Unlike those available for painting, the opportunities to exhibit sculpture in the United-States around the turn of the twentieth century were quite scarce. There was almost no room for sculpture at the influential Fine Arts Society's 57th Street Galleries
Line in New York. As late as 1905, the Monumental News, a journal dedicated to the
5 promotion of sculpture, lamented, "Exhibitions of sculptors' works are so comparatively rare." In response to this dire predicament, (he sculptor Frederick W. Ruckstull and Charles de Kay, art editor of the newspaper The New York Times, founded the National Sculpture Society (NSS) in 1893, the first organization dedicated solely to the advancement of sculpture.
10 Incorporated in 1896 to promote sculptural production and encourage the exhibition and sale of the plastic arts, the National Sculpture Society (NSS) elected John Quincy Adams Ward (1830-1910), the prestigious sculptor of public monuments, to serve as its first president, an office he held from 1893 to 1905. During the last twenty years of his life, ward dedicated much time to public and private organizations that promoted public
15 art. To the end, he headed the NSS committee that oversaw the sculptural decoration of the Library of Congress Reading Room in Washington D.C. as well as the building and decorating of the Dewey Arch—a monument in New York to honor Admiral George Dewey. He was a champion of the City Beautiful Movement— an effort to increase the presence of urban art—and defended the central role that sculpture played in its national
The National Sculpture Society promoted the production of sculpture by standardizing procedures for competitions, enhancing the professional status of sculptors, and encouraging commissions for American sculpture in homes, public buildings, parks, and squares. Moreover, ii included members in its organization who were not sculptors,
25 hoping to close the gap between artists and the great body of the people, not merely well-to-do patrons, bui the working public. The NSS encouraged the commission and purchase of sculptures for both private consumption—home and garden—and for public enjoyment—parks and squares. Through this campaign, small-scale sculptures—either reductions of monumental artworks or smaller-sized originals—were brought to the attention of an interested public. 【題組】
1. What does the passage mainly discuss
(A) The establishment and goals of the National Sculpture Society
(B) Why artists of the twentieth century wanted to jojn the National Sculpture Society
(C) The effects of the National Sculpture Society on twentieth-century art
(D) The relationship between the National Sculpture Society and national arts groups
2.【題組】2. The word "scarce" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
3.【題組】3. The word "lamented" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
4.【題組】4. What is (he "dire predicament" mentioned by the author in line 6 ?
(A) The limited professional opportunities for sculptors
(B) The failure of the Fine Arts Society to include paintings in its exhibitions
(C) The founding of the National Sculpture Society
(D) The production of the Monumental News
5.【題組】5. The passage suggests which of the following about early-twentielh-century art?
(A) Many New Yorkers were not interested in painting.
(B) Newspapers and journals rarely discussed painting.
(C) People saw more public displays of painting than of sculpture.
(D) An appearance in galleries of the Fine Arts Society guaranteed financial success.
6.【題組】6. According to the passage, who was the first president of the National Sculpture Society?
(A) Frederick W. Rucksmll
(B) John Quincy Adams Ward
(C) Charles de Kay
(D) Admire! George Dewey
7.【題組】7. The phrase "that end" in line 15 refers to
(A) the last twenty years of his life.
(B) much time
(C) promoting public art
(D) the NSS committee
8.【題組】8. The word "champion" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
9.【題組】9. According to the passage, what was a goal of the City Beautiful Movement?
(A) To increase national sales of Sculpture
(B) To encourage sculptors to create more monuments
(C) To improve to appearance of the city with art
(D) To convince more sculptors to work in New York
10.【題組】10. According to the passage, the National Sculpture Society promoted the production of sculpture by doing which of the following?
(A) Carrying oui activities that increased the public's respect for sculptors
(B) Replacing old sculptures in public places with new ones
(C) Increasing the number of sculptural competitions
(D) Encouraging private sculpture lessons in homes
In the United States, many social reformers in the late nineteenth century demonstrated a concern for improved housing conditions for workers, George Pullman (1831-1897), the wealthy industrialist who introduced luxury railway cars with beds, built his model tine city called Pullman in 1880 to address housing problems caused by Chicago's
5 industrialization. Constructing the town, Pullman hoped to produce an ideal environment that would help attract workers of a superior type to [he railway car industry and retain them. Pullman inhabitants were expected to embody values of thrift, industry, and morality. They were taught to develop propriety and good manners, cleanliness and neatness of appearance, diligence, and self-improvement through education and savings.
10 Like the brick clock tower that dominated [he town center, Pullman kept a regulatory eye on his workers.
In its first five yean, this new experiment in industrial life received little criticism, except from radical political groups. Crediting the town of Pullman with producing a new type of dependable and ambitious worker in a rationally ordered environment, reformers,
15 at first, praised it as a successful model for modern industrial life. However, after 1885, with the high gloss of the experiment dulled, it became clear that the residents of Pullman had honest grievances about the overcharging of rent and other services.
In 1893, The World's Columbian Exposition, an exhibition that aimed to promote American cultural, economical, and technological development, and in which George
20 Pullman was a major investor, was held in Chicago. The town of Pullman became a popular tourist stop, attracting more than its share of curious travelers. There were 10,000 foreign viators-alone during the exposition year. In fact, the first Baedeker Travel Guide to the United States advised visitors to tour Pullman. Frequent trains and trolley cars connected the fairgrounds of the exposition with the town, and on several occasions,
25 George Pullman himself guided the tours. Constructing a fantastic environment for the benefit of tourists, he made sure that any real tensions between bis office and the working inhabitants of the town were rendered invisible to the tourist gaze.
【題組】11. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The effect of industrialization on Ihe city of Pullman
(B) The model city built by George Pullman
(C) The career of George Pullman
(D) Housing problems in the nineteenth century '
12.【題組】12. According to the passage, which L the following led to the creation of the town of Pullman?
(A) A surplus of railway workers in Chicago
(B) Housing problems caused by industrialization
(C) George Pullman's decision to slop producing railway cars
(D) The opening of the World's Columbian Exposition
13.【題組】14. According to the passage, George Pullman expected that the city of Pullman would
(A) impress social reformers
(B) satisfy radical political groups
(C) soon develop housing problems
(D) draw workers Co the railway car industry
14.【題組】15. According to the passage. Pullman inhabitants were taught to do all of Ihe following
(A) have good manners
(B) become active in town politics
(C) value education
(D) save money
15.【題組】13. The word "retain" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
16.【題組】16. What does the author imply about George Pullman's attitude toward his workers in lines 10-11 ?
(A) Pullman believed that his workers should follow a strict daily schedule.
(B) Pullman felt that his workers required careful monitoring and supervision.
(C) Pullman thought that individual workers could be taught to work together as a team.
(D) Pullman believed that his workers had trouble keeping track of the time they spent on a task.
17.【題組】17. The word "grievances" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
18.【題組】18. The passage suggests that George Pullman worked to hide which of the following from tourists?
(A) His role as an investor in the World's Columbian Exposition
(B) His conflicts with the inhabitants of the town of Pullman
(C) His efforts to promote the town of Pullman
(D) His lack Of knowledge about how the Inhabitants of Pullman really lived
19.【題組】19. According to the passage, what did George Pullman do to promote tourism in the town of Pullman?
(A) He personally showed tourists around the town.
(B) He published a travel guide to the town.
(C) He started to invest in the town's cultural development.
(D) He built a new road connecting it to the World's Columbian Exposition.
20.【題組】20. Why does the author mention the first Baedeker Travel Guide to the United States?
(A) To explain where tourists could find train and trolley schedules
(B) To identify a way used by George Pullman to attract tourists to Pullman
(C) To indicate how a large number of foreign tourists became interested in visiting the town of Pullman
(D) To provide evidence that tourists were often more interested in visiting Pullman than in seeing the World's Columbian Exposition
Face masks are commonly used in rituals and performances. They not only hide the real face of the mask wearer but they often evoke powerful emotions in the audience-danger, fear, sadness, joy. You might think, because so many things vary
Line cross-culturally, that the ways in which emotions are displayed and recognized in the
5 face vary too. Apparently they do not. Recent research on masks from different cultures supports the conclusion that masks, like faces, tend to represent certain emotions in the some ways. We now have some evidence that the symbolism used in masks is often universal
The research on masks builds on work done by anthropologists, who used photographs
10 of individuals experiencing various emotions. These photographs were shown to members of different cultural groups who were asked to identify the emotions displayed in the photographs. Emotions were identified correctly by most viewers, whatever the viewer's native culture.
Coding schemes were developed to enable researchers to compare the detailed facial
15 positions of individual portions of die face (eyebrows, mouth, etc.) for different emotions, What exactly do we do when we scowl? We contract the eyebrows and lower the comers of the mouth; in geometric terms, we make angles and diagonals on our faces. When we smile, we raise the corners of the mouth; we make it curved.
Psychologist Joel Arnoff and his colleagues compared two types of wooden face masks
20 from many different societies—masks described as threatening versus masks associated with nonthreatening functions. As suspected, the two sets of masks had significant differences in certain facial elements. The threatening masks had eyebrows and eyes facing inward and downward and a downward-facing mouth. In more abstract or geometrical terms, threatening features generally tend to be angular or diagonal and
25 nonthrcatening features tend to be curved or rounded, A face with a pointed beard is threatening; a baby's face is not. The theory is that humans express and recognize basic emotions in uniform ways because all human faces are quite similar, skeletally and muscularly.
【題組】21. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The techniques for comparing facial expressions across cultures
(B) The photography of faces
(C) Cultural variations in mask
(D) The uniformity of facial expressions in revealing emotions
22.【題組】22. According to the passage, masks are used in performances to
(A) disguise the real emotions of the performers
(B) cause members of the audience to have strong emotional
(C) remind the audience that an illusion is being created
(D) identify the cultural background of the performers
23.【題組】23. The word "they" in line 2 refers to
24.【題組】24. The word "evidence" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
25.【題組】25. What does the author mean by stating, "the symbolism used in masks is often universal" (lines 7-8)?
(A) Masks are sometimes used to hide emotions.
(B) Performers often need help conveying emotions to an audience.
(C) Not all societies use masks in their rituals and
(D) People from different cultures generally express certain emotions in similar ways.
26.【題組】26. The word "schemes" in line 14 is closest in meaning to
27.【題組】27. What does the author suggest by Stating, "in geometric terms, we make angles and diagonals on our faces" (line 17)?
(A) Different portions of the face are used to show specific emotions.
(B) It is difficult to use objective terminology to describe facial expressions.
(C) Facial expressions can be described in terms of shapes.
(D) Precise methods of classifying emotions have not been developed.
28.【題組】28. The wood "significant" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
29.【題組】29. The passage mentions-"* baby's face" in line 26 as an example ofa
(A) typical human face
(B) source of inspiration in the creation of masks
(C) nonthreatening face
(D) face that expresses few emotions
The response of most animals when suddenly faced with a predator is to flee. Natural selection has acted in a variety of ways in different species to enhance the efficacy of the behaviors, known as "flight behaviors" or escape behaviors that are used by prey in
Line fleeing predators: Perhaps the most direct adaptation is enhanced flight speed and agility.
5 Adaptations for speed. However, are likely to require sacrifices biter attributes, so we might expect only some species to adopt a simple fast flight strategy. Another way of enhancing the effectiveness of flight is to move in an erratic and unpredictable way. Many species, like ptarmigans, snipes, and various antelopes and gazelles, flee from predators in a characteristic zigzag fashion. Rapid unexpected changes in flight direction make it
10 difficult for a predator to track prey. In some species, like the European hare, erratic
zigzag flight might be more effective in the presence of predators that aie faster than they are and straight flight more effective against predators that are slower. One observation lhat supports this suggestion is the recorded tendency for slow-flying black-headed gulls, which are normally able to escape predators by means of direct flight, to show frequent
15 changes in flight direction when they spot a peregrine falcon (peregrines are adept at capturing flying birds).
A quite different way of enhancing escape by flight is to USB so-called "flash" behavior. Here, the alarmed prey flees for a short distance and then "freezes." Some predators are unexcited by immobile prey, and a startling flash of activity followed
20 by immobility may confuse them. "Flash" behavior is used in particular by frogs and orthopteran insects, which make conspicuous jumps and then sit immobile. In some species, "flash" behavior is enhanced by the display of bright body markings. Good examples of insects with colorful markings are the red and yellow underwing moths. At rest, both species are a cryptic brown color. When they fly, however, brightly colored
25 hind wings are exposed, which render the moths highly conspicuous. Similarly, some frogs and lizards have brightly colored patches or frills that may serve a 'flash" function when they move quickly, Some species even appear to possess "flash" sounds. The loud buzzing and clicking noises made by some grasshoppers when they jump may serve to emphasize the movement.
【題組】30. The word "enhance" in line2 is closest in meaning to
31.【題組】31. The description of the prey's movement as "zigzag" in line 9 suggests that the movement is
32.【題組】32. It can be inferred from the passage that the European hare
(A) is faster than most of its predators
(B) is capable of two kinds of flight
(C) is more likely to escape using straight flight
(D) is preyed upon by gulls and falcons
33.【題組】33. The behavior of black-beaded gulls is most comparable to that of
(B) European hares
(C) peregrine falcons
34.【題組】34. It can be inferred that black-headed gulls change direction when they spot a peregrine falcon for which of the following reasons?
(A) The falcons are faster than the gulls.
(B) The gulls want to capture the falcons.
(C) The falcons are unpredictable.
(D) The gulls depend on the falcons for protection.
35.【題組】35. The word "alarmed" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
36.【題組】36. All of the following are mentioned as characteristics of "flash" behavior EXCEPT
(A) brief conspicuous activity
(C) bright body markings
(D) aggressive fighting
37.【題組】37. The phrase "in particular" in line 20 is closest in meaning to
(B) with difficulty
38.【題組】38. The hind wings of red and yellow underwing moths function in a way that is most similar to
(A) the hind wings of peregrine falcons
(B) the zigzag flight of European hares
(C) the colored patches on frogs
(D) the clicking of grasshoppers
39.【題組】39. Why does the author mention grasshopper* in line 28?
(A) To contrast animals that "flash" with animals that “freeze”
(B) As an example of an animal whose "flash" behavior is a sound?
(C) To compare the jumping behavior of insects and reptiles
(D) As an example of a predator that moths escape by using "flash" behavior
In the nineteenth century, oceanography benefited from the new desire to study phenomena on a global scale. Many scientists collected information on the chemical composition, temperature, and pressure of the ocean at various depths and in different
Line regions. The difficulty of gathering information about the ocean depths was immense. 5 At first ii was believed that the temperatures in the depths never fell below 4 degrees
Celsius, until it was shown that the figures were distorted by the effect of pressures on the thermometers. There was intensive study of tides and ocean currents; and a number of physicists examined the forces responsible for the movements of the water. For example, James Reonell provided the first accurate map of the currents in the Atlantic.
10 Ocean, and the United Slates Coast Survey made extensive studies of the Gulf Stream. The zoologist Edward Forbes argued that no lire existed below a depth of 300 fathoms (about 600 meters) a view widely accepted until disproved by the voyage of the British research vessel HMS Challenger(1872-1876)The HMS Challenger expedition provided valuable information about the seabed, including the discovery of manganese nodules
IS that are now being seen as a potentially valuable source of minerals.
The first detailed map of the seabed was provided for the Atlantic by the American geographer Matthew F. Maury- He devised new techniques for measuring ocean depths, and his work proved of great value in laying the first transatlantic telegraph cables. He also studied global wind patterns and was able to provide sailors with guides that
20 significantly reduced die time taken on many routes. Some oceanographers believed that the winds were responsible for producing ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream, but Maury disagreed. He argued that they were produced by changes in the density of seawater due to temperature, which Bet up systems of movement between warm and cool regions of the world. Maury believed that the circulation of a warm current would
25 produce ice-free sea around the North Pole, a claim not disproved until Fridtjof Nansen allowed his vessel The Pram to be carded to within a few degrees of the pole in the years 1893-1896.
【題組】40. What does this passage mainly discuss?
(A) Exploration of the Atlantic Ocean seabed
(B) Differences between the Gulf Stream and other ocean currents
(C) Oceanography in the nineteenth century
(D) The reaction of water to temperature changes
41.【題組】41. According to the passage, what led to advances in the study of oceans?
(A) An interest in conducting ocean research on a worldwide level
(B) A disagreement between American and British
(C) The development of new global weather patterns
(D) The use of thermometers that could withstand deep ocean pressures
42.【題組】42. The word "accurate" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
43.【題組】43. According to the passage, Edward Forbes held which of the following opinions?
(A) The Golf Stream did not extend below 300 fathoms.
(B) Nothing lived in the ocean below 300 fathoms.
(C) The discoveries of the HMS Challenger were false.
(D) Manganese nodules were a potentially valuable source of minerals.
44.【題組】44. The word "expedition" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
45.【題組】45. The word "devised" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
46.【題組】46. According to the passage, which of the following is ture of the discoveries of the HMS Challenger?
(A) They Jed zoologists to argue that there were no 300 fathoms,
(B) They confirmed theories about
(C) They provided no new information about the seabed
(D) They revealed an important new mineral source.
47.【題組】47. The word "they" in line 22 refers to
48.【題組】48. According to the passage, which of the following is true about Matthew F. Maury?
(A) His ship traveled to the North Pole in 1893.
(B) He believed winds to be the source of currents.
(C) His studies or wind patterns enabled sailors to shorten their travel times.
(D) He believed that currents flowed only from warmer regions to cooler ones.
49.【題組】49. The passage suggests which of the following about the visit of The Fram to the North Pole?
(A) Matthew F. Maury was aboard The Fram when it traveled to the North Pole.
(B) During The Pram's visit to the North Pole. Matthew F. Maury's belief about the North Pole's sea was tested.
(C) The discoveries of The Pram were later refuted by Matthew F. Maury's discoveries.
(D) The Pram found that the water surrounding the North Pole was ice free.
50.【題組】50. What did the voyages of HMS Challenger (line 13) and The Pram (line 26) have
(A) Both provided new scientific data about the Gulf Stream.
(B) Both disproved previously accepted scientific beliefs.
(C) Both voyages took place at the same time.
(D) Both voyages produced maps of the seabed.