95 年 - 2006年6月英语四级真题#12797
1. Interest in pursuing international careers has soared in recent years, enhanced by chronic (长久的) personnel shortages that are causing companies to search beyond their home borders for talent.
Professionals seek career experience outside of their home countries for a variety of reasons. They may feel the need to recharge their batteries with a new challenge. They may want a position with more responsibility that encourages creativity and initiative. Or they may wish to expose their children to another culture, and the opportunity to learn a second language.
When applying for a job, one usually has to submit a resume or curriculum vitae (CV). The two terms generally mean the same thing: a one-or two-page document describing one’s educational qualifications and professional experience. However, guidelines for preparing a resume are constantly changing. The best advice is to find out what is appropriate regarding the corporate (公司) culture, the country culture, and the culture of the person making the hiring decision. The challenge will be to embrace two or more cultures in one document. The following list is a good place to start.
● “Educational requirements differ from country to country. In almost every case of ‘cross-border’ job hunting, just stating the title of your degree will not bean adequate description. Provide the reader with details about your studies and any related experience.”
● Pay attention to the resume format you use-chronological or reverse-chronological order. Chronological order means listing your ‘oldest’ work experience first. Reverse-chronological order means listing your current or most recent experience first. Most countries have preferences about which format is most acceptable. If you find no specific guidelines, the general preference is for the reverse-chronological format.”
● If you are submitting your resume in English, find out if the recipient (收件人) uses British English or American English because there are variations between the two versions. For example, university education is often referred to as ‘tertiary education’ in the United Kingdom, but this term is almost never used in the United States. A reader who is unfamiliar with these variations may assume that your resume contains errors.
Companies are hiring more foreign employees because ________.
(A) they find foreign employees are usually more talented
(B) they need original ideas from employees hired overseas
(C) they want to expand their business beyond home borders
(D) they have difficulty finding qualified personnel at home
2.【題組】22. The author believes that an individual who applies to work overseas ________.
(A) is usually creative and full of initiative
(B) aims to improve his foreign language skills
(C) is dissatisfied with his own life at home
(D) seeks either his own or his children’s development
3.【題組】23. When it comes to resume writing, it is best to ________.
(A) take cultural factors into consideration
(B) learn about the company’s hiring process
(C) follow appropriate guidelines for job hunting
(D) know the employer’s personal likes and dislikes
4.【題組】24. When writing about qualifications, applicants are advised to ________.
(A) stress their academic potential to impress the decision maker
(B) give the title of the university degree they have earned at home
(C) provide a detailed description of their study and work experiences
(D) highlight their keen interest in pursuing a ‘cross-border’ career
5.【題組】25. According to the author’s last piece of advice, the applicants should be aware of ________.
(A) the different educational systems in the US and the UK
(B) the differences between the varieties of English
(C) the recipient’s preference with regard to the format
(D) the distinctive features of American and British cultures
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Educating girls quite possibly yields a higher rate of return than any other investment available in the developing world. Women’s education may be unusual territory for economists, but enhancing women’s contribution to development is actually as much an economic as a social issue. And economics, with its emphasis on incentives (激励), provides guideposts that point to an explanation for why so many girls are deprived of an education.
Parents in low-income countries fail to invest in their daughters because they do not expect them to make an economic contribution to the family: girls grow up only to marry into somebody else’s family and bear children. Girls are thus seen as less valuable than boys and art kept at home to do housework while their brothers are sent to school-the prophecy (预言) becomes self-fulfilling, trapping women in a vicious circle (恶性循环) of neglect.
An educated mother, on the other hand, has greater earning abilities outside the home and faces an entirely different set of choices. She is likely to have fewer but healthier children and can insist on the development of all her children, ensuring that her daughters are given a fair chance. The education of her daughters then makes it much more likely that the next generation of girls, as well as of boys, will be educated and healthy. The vicious circle is thus transformed into a virtuous circle.
Few will dispute that educating women has great social benefits. But it has enormous economic advantages as well. Most obviously, there is the direct effect of education on the wages of female workers. Wages rise by 10 to 20 per cent for each additional year of schooling. Such big returns are impressive by the standard of other available investments, but they are just the beginning. Educating women also has a significant impact on health practices, including family planning.
The author argues that educating girls in developing countries is ________.
7.【題組】27. By saying “... the prophecy becomes self-fulfilling...” (Lines 45, Para. 2). the author means that ________.
(A) girls will turn out to be less valuable than boys
(B) girls will be capable of realizing their own dreams
(C) girls will eventually find their goals in life beyond reach
(D) girls will be increasingly discontented with their life at home
8.【題組】28. The author believes that a vicious circle can turn into a virtuous circle when ________.
(A) women care more about education
(B) girls can gain equal access to education
(C) a family has fewer but healthier children
(D) parents can afford their daughters’ education
9.【題組】29. What does the author say about women’s education?
(A) It deserves greater attention than other social issues.
(B) It is now given top priority in many developing countries.
(C) It will yield greater returns than other known investments.
(D) It has aroused the interest of a growing number of economists.
10.【題組】30. The passage mainly discusses ________.
(A) unequal treatment of boys and girls in developing countries
(B) the potential earning power of well-educated women
(C) the major contributions of educated women to society
(D) the economic and social benefits of educating women
Speeding off in a stolen car, the thief thinks he has got a great catch. But he is in for an unwelcome surprise. The car is fitted with a remote immobiliser (锁止器), and a radio signal from a control centre miles away will ensure that once the thief switches the engine off, he will not be able to start it again.
The idea goes like this. A control box fitted to the car contains a mini-cellphone, a micro-processor and memory, and a GPS (全球定位系统) satellite positioning receiver. If the car is stolen, a coded cellphone signal will tell the control centre to block the vehicle’s engine management system and prevent the engine being restarted.
In the UK, a set of technical fixes is already making life harder for car thieves. ‘The pattern of vehicle crime has changed,’ says Martyn Randall, a security expert. He says it would only take him a few minutes to teach a person how to steal a car, using a bare minimum of tools. But only if the car is more than 10 years old.
Modern cars are far tougher to steal, as their engine management computer won’t allow them to start unless they receive a unique ID code beamed out by the ignition (点火) key. In the UK, technologies like this have helped achieve a 31% drop in vehicle-related crime since 1997.
But determined criminals are still managing to find other ways to steal cars, often by getting bold of the owner’s keys. And key theft is responsible for 40% of the thefts of vehicles fitted with a tracking system.
If the car travels 100 metres without the driver confirming their ID, the system will send a signal to an operations centre that it has been stolen. The hundred metres minimum avoids false alarms due to inaccuracies in the GPS signal.
Staff at the centre will then contact the owner to confirm that the car really is missing, and keep police informed of the vehicle’s movements via the car’s GPS unit.
What’s the function of the remote immobilizer fitted to a car?
(A) To help the police make a surprise attack on the car thief.
(B) To allow the car to lock automatically when stolen.
(C) To prevent the car thief from restarting it once it stops.
(D) To prevent car theft by sending a radio signal to the car owner.
12.【題組】32. By saying “The pattern of vehicle crime has changed” (Lines 1-2. Para. 3), Martyn Randall suggests that ________.
(A) it takes a longer time for the car thief to do the stealing
(B) self-prepared tools are no longer enough for car theft
(C) the thief has to make use of computer technology
(D) the thief has lost interest in stealing cars over 10 years old
13.【題組】33. What is essential in making a modem car tougher to steal?
(A) A coded ignition key.
(B) A unique ID card.
(C) A special cellphone signal.
(D) A GPS satellite positioning receiver.
14.【題組】34. Why does the tracking system set a 100-metre minimum before sending an alarm to the operations centre?
(A) To leave time for the operations centre to give an alarm.
(B) To keep police informed of the car’s movements.
(C) To give the driver time to contact the operations centre.
(D) To allow for possible errors in the GPS system.
15.【題組】35. What will the operations centre do first after receiving an alarm?
(A) Start the tracking system.
(B) Contact the car owner.
(C) Block the car engine.
(D) Locate the missing car.
Psychiatrists (精神病专家) who work with older parents say that maturity can be an asset in child rearing-older parents are more thoughtful, use less physical discipline and spend more time with their children. But raising kids takes money and energy. Many older parents find themselves balancing their limited financial resources, declining energy and failing health against the growing demands of an active child. Dying and leaving young children is probably the older parents’ biggest, and often unspoken, fear. Having late-life children, says an economics professor, often means parents, particularly fathers, “end up retiring much later.” For many, retirement becomes an unobtainable dream.
Henry Metcalf, a 54-year-old journalist, knows it takes money to raise kids. But he’s also worried that his energy will give out first. Sure, he can still ride bikes with his athletic fifth grader, but he’s learned that young at heart doesn’t mean young. Lately he’s been taking afternoon naps (午睡) to keep up his energy. “My body is aging,” says Metcalf. “You can’t get away from that.”
Often, older parents hear the ticking of another kind of biological clock. Therapists who work with middle-aged and older parents say fears about aging are nothing to laugh at. “They worry they’ll be mistaken for grandparents, or that they’ll need help getting up out of those little chairs in nursery school,” says Joann Galst, a New York psychologist. But at the core of those little fears there is often a much bigger one: “that they won’t be alive long enough to support and protect their child,” she says.
Many late-life parents, though, say their children came at just the right time. After marrying late and undergoing years of fertility (受孕) treatment, Marilyn Nolen and her husband. Randy, had twins. “We both wanted children,” says Marilyn, who was 55 when she gave birth. The twins have given the couple what they desired for years, “a sense of family.” Kids of older dads are often smarter, happier and more sociable because their fathers are more involved in their lives. “The dads are older, more mature,” says Dr. Silber, “and more ready to focus on parenting.”
Why do psychiatrists regard maturity as an asset in child rearing?
(A) Older parents are often better prepared financially.
(B) Older parents can take better care of their children.
(C) Older parents are usually more experienced in bringing up their children.
(D) Older parents can better balance their resources against children’s demands.
17.【題組】37. What does the author mean by saying “For many, retirement becomes an unobtainable dream” (Lines 7-8, Para. 1)?
(A) They are reluctant to retire when they reach their retirement age.
(B) They can’t obtain the retirement benefits they have dreamed of.
(C) They can’t get full pension unless they work some extra years.
(D) They have to go on working beyond their retirement age.
18.【題組】38. The author gives the example of Henry Metcalf to show that ________.
(A) older parents should exercise more to keep up with their athletic children
(B) many people are young in spirit despite their advanced age
(C) older parents tend to be concerned about their aging bodies
(D) taking afternoon naps is a good way to maintain energy
19.【題組】39. What’s the biggest fear of older parents according to New York psychologist Joan Galst?
(A) Approaching of death.
(B) Slowing down of their pace of life.
(C) Being laughed at by other people.
(D) Being mistaken for grandparents.
20.【題組】40. What do we learn about Marilyn and Randy Nolen?
(A) They thought they were an example of successful fertility treatment.
(B) Not until they reached middle age did they think of having children.
(C) Not until they had the twins did they feel they had formed a family.
(D) They believed that children born of older parents would be smarter.
21.41. People’s expectations about the future may have more influence on their sense of well-being than their ________ state does.
22.42. After working all day, he was so tired that he was in no ________ to go to the party with us.
23.43. There is already ________ clear to show that plants and animals are being affected by climate change.
24.44. Many women still feel that they are being ________ by a male culture, particularly in the professional services sector.
(A) held back
(B) held forth
(C) held on
(D) held out
25.45. The findings paint a unique picture of the shopping habits of customers, plus their motivation and ________.
26.46. It’s good to know that quite a few popular English expressions actually ________ from the Bible.
27.47. Tom, did it ever ________ to you that you would be punished for cheating on exams?
28.48. In the U.S. 88 percent of smokers had started before they were 18, despite the fact that it is ________ to sell cigarettes to anyone under that age.
29.49. According to the key witnesses, a peculiarly big nose is the criminal’s most memorable facial ________.
30.50. Brazil’s constitution ________ the military use of nuclear energy.
31.51. Some people argue that the death ________ does not necessarily reduce the number of murders.
32.52. Many personnel managers say it is getting harder and harder to ________ honest applicants from the growing number of dishonest ones.
33.53. A study shows that students living in non-smoking dorms are less likely to ________ the habit of smoking.
(A) make up
(B) turn up
(C) draw up
34.54. Almost all job applicants are determined to leave a good ________ on a potential employer.
35.55. A special feature of education at MIT is the opportunity for students and faculty to ________ together in research activities.
36.56. Although they lost their jobs, savings and unemployment benefits allow the couple to ________ their comfortable home.
(A) come in for
(B) catch up with
(C) look forward to
(D) hold on to
37.57. Although many experts agree that more children are overweight, there is debate over the best ways to ________ the problem.
38.58. An important factor in determining how well you perform in an examination is the ________ of your mind.
39.59. Research shows that there is no ________ relationship between how much a person earns and whether he feels good about life.
40.60. Sadly, as spending on private gardens has ________, spending on public parks has generally declined.
41.61. Lung cancer, like some other cancers, often doesn’t produce ________ until it is too late and has spread beyond the chest to the brain, liver or bones.
42.62. With the increasing unemployment rate, workers who are 50 to 60 years old are usually the first to be ________.
(A) laid off
(B) laid aside
(C) laid out
(D) laid up
43.63. The physical differences between men and women can be ________ directly to our basic roles as hunters and child-bearers.
44.64. It is clear that the dog has a much greater ________ of its brain devoted to smell than is the case with humans.
45.65. American college students are increasingly ________ with credit card debt and the consequences can be rather serious.
46.66. Numerous studies already link the first meal of the day to better classroom ________.
47.67. The most successful post-career athletes are those who can take the identity and fife skills the learned in sports and ________ them to another area of life.
48.68. The technological advances made it possible for the middle classes to enjoy what had once been ________ only to the very rich.
49.69. Being out of work, lane can no longer ________ friends to dinners and movies as she used to.
50.70. ________ by the superstars on television, the young athletes trained hard and played intensely.
The part of the environmental movement that draws my firm’s attention is the design of cities’ buildings and products. When we designed America’s first so-called “green” office building in New York two decades __71__, we felt very alone. But today, thousands of people come to green building conferences, and the __72__ that buildings can be good for people and the environment will be increasingly influential in years to __73__.
Back in 1984 we discovered that most manufactured products for decoration weren’t designed for __74__ use. The “energy-efficient” sealed commercial buildings constructed after the 1970s energy crisis __75__ indoor air quality problems caused by materials such as paint, wall covering and carpet. So far 20 years, we’ve been focusing on these materials __76__ to the molecules, looking for ways to make them __77__ for people and the planet.
Home builders can now use materials-such as paints that release significantly __78__ amounts of organic compounds-that don’t __79__ the quality of the air, water, or soil. Ultimately, __80__, our basic design strategy is focused not simply on being “less bad” but on creating __81__ healthful materials that can be either safely returned to the soil __82__ reused by industry again and again. As a matter of __83__, the world’s largest carpet manufacturer has already __84__ a carpet that is fully and safely recyclable (可循环用的).
Look at it this way: No one __85__ out to create a building that destroys the planet. But our current industrial systems are __86__ causing these conditions, whether we like it or not. So __87__ of simply trying to reduce the damage, we are __88__ a positive approach. We’re giving people high-quality, healthful products and an opportunity to make choices that have a __89__ effect on the world. It’s not just the building industry, either. __90__ cities are taking these environmentally positive approaches to design, planning and building. Portland, Seattle and Boston have said they want to be green cities. Chicago wants to be the greenest city in the world.