Color in textiles is produced by dyeing, by printing, or by painting. Until the
nineteenth century, all dyes were derived from vegetable or, more rarely, animal
or mineral sources,
Line Since madder plants could be grown practically everywhere, the roots of some
5 species of the madder plant family were used from the earliest period to produce a whole
range of reds. Red animal dyes, derived! from certain species of scale insects, were also
highly valued from ancient times through the Middle Ages. Blues were obtained from
indigo, which was widely .cultivated in India and exported from there, and from woad,
a plant common in Europe and also used in the Near East from the beginning of the
10 Christian era. Before the first, nonfading "solid" green was invented in the early
nineteenth century, greens were achieved by the overdyeing or overprinting of yellow
and blue. However, yellow dyes± whether from weld or some other plant source such
as saffron or turmeric, invariably fade or disappear. This accounts for the bluish tinge
of what were once bright greens in, for example, woven tapestry.
The range of natural colors was hugely expanded and, indeed, superseded by the
chemical dyes developed during the eighteen hundreds. By 1900 a complete range
of synthetic colors had been evolved, many of them reaching a standard of resistance
to fading from exposure to light and to washing that greatly exceeded that of natural
dyestuffs. Since then, [he petroleum industry has added many new chemicals, and from
hese other types of dyestuffs have been developed. Much of the research in dyes was
stimulated by the peculiarities of some of the new synthetic fibers- Acetate rayon, for
example, seemed at first to have no affinity for dyes and a new range of dyes had to be
developed; nylon and Terylene presented similar problems.
The printing of textiles has involved a number of distinct methods. With the exception
25 of printing patterns directly onto the cloth, whether by block, roller, or screen, all of these
arc based on dyeing; that is, the immersion of the fabric in a dye bath. 【題組】
1. The passage mainly discusses the
(A) development of synthetic colors foe textiles during the nineteenth century
(B) advantages of chemical dyes over dyes derived from plants and animals
(C) differences between dyeing textiles and printing ihem
(D) history of the use of natural and chemical dyes to color textiles
3.【題組】3. What was the advantage of using madder plants for different shades of red?
(A) It was possible to cultivate madder plants in almost every location,
(B) Madder plants produced brighter colors than other plant sources.
(C) Plant sources produced more lasting colors than animal sources.
(D) Dyes derived from the madder plants were easier to work with than other dyes-
5.【題組】5. It can be inferred from the passage that the green areas in woven tapestries developed a bluish tinge because
(A) a darker color, like blue, dominates a light color, like yellow
(B) light changed some of the green dye used in the tapestries to blue
(C) the yellow dye. that was used in the tapestries had faded
(D) the dyes used to color woven tapestries were made from minerals
7.【題組】7. According to the passage, how did chemical dyes compare to natural dyes?
(A) The chemical dyes had less attractive colors.
(B) The chemical dyes were less easy to use.
(C) The chemical dyes lost their brightness more quickly when exposed to light.
(D) The chemical dyes held up belter after washing.
8.【題組】8 According to the passage, what problem led to the development of new dyes after 1900 ?
(A) Previously developed dyes did not work on new types of fibers.
(B) Dyes derived from petroleum caused damage to new synthetic fibers.
(C) New synthetic fibers required brighter colors tijan natural fibers did.
(D) New fabrics easily lost their colors when washed.
9.【題組】9. Why does the author mention "block, roller, or screen" in line 25 ?
(A) To give examples of textile printing techniques that are based on dyeing
(B) To argue that all methods of printing patterns onto textiles involve dyeing
(C) To emphasize the variety of special tools used in me process of dyeing textiles
(D) To give examples of textile printing techniques mat do not involve dyeing
The strangest-looking fish in the Everglades wetland region of southern Florida is
the Florida gar, whose unusual appearance includes sharp needlelike teeth that ftil a
long snout. Young gars have numerous dark spots and patches on an olive to yellow,
Line long, slender body. Gars darken with age so that adults appear mostly dark brown,
5 especially when seen from above. Several types of gar exist in eastern and central
North America, some of which are extremely large. The aptly named alligator gar is
occasionally mistaken for an alligator and occurs from the lower Mississippi drainage
basin to the rivers of the western panhandle of Florida. Only the relatively small Florida
gar, seldom longer than two feet, lives in the Everglades. (The much larger long-nose gar
as occasionally been found in the Everglades hut historically occurs only north of the
region.) As with all gars, the Florida gar is predatory and is adept at catching smaller
fish from schools by using a fast sideways snap of the jaws. It is also capable of catching
individual prey, pursuing them along the bottom or in douse tangles of vegetation. Using
a slow, stealthy approach, tins technique is effective on fish and grass shrimp.
15 Florida gars are sometimes seen in huge numbers, which is the result of low water
that confines individuals from the expanses of the marshes to limited aquatic habitats
where they remain during the dry season. At these times, gars become prey for the
alligator. The sight of a gar held in an alligator's jaws is a vision of prehistoric imagery.
In fact, gars have changed little from their ancestors that dominated Earth's waters when
20 the dinosaurs flourished; they even have primitive interlocking scales that differ greatly from those of most fish. They also have the dual ability to breathe air and water and can
be observed regularly rising to the surface of the water to renew the air in their swim
bladders. Florida gars are sometimes confused with a similarly shaped but unrelated
needlefish, which are marine but commonly enter freshwater. Needlefish are greenish,
25 bluish, or silvery and have a translucent appearance, hi marked contrast to the darker
and opaque Florida gars.
【題組】10. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The different types of gar that live in North America
(B) The type of gar that is common in the Everglades region
(C) The similarities between the Florida gar and alligators
(D) The different types of fish that live in the Everglades region
12.【題組】12. The passage mentions which of the following as changes that occur when young gars grow to be adults?
(A) The number of spots and patches on their bodies increase*.
(B) They become extremely large.
(C) Their teeth become sharper.
(D) They become darker.
15.【題組】15. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a method that Florida gars use to obtain food?
(A) Using a sideways movement
(B) Following prey slowly
(C) Finding prey that swim near the surface
(D) Catching prey that swim in large groups
16.【題組】16. According to the passage, why are Florida gars sometimes concentrated in large numbers?
(A) Low water restricts them to certain areas.
(B) Swimming in groups protects them from predators.
(C) They form large groups to reproduce
(D) They migrate from the marshes each year.
19.【題組】19. Which of the following is a characteristic of both needlefish and Florida gars?
(A) A primitive method of breathing
(B) A long, slender body
(C) Brightly colored markings
(D) A translucent appearance
The Native American people of Oregon transported themselves and their goods on
foot, by canoe, by raft, by dog, and by horse. Each tribe used a combination of methods,
choosing the mode of transportation best suited to the terrain, the type of load, and the
Line desired speed. Since each band and local group had a different pattern of settlement and
5 easonal movement, the mixture of transportation methods differed from group to group
and from season to season.
Long-distance travel by foot was common all over Oregon. In rougher parts of the
inland valleys area and in eastern Oregon prior to the arrival of the horse (first introduced
to the area some 300 years ago), it was the principal mode of long-distance travel. Foot
10 trails wound across most mountain passes and were important in maintaining the vast
Native American trading network. Leather moccasins and Cute sandals were worn for long
hikes and for protection against cold, rather than for everyday use. In winter, snowshoes
were used for hunting expeditions, ID the Klamath area, where lakes were well stocked
with waterfowl and plant products, Native Americans used mudshoes (built similarly to
15 snowshoes) to keep from sinking in the mud.
Canoes and rafts were osed by Native Americans in all parts of Oregon, although they
were not a major method of travel in eastern Oregon. The boat* were used on lakes and
rivers for fishing, gathering water plants, bird hunting, and travel. Native Americans from
Oregon occasionally ventured to sea for seal hunts, but long sea voyages were much less
20 common than they were further north among the Nootka, Kwakiutl, and Halda people.
The use of canoes along the Columbia River contributed to the development of trading and continued, communication among neighboring tribes. Most Oregon canoes were made by hollowing logs. The wooden dugout was uniquely suited to western Oregon's plentiful supply
of timber. The canoes were expertly carved in a variety of shapes and sizes to
ensure a smooth and quiet voyage even in rough waters.
【題組】20. According to the passage, all of the following affected the choice of transportation EXCEPT
(A) the type of land that had to be traveled
(B) what was to be carried
(C) how fast an Item needed to be transported
(D) the cost of transportation
22.【題組】22. According to the passage, the horse
(A) could not be used for long distance travel
(B) replaced traveling by foot in more rugged areas
(C) Improved the quality of mountain foot trails
(D) was an important part of Oregon's culture
28.【題組】28. The passage supports which of the following statements about Native American trade in Oregon?
(A) Trade was limited by the mountainous terrain,
(B) Trade was more depended oc the canoe than on any other form of travel.
(C) Items related to transportation were typical trade products.
(D) Transportation contributed to the development and maintenance of trade.
29.【題組】29. The passage most likely continues with a discussion of
(A) the process of seal hunting
(B) transportation by dog and horse
(C) winter transportation methods
(D) transportation outside of Oregon
The atmosphere of Venus is quite different from ours. Measurements taken from the
Earth show a high concentration of carton dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus. In fact,
carbon dioxide makes up 96 percent of Venus* atmosphere; nitrogen makes up almost all
Line the rest. The Earth's atmosphere, by comparison, is mainly nitrogen, with a fair amount
5 of oxygen as well. Carbon dioxide makes up less than 0.1 percent of the terrestrial atmosphere,
The surface pressure of Venus* atmosphere is 90 limes higher than the pressure of
Earth's atmosphere, as a result of the large amount of carbon dioxide in the former.
Throughout Earth's history, carbon dioxide on Earth has mixed with rain to dissolve
10 rocks; the dissolved rock and carbon dioxide eventually flow into the oceans, where they precipitate to fonn new terrestrial rocks, often with the help of life-forms. If this carbon
dioside were released from the Earth's rocks, along with ower carton dioxide trapped in
seawater, our atmosphere would become as dense and have as high a preasore as that of
Venus. Venus, slightly closer to the Sun than Earth and thus hotter, had no'oceans in
15 which the carbon dioxide could dissolve or life to help take up the carbon.
Also, Venus has probably lost almost all the water it ever had. Since Venus is closer
to the Sun than the Earth is, its lower atmosphere was hotter even early on. The result
was that more water vapor went into its upper atmosphere, where solar ultraviolet rays
broke in up into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen, a light gas, escaped easily; the
20 oxygen has combined with other gasses or with iron on Venus1 surface.
Studies from the Earth show that the clouds on Venus are primarily composed of droplets of sulfuric acid, with water droplets mixed in* Sulfuric acid may sound strange
as a cloud constituent, but the Earth too has a significant layer of sulfuric acid droplets
in its stratosphere. However, the water in the lower layers of the Earth's atmosphere,
25 circulating because of weather, washes the sulfur compounds out of these layers, whereas Venus has sulfur compounds in me lower layers of its atmosphere in addition to those in
【題組】30. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Atmospheric differences between Venus and Earth
(B) How Venus lost the water it once had
(C) The influence of the Sun on Venus
(D) A comparison between the upper and lower atmosphere on Venus
34.【題組】34. Why does the author begin the sentence in lines 11-12 with the phrase "If this carbon dioxide were released from Earth's rocks,.-."'
(A) To present a situation that is contrary to fact
(B) To convince readers that a certain process is harmless
(C) To describe an event that took place long ago
(D) To explain what is likely to happen in the future
36.【題組】36. According to the passage, which of the following has resulted from processes involving Earth’s carbon dioxide?
(A) A steady increase in the density of Earth’s atmosphere
(B) An increased rate at which rock dissolves
(C) The accumulation of carbon dioxide in Earth’s rocks
(D) The expansion of Earth’s oceans
37.【題組】37. The passage suggests that which of the following helps explain; why Earth has kept most of its water?
(A) Earth's surface contains only small amounts of iron.
(B) Earth has always been cooler than Venus.
(C) Earth now has higher amounts of carbon dioxide than it used to have.
(D) Earth's atmosphere has never completely blocked sulfuric acid droplets,
38.【題組】38. Avoiding to the passage, what happened to oxygen on Venus'?
(A) Most of it was absorbed into rocks.
(B) It was released from water and then combined with other substances.
(C) It chemically combined with hydrogen to form atmospheric water,
(D) It has been slowly replacing carbon dioxide in Venus' upper atmosphere,
In the years leading up to the First World War, the realist tradition in the United States
was given new life within the ranks of the so-called Ashcan School, a term that loosely
describes a group of artists in New York who favored, as the name implies, commonplace
Line subjects, even ones that emphasized the seedy aspects of daily life. In an era when the
5 United States was shifting from an agricultural to an industrially based economy, artists
turned to the vitality of the city for their themes, sometimes documenting the lives of the
nation's urban inhabitants with a literalness that shocked viewers accustomed to the bland
generalizations of academic art. Thus, the first modern American revolution in painting in
the early twentieth century was not away from, but toward, realism.
10 The developments toward realism and new pictorial subject matter introduced by this revolution are explained in part by the fact that the academic spirit had become anathema
to many young painters by the beginning of the twentieth century, when the professional
survival of an artist was largely contingent on membership in the National Academy of
Design, the American equivalent of the French Academy of Aits. The National Academy
15 of Design perpetuated the Traditions of ftp French Academy, such as annual juried exhibitions. Although it merged with the more tolerant Society of American Artists in
1907, it remained steadfastly intolerant of new developments.
At the same time, important venues in New York, particularly Alfred Stteglitz's gallery
known as 291 and* in 1913, the gigantic exhibition of modern art known as the Armory
20 Show, introduced European modernists to American audiences and nurtured a number
of American artists committed not to realism but to experimental art During the 1930's,
the country's focus turned inward, giving rise to new varieties of realist art based on
intrinsically American themes. These were practiced by the so-called Regionalists, who
recorded the rural lire of the Midwest, and the more politically engaged Social Realists,
25 who documented the social consequences of extreme economic change. Also a fertile
period for American photography, the era before the Second World War witnessed the development of photojournalism, as well as social documentary and advertising photography.
【題組】40. What aspect of twentieth-century art in the United States does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The realistic representation of urban life in the years before the First World War
(B) he limitations of early twentieth-century academic art
(C) The development of realism from the early twentieth century to the Second World War
(D) The influence of European art on American an between the First and the Second World Wars
42.【題組】42. According to the passage, all of the following are characters-tics of the Ashcan School EXCEPT –
(A) a preference for everyday subjects
(B) the representation of agricultural life
(C) an untraditional approach to art
(D) a tendency to disturb many viewers
43.【題組】43. It can be inferred from the passage that the first modern American revolution in painting
(A) was unusual in turning toward realism rather than away from it
(B) was a reaction against the literalness of academic art
(C) was similar in its realism to artistic revolutions in other parts of the world
(D) was strongly influenced by earlier developments away from realism
44.【題組】44. Which of the following developments in [he art world contributed to a renewal of realism in the early twentieth century?
(A) The organization of annual juried exhibitions
(B) The rejection of academic art by young painters
(C) The joining of two important artistic societies
(D) The increasing recognition of artists as professionals
48.【題組】48. Why docs the author mention the Armory Show in lines 19-20?
(A)To explain why most American artiste rejected the influence or European experimental art
(B)To explain why politically engaged art developed in the United States during the 1930’s
(C)To give an example of an exhibition that introduced modem European artists
(D)To argue that American painters were not sufficiently exposed to experimental art
49.【題組】49. According to the passage, the Regionalist (line 23) were artists who
(A) documented the lives of urban inhabitants
(B) portrayed life in me countryside
(C) recorded the social consequences of economic change
(D) were not committed to realism in their art