
(D) double

19.【題組】19. Which of the following is a characteristic of both needlefish and Florida gars?
(A) A primitive method of breathing
(B) A long, slender body
(C) Brightly colored markings
(D) A translucent appearance

20.Questions 20-29 The Native American people of Oregon transported themselves and their goods on foot, by canoe, by raft, by dog, and by horse. Each tribe used a combination of methods, choosing the mode of transportation best suited to the terrain, the type of load, and the Line desired speed. Since each band and local group had a different pattern of settlement and 5 easonal movement, the mixture of transportation methods differed from group to group and from season to season. Long-distance travel by foot was common all over Oregon. In rougher parts of the inland valleys area and in eastern Oregon prior to the arrival of the horse (first introduced to the area some 300 years ago), it was the principal mode of long-distance travel. Foot 10 trails wound across most mountain passes and were important in maintaining the vast Native American trading network. Leather moccasins and Cute sandals were worn for long hikes and for protection against cold, rather than for everyday use. In winter, snowshoes were used for hunting expeditions, ID the Klamath area, where lakes were well stocked with waterfowl and plant products, Native Americans used mudshoes (built similarly to 15 snowshoes) to keep from sinking in the mud. Canoes and rafts were osed by Native Americans in all parts of Oregon, although they were not a major method of travel in eastern Oregon. The boat* were used on lakes and rivers for fishing, gathering water plants, bird hunting, and travel. Native Americans from Oregon occasionally ventured to sea for seal hunts, but long sea voyages were much less 20 common than they were further north among the Nootka, Kwakiutl, and Halda people. The use of canoes along the Columbia River contributed to the development of trading and continued, communication among neighboring tribes. Most Oregon canoes were made by hollowing logs. The wooden dugout was uniquely suited to western Oregon's plentiful supply of timber. The canoes were expertly carved in a variety of shapes and sizes to ensure a smooth and quiet voyage even in rough waters.
【題組】20. According to the passage, all of the following affected the choice of transportation EXCEPT
(A) the type of land that had to be traveled
(B) what was to be carried
(C) how fast an Item needed to be transported
(D) the cost of transportation

21.【題組】21. The word "principal" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) original
(B) simple
(C) main
(D) ordinary

22.【題組】22. According to the passage, the horse
(A) could not be used for long distance travel
(B) replaced traveling by foot in more rugged areas
(C) Improved the quality of mountain foot trails
(D) was an important part of Oregon's culture

23.【題組】23. According to the passage, tube sandals were used for
(A) waiting great distances
(B) wanner weather
(C) wearing every day
(D) walking in mud

24.【題組】24. The word "stocked" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) utilized
(B) endangered
(C) supplied
(D) hunted

25.【題組】25. The word "they" in line 20 refers to
(A) long sea voyages
(B) Native Americana
(C) seal hunts
(D) canoes

26.【題組】26. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as uses of die canoe EXCEPT
(A) hunting animals
(B) fishing
(C) carrying timber
(D) collecting plants

27.【題組】27. The word "ensure" in tine 25 is closest in meaning to
(A) guarantee
(B) decrease
(C) convince
(D) continue

28.【題組】28. The passage supports which of the following statements about Native American trade in Oregon?
(A) Trade was limited by the mountainous terrain,
(B) Trade was more depended oc the canoe than on any other form of travel.
(C) Items related to transportation were typical trade products.
(D) Transportation contributed to the development and maintenance of trade.

29.【題組】29. The passage most likely continues with a discussion of
(A) the process of seal hunting
(B) transportation by dog and horse
(C) winter transportation methods
(D) transportation outside of Oregon

30.Questions 30-39 The atmosphere of Venus is quite different from ours. Measurements taken from the Earth show a high concentration of carton dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus. In fact, carbon dioxide makes up 96 percent of Venus* atmosphere; nitrogen makes up almost all Line the rest. The Earth's atmosphere, by comparison, is mainly nitrogen, with a fair amount 5 of oxygen as well. Carbon dioxide makes up less than 0.1 percent of the terrestrial atmosphere, The surface pressure of Venus* atmosphere is 90 limes higher than the pressure of Earth's atmosphere, as a result of the large amount of carbon dioxide in the former. Throughout Earth's history, carbon dioxide on Earth has mixed with rain to dissolve 10 rocks; the dissolved rock and carbon dioxide eventually flow into the oceans, where they precipitate to fonn new terrestrial rocks, often with the help of life-forms. If this carbon dioside were released from the Earth's rocks, along with ower carton dioxide trapped in seawater, our atmosphere would become as dense and have as high a preasore as that of Venus. Venus, slightly closer to the Sun than Earth and thus hotter, had no'oceans in 15 which the carbon dioxide could dissolve or life to help take up the carbon. Also, Venus has probably lost almost all the water it ever had. Since Venus is closer to the Sun than the Earth is, its lower atmosphere was hotter even early on. The result was that more water vapor went into its upper atmosphere, where solar ultraviolet rays broke in up into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen, a light gas, escaped easily; the 20 oxygen has combined with other gasses or with iron on Venus1 surface. Studies from the Earth show that the clouds on Venus are primarily composed of droplets of sulfuric acid, with water droplets mixed in* Sulfuric acid may sound strange as a cloud constituent, but the Earth too has a significant layer of sulfuric acid droplets in its stratosphere. However, the water in the lower layers of the Earth's atmosphere, 25 circulating because of weather, washes the sulfur compounds out of these layers, whereas Venus has sulfur compounds in me lower layers of its atmosphere in addition to those in its clouds.
【題組】30. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Atmospheric differences between Venus and Earth
(B) How Venus lost the water it once had
(C) The influence of the Sun on Venus
(D) A comparison between the upper and lower atmosphere on Venus

31.【題組】31 The phrase “the former” in line8 refers to
(A) the surface pressure
(B) Venus1 atmosphere
(C) Earth's atmosphere
(D) a result

32.【題組】32. The word "eventually1* in line 10 is closest in meaning to
(A) in the past
(B) first
(C) ultimately
(D) occasionally

33.【題組】33. According to the passage, what causes Venus' high surface pressure?
(A) Dissolving rocks
(B) Frequent heavy rains
(C) Its distance from the Sun
(D) The composition of its atmosphere

34.【題組】34. Why does the author begin the sentence in lines 11-12 with the phrase "If this carbon dioxide were released from Earth's rocks,.-."'
(A) To present a situation that is contrary to fact
(B) To convince readers that a certain process is harmless
(C) To describe an event that took place long ago
(D) To explain what is likely to happen in the future

35.【題組】35. The word "trapped" in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A) caught
(B) transported
(C) lacking
(D) involved

36.【題組】36. According to the passage, which of the following has resulted from processes involving Earth’s carbon dioxide?
(A) A steady increase in the density of Earth’s atmosphere
(B) An increased rate at which rock dissolves
(C) The accumulation of carbon dioxide in Earth’s rocks
(D) The expansion of Earth’s oceans

37.【題組】37. The passage suggests that which of the following helps explain; why Earth has kept most of its water?
(A) Earth's surface contains only small amounts of iron.
(B) Earth has always been cooler than Venus.
(C) Earth now has higher amounts of carbon dioxide than it used to have.
(D) Earth's atmosphere has never completely blocked sulfuric acid droplets,

38.【題組】38. Avoiding to the passage, what happened to oxygen on Venus'?
(A) Most of it was absorbed into rocks.
(B) It was released from water and then combined with other substances.
(C) It chemically combined with hydrogen to form atmospheric water,
(D) It has been slowly replacing carbon dioxide in Venus' upper atmosphere,

39.【題組】39. The word "constituent” in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) type
(B) alternative
(C) product
(D) component

40.Questions 40-50 In the years leading up to the First World War, the realist tradition in the United States was given new life within the ranks of the so-called Ashcan School, a term that loosely describes a group of artists in New York who favored, as the name implies, commonplace Line subjects, even ones that emphasized the seedy aspects of daily life. In an era when the 5 United States was shifting from an agricultural to an industrially based economy, artists turned to the vitality of the city for their themes, sometimes documenting the lives of the nation's urban inhabitants with a literalness that shocked viewers accustomed to the bland generalizations of academic art. Thus, the first modern American revolution in painting in the early twentieth century was not away from, but toward, realism. 10 The developments toward realism and new pictorial subject matter introduced by this revolution are explained in part by the fact that the academic spirit had become anathema to many young painters by the beginning of the twentieth century, when the professional survival of an artist was largely contingent on membership in the National Academy of Design, the American equivalent of the French Academy of Aits. The National Academy 15 of Design perpetuated the Traditions of ftp French Academy, such as annual juried exhibitions. Although it merged with the more tolerant Society of American Artists in 1907, it remained steadfastly intolerant of new developments. At the same time, important venues in New York, particularly Alfred Stteglitz's gallery known as 291 and* in 1913, the gigantic exhibition of modern art known as the Armory 20 Show, introduced European modernists to American audiences and nurtured a number of American artists committed not to realism but to experimental art During the 1930's, the country's focus turned inward, giving rise to new varieties of realist art based on intrinsically American themes. These were practiced by the so-called Regionalists, who recorded the rural lire of the Midwest, and the more politically engaged Social Realists, 25 who documented the social consequences of extreme economic change. Also a fertile period for American photography, the era before the Second World War witnessed the development of photojournalism, as well as social documentary and advertising photography.
【題組】40. What aspect of twentieth-century art in the United States does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The realistic representation of urban life in the years before the First World War
(B) he limitations of early twentieth-century academic art
(C) The development of realism from the early twentieth century to the Second World War
(D) The influence of European art on American an between the First and the Second World Wars

41.【題組】41. The word "bland" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) thoughtless
(B) regulated
(C) false
(D) dull

42.【題組】42. According to the passage, all of the following are characters-tics of the Ashcan School EXCEPT –
(A) a preference for everyday subjects
(B) the representation of agricultural life
(C) an untraditional approach to art
(D) a tendency to disturb many viewers

43.【題組】43. It can be inferred from the passage that the first modern American revolution in painting
(A) was unusual in turning toward realism rather than away from it
(B) was a reaction against the literalness of academic art
(C) was similar in its realism to artistic revolutions in other parts of the world
(D) was strongly influenced by earlier developments away from realism

44.【題組】44. Which of the following developments in [he art world contributed to a renewal of realism in the early twentieth century?
(A) The organization of annual juried exhibitions
(B) The rejection of academic art by young painters
(C) The joining of two important artistic societies
(D) The increasing recognition of artists as professionals

45.【題組】45. The phrase "contingent on" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) unrelated to
(B) separate from
(C) expanded on
(D)dependent on

46.【題組】46. The word "perpetuated" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
(A) started
(B) influenced
(C) continued
(D) changed

47.【題組】47. The word “it” in line 17 refers to
(A) the Society of American Artists
(B) the French Academy of Arts
(C) the professional survival of - an artist
(D) the National Academy of Design

48.【題組】48. Why docs the author mention the Armory Show in lines 19-20?
(A)To explain why most American artiste rejected the influence or European experimental art
(B)To explain why politically engaged art developed in the United States during the 1930’s
(C)To give an example of an exhibition that introduced modem European artists
(D)To argue that American painters were not sufficiently exposed to experimental art

49.【題組】49. According to the passage, the Regionalist (line 23) were artists who
(A) documented the lives of urban inhabitants
(B) portrayed life in me countryside
(C) recorded the social consequences of economic change
(D) were not committed to realism in their art

50.【題組】50- The word "witnessed”'in line 26 is closest in meaning to
(A) opposed
(B) observed
(C) influenced
(D) resulted in