Is there enough oil beneath the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (保护区) (ANWR) to help secure America’s energy future? President Bush certainly thinks so. He has argued that tapping ANWR’s oil would help ease California’s electricity crisis and provide a major boost to the country’s energy independence. But no one knows for sure how much crude oil lies buried beneath the frozen earth with the last government survey, conducted in 1998, projecting output anywhere from 3 billion to 16 billion barrels.
The oil industry goes with the high end of the range, which could equal as much as 10% of U.S. consumption for as long as six years. By pumping more than 1 million barrels a day from the reserve for the next two three decades, lobbyists claim, the nation could cut back on imports equivalent to all shipments to the U.S. from Saudi Arabia. Sounds good. An oil boom would also mean a multibillion-dollar windfall (意外之财) in tax revenues, royalties (开采权使用费) and leasing fees for Alaska and the Federal Government. Best of all, advocates of drilling say, damage to the environment would be insignificant. “We’ve never had a document case of oil rig chasing deer out onto the pack ice.” says Alaska State Representative Scott Ogan.
Not so far, say environmentalists. Sticking to the low end of government estimates, the National Resources Defense Council says there may be no more than 3.2 billion barrels of economically recoverable oil in the coastal plain of ANWR, a drop in the bucket that would do virtually nothing to ease America’s energy problems. And consumers would wait up to a decade to gain any benefits, because drilling could begin only after much bargaining over leases, environmental permits and regulatory review. As for ANWR’s impact on the California power crisis, environmentalists point out that oil is responsible for only 1% of the Golden State’s electricity output—and just 3% of the nation’s. 【題組】21.
What does President Bush think of tapping oil in ANWR?
(A) It will exhaust the nation’s oil reserves.
(B) It will help secure the future of ANWR.
(C) It will help reduce the nation’s oil imports.
(D) It will increase America’s energy consumption.
2.【題組】22. We learn from the second paragraph that the American oil industry ________.
(A) believes that drilling for oil in ANWR will produce high yields
(B) tends to exaggerate America’s reliance on foreign oil
(C) shows little interest in tapping oil in ANWR
(D) expects to stop oil imports from Saudi Arabia
3.【題組】23. Those against oil drilling in ANWR argue that ________.
(A) it can cause serious damage to the environment
(B) it can do little to solve U.S. energy problems
(C) it will drain the oil reserves in the Alaskan region
(D) it will not have much commercial value
4.【題組】24. What do the environmentalists mean by saying “Not so fast” (Line 1, Para. 3)?
(A) Oil exploitation takes a long time
(B) The oil drilling should be delayed
(C) Don’t be too optimistic
(D) Don’t expect fast returns
5.【題組】25. It can be learned from the passage that oil exploitation beneath ANWR’s frozen earth ________.
(A) remains a controversial issue
(B) is expected to get under way soon
(C) involves a lot of technological problems
(D) will enable the U.S. to be oil independent
“Tear ‘em apart!” “Kill the fool!” “Murder the referee (裁判)!”
These are common remarks one may hear at various sporting events. At the time they are made, they may seem innocent enough. But let’s not kid ourselves. They have been known to influence behavior in such a way as to lead to real bloodshed. Volumes have been written about the way words affect us. It has been shown that words having certain connotations (含义) may cause us to react in ways quite foreign to what we consider to be our usual humanistic behavior. I see the term “opponent” as one of those words. Perhaps the time has come to delete it from sports terms.
The dictionary meaning of the term “opponent “is “adversary “: “enemy “; “one who opposes your interests.” “Thus, when a player meets an opponent, he or she may tend to treat that opponent as an enemy. At such times, winning may dominate one’s intellect, and every action, no matter how gross, may be considered justifiable. I recall an incident in a handball game when a referee refused a player’s request for a time out for a glove change because he did not considered then wet enough. The player proceeded to rub his gloves across his wet T-shirt and then exclaimed. “Are they wet enough now?”
In the heat of battle, players have been observed to throw themselves across the court without considering the consequences that such a move might have on anyone in their way. I have also witnessed a player reacting to his opponent’s international and illegal blocking by deliberately hitting him with the ball as hard as he could during the course of play. Off the court, they are good friends. Does that make any sense? It certainly gives proof of a court attitude which departs from normal behavior.
Therefore, I believe it is time we elevated (提升) the game to the level where it belongs thereby setting an example to the rest of the sporting world. Replacing the term “opponent” with “associate” could be an ideal way to start.
The dictionary meaning of the term “associate” is “colleague”; “friend”; “companion.” Reflect a moment! You may soon see and possibly feel the difference in your reaction to the term “associate” rather than “opponent.” 【題組】26.
Which of the following statements best expresses the author’s view?
(A) Aggressive behavior in sports can have serious consequences.
(B) The words people use can influence their behavior.
(C) Unpleasant words in sports are often used by foreign athletes.
(D) Unfair judgments by referees will lead to violence on the sports field.
7.【題組】27. Harsh words are spoken during games because the players ________.
(A) are too eager to win
(B) are usually short-tempered and easily offended
(C) cannot afford to be polite in fierce competition
(D) treat their rivals as enemies
8.【題組】28. What did the handball player do when he was not allowed a time out to change his gloves?
(A) He refused to continue the game.
(B) He angrily hit the referee with a ball.
(C) He claimed that the referee was unfair.
(D) He wet his gloves by rubbing them across his T-shirt.
9.【題組】29. According to the passage, players, in a game, may ________.
(A) deliberately throw the ball at anyone illegally blocking their way
(B) keep on screaming and shouting throughout the game
(C) lie down on the ground as an act of protest
(D) kick the ball across the court with force
10.【題組】30. The author hopes to have the current situation in sports improved by ________.
(A) calling on players to use clean language on the court
(B) raising the referee’s sense of responsibility
(C) changing the attitude of players on the sports field
(D) regulating the relationship between players and referees
Consumers are being confused and misled by the hodge-podge (大杂烩) of environmental claims made by household products, according to a “green labeling” study published by Consumers International Friday.
Among the report’s more outrageous (令人无法容忍的) findings-a German fertilizer described itself as “earthworm friendly” a brand of flour said it was “non-polluting” and a British toilet paper claimed to be “environmentally friendlier”
The study was written and researched by Britain’s National Consumer Council (NCC) for lobby group Consumer International. It was funded by the German and Dutch governments and the European Commission.
“ While many good and useful claims are being made, it is clear there is a long way to go in ensuring shoppers are adequately informed about the environmental impact of products they buy,” said Consumers International director Anna Fielder.
The 10-country study surveyed product packaging in Britain, Western Europe, Scandinavia and the United States. It found that products sold in Germany and the United Kingdom made the most environmental claims on average.
The report focused on claims made by specific products, such as detergent (洗涤剂) insect sprays and by some garden products. It did not test the claims, but compared them to labeling guidelines set by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in September, 1999.
Researchers documented claims of environmental friendliness made by about 2,000 products and found many too vague or too misleading to meet ISO standards.
“Many products had specially-designed labels to make them seem environmentally friendly, but in fact many of these symbols mean nothing,” said report researcher Philip Page.
“Laundry detergents made the most number of claims with 158. Household cleaners were second with 145 separate claims, while paints were third on our list with 73. The high numbers show how very confusing it must be for consumers to sort the true from the misleading.” he said.
The ISO labeling standards ban vague or misleading claims on product packaging, because terms such as “environmentally friendly” and “non-polluting” cannot be verified. “What we are now pushing for is to have multinational corporations meet the standards set by the ISO.” said Page. 【題組】31.
According to the passage, the NCC found it outrageous that ________.
(A) all the products surveyed claim to meet ISO standards
(B) the claims made by products are often unclear or deceiving
(C) consumers would believe many of the manufactures’ claim
(D) few products actually prove to be environment friendly
12.【題組】32. As indicated in this passage, with so many good claims, the consumers ________.
(A) are becoming more cautious about the products they are going to buy
(B) are still not willing to pay more for products with green labeling
(C) are becoming more aware of the effects different products have on the environment
(D) still do not know the exact impact of different products on the environment
13.【題組】33. A study was carried out by Britain’s NCC to ________.
(A) find out how many claims made by products fail to meet environmental standards
(B) inform the consumers of the environmental impact of the products they buy
(C) examine claims made by products against ISO standards
(D) revise the guidelines set by the International Standards Organization
14.【題組】34. What is one of the consequences caused by the many claims of household products?
(A) They are likely to lead to serious environmental problems.
(B) Consumers find it difficult to tell the true from the false.
(C) They could arouse widespread anger among consumer.
(D) Consumers will be tempted to buy products they don’t need.
15.【題組】35. It can be inferred from the passage that the lobby group Consumer International wants to ________.
(A) make product labeling satisfy ISO requirements
(B) see all household products meet environmental standards
(C) warn consumers of the danger of so-called green products
(D) verify the efforts of non-polluting products
Two hours from the tall buildings of Manhattan and Philadelphia live some of the world’s largest black bears. They are in northern Pennsylvania’s Pocono Mountains, a home they share with an abundance of other wildlife.
The streams, lakes, meadows (草地), mountain ridges and forests that make the Poconos an ideal place for black bears have also attracted more people to the region. Open spaces are threatened by plans for housing estates and important habitats (栖息地) are endangered by highway construction. To protect the Poconos natural beauty from irresponsible development, the Nature Conservancy (大自然保护协会) named the area one of America’s “Last Great Places”.
Operating out of a century-old schoolhouse in the village of Long Pond, Pennsylvania, the conservancy’s bud Cook is working with local people and business leaders to balance economic growth with environmental protection. By forging partnerships with people like Francis Altemose, the Conservancy has been able to protect more than 14,000 acres of environmentally important land in the area.
Altemose’s family has farmed in the Pocono area for generations. Two years ago Francis worked with the Conservancy to include his farm in a county farmland protection program. As a result, his family’s land can be protected from development and the Altemoses will be better able to provide a secure financial future for their 7-year-old grandson.
Cook attributes the Conservancy’s success in the Poconos to having a local presence and a commitment to working with local residents
“The key to protecting these remarkable lands is connecting with the local community,” Cook said. “The people who live there respect the land. They value quiet forests, clear streams and abundant wildlife. They are eager to help with conservation effort.
For more information on how you can help the Nature Conservancy protect the Poconos and the world’s other “Last Great Places,” please call 1-888-564 6864 or visit us on the World Wide Web at www.tnc.org. 【題組】36.
The purpose in naming the Poconos as one of America’s “Last Great Places” is to ________.
(A) gain support from the local community
(B) protect it from irresponsible development
(C) make it a better home for black bears
(D) provide financial security for future generations
17.【題組】37. We learn from the passage that ________.
(A) the population in the Pocono area is growing
(B) wildlife in the Pocono area is dying out rapidly
(C) the security of the Pocono residents is being threatened
(D) farmlands in the Pocono area are shrinking fast
18.【題組】38. What is important in protecting the Poconos according to Cook?
(A) The setting up of an environmental protection website
(B) Support from organizations like The Nature Conservancy
(C) Cooperation with the local residents and business leaders
(D) Inclusion of farmlands in the region’s protection program
19.【題組】39. What does Bud Cook mean by “having a local presence” (Line 1, Para. 5)?
(A) Financial contributions from local business leaders
(B) Consideration of the interests of the local residents
(C) The establishment of a wildlife protection foundation in the area
(D) The setting up of a local Nature Conservancy branch in the Pocono area