1.25.II. Grammar and Vocabulary
(D)irections: (B)eneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). (C)hoose the one answer that best completes the sentence.
--- It’s a top secret.
--- Yes, I see. I will keep the secret __________ you and me.
(A). with (B). around (C). among (D). between
(D)irections: For each blank in the following passages there are four words or phrases marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
Several years ago, well-known writer and editor Norman (C)ousins became very ill. His body ached and he felt constantly tired. It was difficult for him to even 45 around. His doctor told him that he would lose the ability to move and eventually die from the disease. He was told he had only a 1 in 500 chance of survival.
46 the diagnosis（诊断)， (C)ousins was determined to overcome the disease and survive. He had always been interested in medicine and had read a book, which discussed the idea of how body chemistry and health can be damaged by emotional stress and negative 47. The book made (C)ousins think about the possible 48 of positive attitudes and emotions. He thought, “Is it possible that love, hope, faith, laughter, confidence, and the 49 to live have positive treatment value?”
He decided to concentrate on positive emotions as a way to teat some of the symptoms of his disease. In addition to his traditional medical treatment, he tried to put his treatment. He 51 time each day for watching comedy films, reading humorous books, and doing other activities that would draw out 52 emotions. Within eight days of starting his “laugh therapy” program his pain began to 53 and he was able to sleep more easily. He was able to return to work in a few months’ time and 54 reached complete recovery after a few years.
【題組】45 (A). run (B). pass (C). move (D). travel
“When a customer enters my store,
forget me. He is king,” said John Wanamaker, who in 1876 turned an abandoned railway station in Philadelphia into one of the world’s first department stores. This revolutionary concept 55 the face of retailing（零售业）and led to the development of advertising and marketing as we know it today.
(B)ut convincing as that slogan was, 56 the shopper was cheated out of the crown. 57 manufacturing efficiently increased the variety of goods and lowered prices, people still relied on advertisements to get most information about products. Through much of the past century, ads spoke to an audience restricted to just a few radio or television channels or 58 number of publications. Now media choice has 59 too, and consumers select what they want from a far greater variety of sources --- especially with a few clicks of a computer mouse. 60 the internet, the consumer is finally seizing power.
(A)s our survey shows, 61 has great implications for companies, because it is changing the way the world shops. Many firms already claim to be “customer-driven” or “consumer-centred”. Now their 62 will be tested as never before. Taking advantage of shoppers’ 63 will no longer be possible: people will know --- and soon tell others, even those without the internet --- that prices in the next town are cheaper or that certain goods are inferior. The internet is working wonders in 64 standards. Good and honest firms should benefit most.
【題組】55. (A). changed (B). maintained (C). restored (D). rescued
IV. Reading (C)omprehension
(D)irections: Read the following four passages. (E)ach passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). (C)hoose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
(C)ara Lang is 13. She lives in (B)oston, Massachusetts, in the U.S. Last Thursday, she didn’t go to school. She went to work with her father instead. (E)very year, on the fourth Thursday in (A)pril, millions of young girls go to work. This is Take Our (D)aughters to Work (D)ay. The girls are between the ages of 9 and 15. They spend the day at work with an adult, usually a mother, father, aunt, or uncle. They go to offices, police stations, laboratories, and other places where their parents or other family members work. Next year, the day will include sons, too.
The Ms. Foundation, an organization for women, started the program about ten years ago. In the U.S., many women work outside the home. The Ms. Foundation wanted girls to find out about many different kinds of jobs. Then, when the girls grow up, they can choose a job they like.
(C)ara’s father is a film director. (C)ara says, “ It was very exciting for me to go to the studio with my dad. I saw a lot of people doing different jobs.” Many businesses have special activities for girls on this day. Last year, (C)ara went to work with her aunt at the University of Massachusetts. In the engineering department, the girls learned to build a bridge with toothpicks and candy. In the chemistry department, they learned to use scales. They learned about many other kinds of jobs, too.
Right now, (C)ara does not know what job she will have when she grows up. (B)ut because of Take Our (D)aughter to Work (D)ay, she knows she has many choices.
What is Cara’s father?
(A). (A)n engineer. (B). (A)n official. (C). (A) moviemaker. (D). (A) professor.
42.【題組】66. According to the passage, Take Our Daughter to Work Day is __________.
(A). on every Thursday in (A)pril (B). (A) holiday for girls of all ages
(C). a day for girls to know about jobs (D). a day for girls to get a job easily
43.【題組】67. On this special day, (C)ara has done all the following (E)X (C) (E)PT that __________.
(A). she learned to use scales
(B). she worked as an actress
(C). she went to work with her aunt
(D). she used toothpicks and candy to build a bridge
44.【題組】68. What is probably the best title for the passage?
(A). (C)ara Lang, a Fortunate Girl
(B). Take Our (D)aughters to Work (D)ay
(C). (C)hildren’s (D)ay and Work (D)ay
(D). Ms. Foundation, an organization for Women
Nervous suspects（嫌疑犯）locked up in (B)ritain’s newest police station may feel relieved by a pleasant yellow colour on the door. If they are close to confessing a crime, the blue on the wall might tip the balance.
Gwent Police have abandoned colours such as greys and browns of the 20th-century police cell（牢房）and have used colour psychology to decorate them.
Ystrad Mynach station, which recently opened at a cost of ￡5 million, has four cells with glass doors for prisoners who suffer from claustrophobia（幽闭恐怖症）. (D)esigners have painted the frames yellow, which researchers say is a calming colour. Other cells contain a royal but line because psychologists believe that the colour is likely to encourage truthfulness.
The station has 31 cells, including 12 with a “ live scan” system for drunken or disturbed prisoners, which detects the rise and fall of their chest. (A)n alarm alerts officers if a prisoner’s breathing stops and carries on ringing until the door is opened.
(D)esigners and psychologists have worked for years on colour. (B)lue is said to suggest trust, efficiency, duty, logic, coolness, thinking and calm. It also suggests coldness and unfriendliness. It is thought that strong blues will stimulate clear thought and lighter, soft colours will calm the mind and aid concentration.
Yellow is linked with confidence, self-respect and friendliness. Get the colour wrong and it could cause fear, depression and anxiety, but the right yellow can lift spirits and self-respect.
Ingrid (C)ollins, a psychologist who specializes in the effects of colour, said that colour was an “ energy force”. She said,” (B)lue does enhance communication but I am not sure it would enhance truthful communication.”
Yellow, she said, affected the mind. Red, on the other hand, should never be considered because it could increase aggression. Mrs (C)ollins praised the designers for using colours in the cells. Gwent is not he first (B)ritish force to experiment with colour to calm down persuade prisoners to co-operate. In the 1990s Strathclyde Police used pink in cells based on research carried out by the US Navy.
【題組】69.The expression “tip the balance” in paragraph 1 probably indicates that the blue might
(A). let suspects keep their balance
(B). help suspects to confess their crimes
(C). make suspects cold and unfriendly in law court
(D). enable suspects to change their attitudes to colours
48.【題組】72. The passage is mainly concerned with __________.
(A). the relationship between colours and psychology
(B). a comparisons of different functions of colours
(C). the use of colours in cells to affect criminals’ psychology
(D). scientific ways to help criminals reform themselves in prison
49. ( C ) (You may read the questions first.) (A)vailable at better bookstores and at www. Cambridge.org/us The word “talion” in introducing the book 【題組】73.
Eye for an (E)ye is probably a concept of _________. (A). medicine (B). trade (C). avenging (D). striving
50.【題組】74. The book entitled (A) History of Modern Indonesia has focused on __________.
(A). landscapes and tourist attractions in Indonesia
(B). its fourth largest population in the world
(C). its relatively unfamiliar and understudied economy
(D). its social and political aspects in modern times
51.【題組】75. What do these three books have in common?
(A). Their authors are introduced in detail.
(B). They all have a hardback and a paperback.
(C). (E)ach of them is commented by a professor.
(D). They are published by the same publishing house.
The “ (B)ystander (A)pathy (E)ffect” was first studied by researchers in New York after neighbours ignored --- and in some cases turned up the volume on their TVs --- the cries of a woman as she was murdered (over a half-hour period). With regard to helping those in difficulty generally, they found that:
(1) women are helped more than men;
(2) men help more than women;
(3) attractive women are helped more than unattractive women.
Other factors relate to the number of people in the area, whether the person is thought to be in trouble through their own fault, and whether a person sees himself as being able to help.
(A)ccording to (A)drian Furnham, Professor of University (C)ollege, London, there are three reasons why we tend to stand by doing nothing:
(1) “Shifting of responsibility” --- the more people there are, the less likely help is to be given. (E)ach person excuses himself by thinking someone else will help, so that the more “other people” there are, the greater the total shifting of responsibility.
(2) “Fear of making a mistake” --- situations are often not clear. People think that those involved in an incident may know each other or it may be a joke, so a fear of embarrassment makes them keep themselves to themselves.
(3) “Fear of the consequences if attention is turned on you, and the person is violent.”
Laurie Taylor, Professor of Sociology at London University, says: “In the experiments I’ve seen on intervention（介入）, much depends on the neighborhood or setting. There is a silence on public transport which is hard to break. We are embarrassed to draw attention to something that is happening, while in a football match, people get involved , and a fight would easily follow.”
Psychotherapist (A)lan (D)upuy identifies the importance of the individual: “the (B)ritish as a whole have some difficulty intervention, but there are exceptional individuals in every group who are prepared to intervene, regardless of their own safety. These would be people with a strong moral code or religious ideals.”
【題組】76.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
(A). Pretty women are more likely to be helped.
(B). People on a bus are more likely to stop a crime.
(C). Religious people are more likely to look on.
(D). (C)riminals are more likely to harm women.
54.【題組】78. Which phenomenon can be described as the “ (B)ystander (A)pathy (E)ffect”?
(A). When one is in trouble, people think it’s his own fault.
(B). In a football match, people get involved in a fight.
(C). Seeing a murder, people feel sorry that it should have happened.
(D). On hearing a cry for help, people keep themselves to themselves.
55.【題組】79. The author wrote this article __________.
(A). to explain why bystanders behave as they do
(B). to urge people to stand out when in need
(C). to criticize the selfishness of bystanders
(D). to analyze the weakness of human nature
(D)irections: Read the following text and choose the most suitable heading from (A)-F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.
(A). New teachers’ opinions of involving parents
(B). (A)n argument over an assignment
(C). (A) conflict between assumption and reality
(D). (D)ifficulties in sharing goals
(E). Proper ways of parental involvement
F.The best way to score high
(A)n Iowa high school counselor gets a call from a parent protesting the “ (C)” her child received on an assignment. “The parent argued every point in the essay,” recalls the counselor, who soon realized why the mother was so disappointed about the grade. “It became apparent that she’d written it.”
In a survey, 90% of new teachers agreed that involving parents in their children education is a priority at their school, but only 25% described their experience working with parents as “very satisfying”. When asked to choose the biggest challenge they face, 31% of them quoted involving parents and communicating with them as their top choice. 73% of new teachers said too many parents treat schools and teachers as enemies.
(A)t a time when competition is rising and resources are limited, when battles over testing force schools to adjust their priorities, when cell phone and e-mail speed up the information flow and all kinds of private ghosts and public quarrels slip into the parent-teacher conference, it’s harder for both sides to step back and breathe deeply and look at the goals they share.
(E)veryone says the parent-teacher conference should be pleasant, civilized, a kind of dialogue where parents and teachers build partnership. (B)ut what most teachers feel, and certainly what all parents feel, is anxiety and panic.
When a teacher asks parents to be partners, he or she doesn’t necessarily mean Mom or (D)ad should be camping in the classroom. Research shows that though students benefit modestly from having parents involved at school, what happens at home matters much more. (A)ccording to research based ont eh National (E)ducation Longitudinal Study, a sample of nearly 25,000 eighth graders, among four main areas of parental involvement (home discussion, home supervision, school communication, and school participation), home discussion was the most strongly related to academic achievement.