With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, knowing the age of rocks became a
necessary prerequisite to finding industrial minerals, such as coal, iron, and the
other materials that fueled and sustained the great Western industrialization of the eighteenth
Line and nineteenth centuries. It was in the mining regions where engineers, who needed a
5 better system for organizing the various types of rock scattered across Earth's surface,
first grappled with scientific approaches to understanding the age of various rocks—and
the age of Earth. They realized that if the various rock units could he dated by their
relative ages, correlations among even widely separated rocks could be established and
from this, some order recognized.
10 The pioneering European geologists first believed that identifying a rock's type would
give them a strong clue to the age of the rock formation and that one of the most powerful
clues came from the hardness of a given rock. Specific rock types were thus assumed to
have formed at characteristically different rimes, the softest rocks having formed the most
recently. This crude type of dating was first used to understand the way mountains were
15 formed, In the mid-1700's it was thought thai there were three distinct types of mountains
in Europe, each formed by a different type of rock and each created at a different time.
According to this theory, the oldest were the Alps, which had interior cores composed
of very hard, crystalline rocks (such as granite, schist, or basalt). These mountains were
called Primitive. Sitting on the flanks of the Primitive mountains were younger, smaller,
20 Secondary mountains composed of layered sedimentary rocks such as limestone.
They were often rich with fossils and intermediate in hardness. The youngest Tertiary
mountains were composed of softer mudstones and sandstone. Rock type, hardness,
and size thus established mountain type, and rock type also became a proxy for age.
However, study soon exposed the fallacy of these early notions. It was discovered that
25 some of the very high mountains were composed of the softest sediments and that even
hard volcanic rock was sometimes found in very low mountains. By the early 1800's, it
was understood that rock type was of no help in establishing age. 【題組】
1, What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) An early attempt to find reliable rules for dating rocks and mountains
(B) The search for different rock types to be used in industry
(C) Changing views about what caused high mountain ranges to form
(D) A controversy about rocks between mining engineers and geologists
2.【題組】2. The word "grappled" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
3.【題組】3. According to the passage, how could knowing the age of rocks benefit industry'?
(A) It reduced the dependence of industry on coal.
(B) It helped miners find new types of minerals.
(C) It helped people in their search for industrial minerals.
(D) It made it possible to mine rocks under Earth's surface.
4.【題組】4. According to the passage, mining engineers were the first to realize that
(A) various types of rock were scattered across Earth's surface
(B) rocks in different locations could be related by their age
(C) there were wide differences in the appearance of different types of rocks
(D) older rocks were better suited for industrial use
5.【題組】5. The word 'They" in line 21 refers to
(A) crystalline rocks
(B) the flanks
(C) the Primitive mountains
(D) layered sedimentary rocks
6.【題組】6. Why does the author mention rock type, hardness, and size in lines 22-23?
(A) To describe the development of European geology
(B) To explain the differences between mudstone and sandstone
(C) To introduce the new theories that were about to emerge in the 1800's
(D) To summarize the characteristics thought to distinguish mountain types
7.【題組】7. According to the passage, pioneer geologists believed that to determine a rock's age, it was helpful to know
(A) how deep under the surface the rock was located
(B) how much power was needed to remove the rock
(C) how rough the rock's texture was
(D) how soft the rock was
8.【題組】8. According to the passage, early geologists believed which of the following about Primitive mountains?
(A) They had interior cores of sandstone and mudstone,
(B) They contained a large number of fossils.
(C) They had been formed during the same limited period in Earth's history.
(D)They were smaller than the Tertiary mountains.
9.【題組】9. The word "proxy" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
Some people are concerned that our soils arc becoming depleted of trace minerals by continuous agricultural use and hence that foocte are becoming depleted in vital minerals.
This is a complex issue about which not a great deal is known, but the lack of evidence of
Line mineral deficiencies in our population speaks to the adequacy of our soils. Furthermore,
5 soils are replenished in trace minerals by rainwater and especially by irrigation water that
is obtained from rivers or wells that draw water from other soil or rock formations far
away from the farm,
On the other hand, agricultural practices that remove the total crop from the field year
after year with no replenishment of trace minerals can over time result in a crop poor in
10 these minerals. Of course, the fanner could supply chemical fertilizer to the fields* but
with most fertilizers this practice would replenish only potassium, phosphates, and nitrogen. Rotating a "green manure" crop such as clover, which is plowed under after the end of the
growing season, would renew only nitrogen in the soil, not trace elements. There is a
growing realization, therefore, (hat so-called organic farming makes good commercial
15 sense and would help minimize mineral depletion: Organic fanning essentially refers to farming that does not depend on chemical fertilizers; rather, soils are invigorated by
applying manure and by plowing in crop wastes, such as corn stalks and bean vines, and compost. These techniques return organic material and trace minerals back to the soils and
are to be commended. However, for maximum yields, a chemical fertilizer may be required
20 in addition to manure and plant waste.
Some critics of modern farming methods fear that the hardier varieties of fruits and
vegetables that have been developed to make shipment easier have resulted in loss of
vitamin content. This concern is unfounded because the creation of vitamins by plants is
an automatic biological process. Any variety of plant will make the full complement
of vitamins it needs, regardless of species.
【題組】10. The word "vital" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
11.【題組】11 The author mentions clover in tine 12 as an example of a
(A) plant that is typically grown on organic farms
(B) crop that can be rotated and used as fertilizer
(C) crop that replaces both nitrogen and trace elements in soil
(D) plant that has been thoroughly depleted of nutrients in recent years
12.【題組】12. The author mentions all of the following as an example of ways to renew trace minerals in the soil EXCEPT
(A) plowing crop wastes into the soil
(B) organic farming
(C) using appropriate water
(D) growing the same crop year after year
13.【題組】13. The word "essentially" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
14.【題組】14. Which of the following does the passage identify as examples of plant waste products?
(A) Potassium and phosphates
(C) Trace elements
(D) Com stalks and bean vines
15.【題組】15. According to paragraph three, critics of modem farming techniques believe that hardier species of fruits 'and vegetables have
(A) been developed for the convenience of commercial distributors
(B) resulted in an overdependence on chemical fertilizers
(C) decreased farmers' control of crop yields
(D) produced food with inferior flavor
16.【題組】16. The phrase "This concern" in line 23 refers to the
(A) loss of vitamins in plants
(B) production of hardier species
(C) use of chemical fertilizers
(D) distribution of agricultural products
17.【題組】17. Vitamins are created in plants by
(A) crop rotation
(B) organic farming
(C) natural biological processes
(D) artificial chemical supplements
18.【題組】18. The word "complement" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
Animation traditionaily is done by hand-drawing or painting successive frames of an
object, each slightly different than the preceding frame. In computer animation, although
the computer may be the one to draw the different frames, in moat cases the artist will
Line draw the beginning and ending frames and the computer will produce the drawings
5 between the first and the last drawing. This is generally referred to as computer-assisted
animation, because the computer is more of a helper than an originator.
In full computer animation, complex mathematical formulas are used to produce the
final sequence of pictures. These formulas operate on extensive databases of numbers
that define the objects in the pictures as they exist in mathematical space. The database
10 consists of endpoints, and color and intensity information. Highly trained professionals
are needed to produce such effects because animation that obtains high degrees of
realism involves computer techniques for three-dimensional transformation, shading,
High-tech computer animation for film involves very expensive computer systems
15 along with special color terminals or frame buffers. The frame buffer is nothing
more than a giant image memory for viewing a single frame. It temporarily holds the image
for display on the screen,
A camera can be used to film directly from the computer's display screen, but for
the highest quality images possible, expensive film recorders are used. The computer
20 computes the positions and colors for ihe figures in the picture, and sends this information
to the recorder, which captures it on film. Sometimes, however, the images are stored on a
large magnetic disk before being sent to the recorder. Once this process is completed, it is
repeated for the next frame. When the entire sequence has been recorded on the film, the
film must be developed before the animation can be viewed. If the entire sequence does
25 not seem right, the motions must be corrected, recomputed, redisplayed, and rerecorded.
This approach can be very expensive and time consuming. Often, computer-animation
companies first do motion tests with simple computer-generated line drawings before
selling their computers to the task of calculating the high-resolution, realistic-looking
【題組】19. What aspect of computer animation does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The production process
(B) The equipment needed
(C) The high cost
(D) The role of the artist
20.【題組】20.According to the passage, in computer-assisted animation the role of the computer is to draw the
(A) first frame
(B) middle frames
(C) last frame
(D) entire sequence of frames
21.【題組】21. The word "they" in line 9 refers to
22.【題組】22. According to the passage, the frame buffers mentioned in line 15 are used to
(A) add color to the images
(B) expose several frames at the same time
(C) store individual images
(D) create new frames
23.【題組】23. The phrase "nothing more than" in lines 15-16 is closest in meaning to
24.【題組】24. According to the passage, the positions and colors of the figures m high-tech animation are determined by
(A) drawing several versions
(B) enlarging one frame at a lime
(C) analyzing the sequence from different angles
(D) using computer calculations
25.【題組】25. The word "captures" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
26.【題組】26. The word "Once" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
27.【題組】27. According to the passage, how do computer-animation companies often test motion?
(A) They experiment with computer-generated line drawings.
(B) They hand-draw successive frames.
(C) They calculate high-resolution images.
(D) They develop extensive mathematical formulas.
28.【題組】28. The word "task" in line 28 is closest in meaning to
29.【題組】29. Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?
(A) Computers have reduced the costs of animation.
(B) In the future, traditional artists will no longer be needed.
(C) Artists are unable to produce drawings as high in quality as computer drawings.
(D)Animation involves a wide range of technical and artistic skills.
The first Europeans in the Delaware Valley, a region located near die Atlantic Coast
of North America, were Scandinavians. They came to the short-lived colony known as
New Sweden, founded in 1638, Loose organization and local autonomy fostered a cultural
Line fusion between native and settler cultures that proved one of the most notable—and least
5 understood—developments of early North American history. The Native Americans were
both fanners and hunters; Native American women farmed gardens of corn, beans, and
squash, while Native American men hunted for furs, hides, and meat. Such a gender
division of labor was much like that practiced by Scandinavian settlers. In the harsh
environment of northern Europe, Scandinavian women had been accustomed to practicing
10 forms of shifting cultivation, and they immediately understood Native American
horticulture. Colonial women of the Delaware valley quickly adopted the crops of the
Native American women, while Native American women welcomed European tools, such
as metal hoes, and farm animals, such as pigs and chickens.
Similarly, Scandinavian men quickly adapted to hunting in North America, In France
15 and England, unlike Scandinavia, hunting had been long reserved for the nobility, and
so few French and English settlers had much experience in handling firearms or
understanding the patterns of game animals. But Scandinavian men were familiar with
hunting and receptive to learning the hunting methods of the local Native Americans.
In turn Native Americans readily incorporated European steel knives, firearms, and linen
20 hunting shirts into their hunting routines.
The most common symbol of pioneer North America, the log cabin, emerged in the
Delaware Valley, and ought to serve as a symbol of this composite culture. Construction
with logs was a tradition brought to North America by Finnish settlers of New Sweden,
It was quickly picked up by other settlers, for with the resources of the American woods,
25 a few tools, and a little training, several men could erect a rough shelter in a day, or a solid
house in a week, What is truly fascinating is that Native Americans quickly learned these
construction techniques and probably did as much as colonists to spread the practice of log
construction across the frontiers of colonial North America.
【題組】30. Which one of the following questions does the passage answer?
(A) What role did Native American men play in teaching their agricultural methods to Scandinavian settlers?
(B) How did the interaction between Native Americans and Scandinavian settlers benefit both groups?
(C) What hardships did the Scandinavian women settlers experience in North America?
(D) What caused a rivalry between the English and Scandinavian settlers in North America?
31.【題組】31. The word "fostered" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
32.【題組】32. In line 4, the word "notable" is closest in meaning to
33.【題組】33.According to the passage, the Native American and Scandinavian cultures of the Delaware Valley initially had all of the following in common EXCEPT
(A) loose organization
(B) farming experience
(C) metal fanning tools
(D) local autonomy
34.【題組】34. According to the passage, why were Scandinavian women easily able to understand Native American horticulture?
(A) They had prior knowledge of most Native American plants.
(B) They had used similar cultivation practices in Scandinavia.
(C) They were helped by Native American and colonial men,
(D) hey were able to use Native American farming tools.
35.【題組】35. Why does the author contrast English and French settlers with Scandinavian settlers in lines 14-18 ?
(A) To suggest that they learned at least some hunting skills from each other
(B) To illustrate that it is hard to decide who established the earliest North American hunting techniques
(C) To explain why the Scandinavians were able to adopt Native American hunting techniques more easily
(D) To show how Native Americans might have acquired steel knives and firearms
36.【題組】36. What does the author imply about French and English settlers?
(A) Most of them did not come from the nobility.
(B) Most of them hunted with advanced firearms.
(C) They taught hunting skills to Scandinavian settlers.
(D) They provided Native Americans with linen hunting shirts.
37.【題組】37. In Line 18, the phrase "receptive to" is closest in meaning to
(A) suspicious of
(B) ready for
(C) dependent on
(D) new lo
38.【題組】38. The word ''emerged" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
39.【題組】39. Why does the author state in lines 21-22 that the log cabin ought to serve as a symbol?
(A) It could be built by using the available resources of the Delaware Valley.
(B) It was built across the frontiers of colonial North America.
(C) It uses a construction technique brought to North America by Scandinavian settlers.
(D) It is a good example of the cultural mixing of native and settler cultures.
At the turn of the twentieth century, Americans who wished to travel between cities
either for work or for pleasure had limited options. The steam railroad offered the best,
the most reliable and the fastest means of transport. Electric railways (trams and trolleys)
Line provided reasonable intraurban and short-distance intercity travel They also offered some
5 longer routes, but only in certain parts of the country. Horse-drawn coaches were neither
a competitive nor a comfortable alternative given the deplorable slate of the nation's
highways; and though bicycles were popular in both town and country, they, too, were
hampered by poor road surfaces. It took the mass production and ownership of cars,
together with increased attention to road construction, to bring the major breakthrough
10 in travel in the 192Q*s. And alongside the rapid spread of the popular and individualistic
auto came the slower, but significant, growth of bus transport. Not only did buses largely
replace trams and trolleys in urban mass transit, they also opened up new avenues of
intercity travel both to those Americans who couH not afford cars and to those car owners
who preferred to leave distance driving to others.
15 No particular date marks the beginning of the American intercity bus industry because
so many individuals were attracted to it at about the same time by the large profits
available to those who could cany fare-paying passengers over public highways- These
ubiquitous bus pioneers came from all walks of life. Few knew much about transport or
about business, but they were willing to take a chance on a new venture that had low entry
20 costs. Frequently driving used vehicles, these drivers concentrated on local services
operated on a consumer-demand basis with the driver taking cash fares. There were no
formal schedules or routes. People became aware of the new service by word of mouth
or newspaper advertisements, but a regular commitment was not guaranteed. Bus drivers
frequently did not start until they Had a full load; and those who traveled on the early
buses were content with reaching iheir destination rather than enjoying a fast or
【題組】40, What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) The difficulties with various forms of public transportation in the 1920's
(B) The effect of poor roads on the development of rail transportation
(C) The differences between intraurban arid intercity transportation at the aim of the century
(D) The early development of bud transportation
41.【題組】41 What does the author imply about horse-drawn coaches at the turn of the twentieth century?
(A) They were not available within cities.
(B) They did not provide as good service as the railroads.
(C) They were more popular than bicycles.
(D) They were strong competitors of trams and trolleys.
42.【題組】42. The word "deplorable" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
43.【題組】43. The word "hampered" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
44.【題組】44. According to the passage, until the 1920's, the best way to travel between cities was by
(A) steam powered trains
(B) trams and trolleys
45.【題組】45. According to the passage, all of rhe following changed travel in America in the 1920's EXCEPT
(A) widespread ownership of cars
(B) improved roads
(C) innovations in public transport
(D) competition between trams and trolleys
46.【題組】46. The phrase "These ubiquitous bus pioneers" in lines 17-18 refers to
(A) Americans who could not afford cars
(B) car owners who preferred toleave distance driving to others
(C) individuals attracted to the intercity bus industry
(D) fare-paying passengers
47.【題組】47. Which of the following best describes early bus drivers?
(A) They had previous work experience ia public transportation,
(B) They were cautious in business matters*
(C) They did not at first have high costs.
(D) They did not have many competitors
48.【題組】48. According to the passage, people learned about new bus routes from
(A) radio broadcasts
(B) conversations with otherpeople
(C) signs in the buses
(D) notices posted in local stores
49.【題組】49. What can be inferred from the passage about the beginning of the bus industry in America'?
(A) High profits do not explain why so many people started providing bus services.
(B) The bus industry was started by the large corporations that constructed highways.
(C) The founders of bus transportation had difficulty buying vehicles that could be used as buses.
(D) Passengers used bus transportation even though it was neither regular nor fast.
50.【題組】50. According to the passage, which of the following characterized early bus travel?
(A) Established routes
(B) Comfortable seats
(C) Fully occupied buses
(D) Published schedules