1.Forget the old idea that conserving energy is a form of self-denial — riding bicycles, dimming the lights, and taking fewer showers. These days conservation is all about efficiency: getting the same — or better — results from just a fraction of the energy. When a slump in business travel forced Ulrich Rǒmer to cut cost costs at his family-owned hotel in Germany, he replaced hundreds of the hotel’s wasteful light bulbs, getting the same light for 80 percent less power. He bought a new water boiler with a digitally controlled pump, and wrapped insulation around the pipes. Spending about € 100,000 on these and other improvements, he slashed his € 90,000 fuel and power bill by € 60,000. As a bonus, the hotel’s lower energy needs have reduced its annual carbon emissions by more than 200 metric tons. “For us, saving energy has been very, very profitable,” he says. “And most importantly, we’re not giving up a single comfort for our guests.”
Efficiency is also a great way to lower carbon emissions and help slow global warming. But the best argument for efficiency is its cost — or, more precisely, its profitability. That’s because quickly growing energy demand requires immense investment in new supply, not to mention the drain of rising energy prices.
No wonder efficiency has moved to the top of the political agenda. On Jan. 10, the European Union unveiled a plan to cut energy use across the continent by 20 percent by 2020. Last March, China imposed a 20 percent increase in energy efficiency by 2020. Even George W. Bush, the Texas oilman, is expected to talk about energy conversation in his State of the Union speech this week.
The good news is that the world is full of proven, cheap ways to save energy. Here are the seven that could have the biggest impact:
Space heating and cooling eats up 36 percent of all the world’s energy. There’s virtually no limit to how much of that can be saved, as prototype “zero-energy homes” in Switzerland and Germany have shown. There’s been a surge in new ways of keeping heat in and cold out (or vice versa). The most advanced insulation follows the law of increasing returns: if you add enough, you can scale down or even eliminate heating and air-conditioning equipment, lowering costs even before you start saving on utility bills. Studies have shown that green workplaces (ones that don’t constantly need to have the heat or air-conditioner running) have higher worker productivity and lower sick rates.
Lighting eats up 20 percent of the world’s electricity, or the equivalent of roughly 600,000 tons of coal a day. Forty percent of that powers old-fashioned incandescent light bulbs — a 19th-century technology that wastes most of the power it consumes on unwanted heat.
Compact fluorescent lamps, or CFLs, not only use 75 to 80 percent less electricity than incandescent bulbs to generate the same amount of light, but they also last 10 times longer. Phasing old bulbs out by 2030 would save the output of 650 power plants and avoid the release of 700 million tons of carbon into the atmosphere each year.
Water boilers, space heaters and air conditioners have been notoriously inefficient. The heat pump has altered that equation. It removes heat from the air outside or the ground below and uses it to supply heat to a building or its water supply. In the summer, the system can be reversed to cool building as well.
Most new residential buildings in Sweden are already heated with ground-source heat pumps. Such systems consume almost no conventional fuel at all. Several countries have used subsidies to jump-start the market, including Japan, where almost 1 million heat pumps have been installed in the past two years to heat water for showers and hot tubs.
From steel mills to paper factories, industry eats up about a third of the world’s energy. The opportunities to save are vast. In Ludwigshafen, German chemicals giant BASF runs an interconnected complex of more than 200 chemical factories, where heat produced by one chemical process is used to power the next. At the Ludwigshafen site alone, such recycling of heat and energy saves the company € 200 million a year and almost half its CO2 emissions. Now BASF is doing the same for new plants in China. “Optimizing (优化) energy efficiency is a decisive competitive advantage, ” says BASF CEO Jǔrgen Hambrecht.
A quarter of the world’s energy — including two thirds of the annual production of oil — is used for transportation. Some savings come free of charge: you can boost fuel efficiency by 6 percent simply by keeping your car’s tires properly inflated (充气). Gasoline-electric hybrid (混合型) models like the Toyota Prius improve mileage by a further 20 percent over conventional models.
A Better Fridge
More than half of all residential power goes into running household appliances，producing a fifth of the world’s carbon emissions. And that’s true even though manufacturers have already hiked the efficiency of refrigerators and other white goods by as much as 70 percent since the 1980s. According to an International Energy Agency study, if consumers chose those models that would save them the most money over the life of the appliance, they’d cut global residential power consumption and their utility bills by 43 percent.
Who says you have to pay for all your conservation investment？“Energy service contractors” will pay for retrofitting (翻折改造) in return for a share of the client’s annual utility-bill savings. In Beijing, Shenwu Thermal Energy Technology Co. specializes in retrofitting China’s steel furnaces. Shenwu puts up the initial investment to install a heat exchanger that preheats the air going into the furnace，slashing the client’s fuel costs . Shenwu pockets a cut of those savings, so both Shenwu and the client profit.
If saving energy is so easy and profitable, why isn’t everyone doing it? It has to do with psychology and a lack of information. Most of us tend to look at today’s price tag more than tomorrow’s potential savings. That holds double for the landlord or developer, who won’t actually see a penny of the savings his investment in better insulation or a better heating system might generate. In many people’s minds, conservation is still associated with self-denial. Many environmentalists still push that view.
Smart governments can help push the market in the right direction. The EU’s 1994 law on labeling was such a success that it extended the same idea to entire buildings last year. To boost the market value of efficiency, all new buildings are required to have an “energy pass” detailing power and heating consumption. Countries like Japan and Germany have successively tightened building codes, requiring an increase in insulation levels but leaving it up to builders to decide how to meet them.
The most powerful incentives, of course, will come from the market itself. Over the past year, sky-high fuel prices have focused minds on efficiency like never before. Ever-increasing pressure to cut costs has finally forced more companies to do some math on their energy use.
Will it be enough? With global demand and emissions rising so fast, we may not have any choice but to try. Efficient technology is here now, proven and cheap. Compared with all other options, it’s the biggest, easiest and most profitable bang for the buck. 【題組】1.
What is said to be the best way to conserve energy nowadays?
(A)Raising efficiently. (B)Cutting unnecessary costs.
(C) Finding alternative resources (D) Sacrificing some personal comforts.
3.【題組】3. If you add enough insulation to your house, you may be able to _______.
(A)improve your work environment (B)cut your utility bills by half.
(C) get rid of air-conditioners (D) enjoy much better health
6.【題組】6. German chemicals giant BASF saves € 200 million a year by_________.
(A)recycling heat and energy (B)setting up factories in China
(C) using the newest technology (D) reducing the CO2 emissions of its plants
7.【題組】7. Global residential power consumption can be cut by 43 percent if________.
(A)we increase the insulation of walls and water pipes
(B)we choose simpler models of electrical appliances
(C) we cut down on the use of refrigerators and other white goods
(D) we choose the most efficient models of refrigerators and other white goods
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A], [B], (C) and (D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 【題組】11.
(A)Proceed in his own way. (B)Stick to the original plan.
(C) Compromise with his colleague. (D) Try to change his colleague’s mind.
11.【題組】14. (A)She enjoys making up stories about other people.
(B)She can never keep anything to herself for long.
(C) She is eager to share news with the woman.
(D) She is the best informed woman in town.
13.【題組】16. (A)The shopping mall has been deserted recently.
(B)Shoppers can only find good stores in the mall.
(C) Lots of people moved out of the downtown area.
(D) There isn’t much business downtown nowadays.
14.【題組】17. (A)He will help the woman with her reading.
(B)The lounge is not a place for him to study in.
(C) He feels sleepy whenever he tries to study.
(D) A cozy place is rather hard to find on campus.
19.【題組】22. (A)It has seen a steady decline in its profits.
(B)It has become much more competitive.
(C) It has lost many customers to foreign companies.
(D) It has attracted a lot more designers from abroad.
20.【題組】23. Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
(A)It helps her to attract more public attention.
(B)It improves her chance of getting promoted.
(C) It strengthens her relationship with students.
(D) It enables her to understand people better.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], (C) and (D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.Passage One
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
(A)To win over the majority of passengers from airlines in twenty years.
(B)To reform railroad management in western European countries.
(C) To electrify the railway lines between major European cities.
(D) To set up an express train network throughout Europe.
24.【題組】27. (A)Major European airlines will go bankrupt.
(B)Europeans will pay much less for traveling.
(C) Traveling time by train between major European cities will be cut by half.
(D) Trains will become the safest and most efficient means of travel in Europe.
25.【題組】28. (A)Train travel will prove much more comfortable than air travel.
(B)Passengers will feel much safer on board a train than on a plane.
(C) Rail transport will be environmentally friendlier than air transport.
(D) Traveling by train may be as quick as, or even quicker than, by air.
27.【題組】30. Passage Two
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
(A)There can be no speedy recovery for mental patients.
(B)Approaches to healing patients are essentially the same.
(C) The mind and body should be taken as an integral whole.
(D) There is no clear division of labor in the medical profession.
28.【題組】31. (A)A doctor’s fame strengthens the patients’ faith in them.
(B)Abuse of medicines is widespread in many urban hospitals.
(C) One third of the patients depend on harmless substances for cure.
(D) A patient’s expectations of a drug have an effect on their recovery.
29.【題組】32. (A)Expensive drugs may not prove the most effective.
(B)The workings of the mind may help patients recover.
(C) Doctors often exaggerate the effect of their remedies.
(D) Most illnesses can be cured without medication.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
(A)Enjoying strong feelings and emotions.
(B)Defying all dangers when they have to.
(C) Being fond of making sensational news.
(D) Dreaming of becoming famous one day.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], (C) and (D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Like most people, I’ve long understood that I will be judged by my occupation, that my profession is a gauge people use to see how smart or talented I am. Recently, however, I was disappointed to see that it also decides how I’m treated as a person.
Last year I left a professional position as a small-town reporter and took a job waiting tables. As someone paid to serve food to people. I had customers say and do things to me I suspect they’d never say or do to their most casual acquaintances. One night a man talking on his cell phone waved me away, then beckoned (示意) me back with his finger minute later, complaining he was ready to order and asking where I’d been.
I had waited tables during summers in college and was treated like a peon (勤杂工) plenty of people. But at 19 years old, I believed I deserved inferior treatment from professional adults. Besides, people responded to me differently after I told them I was in college. Customers would joke that one day I’d be sitting at their table, waiting to be served.
Once I graduated I took a job at a community newspaper. From my first day, I heard a respectful tone from everyone who called me. I assumed this was the way the professional world worked — cordially.
I soon found out differently. I sat several feet away from an advertising sales representative with a similar name. Our calls would often get mixed up and someone asking for Kristen would be transferred to Christie. The mistake was immediately evident. Perhaps it was because money was involved, but people used a tone with Kristen that they never used with me.
My job title made people treat me with courtesy. So it was a shock to return to the restaurant industry.
It’s no secret that there’s a lot to put up with when waiting tables, and fortunately, much of it can be easily forgotten when you pocket the tips. The service industry, by definition, exists to cater to others’ needs. Still, it seemed that many of my customers didn’t get the difference between server and servant.
I’m now applying to graduated school, which means someday I’ll return to a profession where people need to be nice to me in order to get what they want, I think I’ll take them to dinner first, and see how they treat someone whose only job is to serve them. 【題組】52.
The author was disappointed to find that _______.
(A)one’s position is used as a gauge to measure one’s intelligence
(B)talented people like her should fail to get a respectable job
(C) one’s occupation affects the way one is treated as a person
(D) professionals tend to look down upon manual workers
34.【題組】53. What does the author intend to say by the example in the second paragraph?
(A)Some customers simply show no respect to those who serve them.
(B)People absorbed in a phone conversation tend to be absent-minded.
(C) Waitresses are often treated by customers as casual acquaintances.
(D) Some customers like to make loud complaints for no reason at all.
35.【題組】54. How did the author feel when waiting tables at the age of 19?
(A)She felt it unfair to be treated as a mere servant by professional.
(B)She felt badly hurt when her customers regarded her as a peon.
(C) She was embarrassed each time her customers joked with her.
(D) She found it natural for professionals to treat her as inferior.
36.【題組】55. What does the author imply by saying “…many of my customers didn’t get the difference between server and servant”(Lines 3-4, Para.7)?
(A)Those who cater to others’ needs are destined to be looked down upon.
(B)Those working in the service industry shouldn’t be treated as servants.
(C) Those serving others have to put up with rough treatment to earn a living.
(D) The majority of customers tend to look on a servant as server nowadays.
37.【題組】56. The author says she’ll one day take her clients to dinner in order to ________.
(A)see what kind of person they are
(B)experience the feeling of being served
(C) show her generosity towards people inferior to her
(D) arouse their sympathy for people living a humble life
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
What’s hot for 2007 among the very rich? A $7.3million diamond ring. A trip to Tanzania to hunt wild animals. Oh, and income inequality.
Sure, some leftish billionaires like George Soros have been railing against income inequality for years. But increasingly, centrist and right-wing billionaires are staring to worry about income inequality and the fate of the middle class.
In December, Mortimer Zuckerman wrote a column in U.S. News & World Report, which he owns. “our nation’s core bargain with the middle class is disintegrating,” lamented (哀叹) the 117th-richest man in America. “Most of our economic gains have gone to people at the very top of the income ladder. Average income for a household of people of working age, by contrast, has fallen five years in a raw.” He noted that “Tens of millions of Americans live in fear that a major health problem can reduce them to bankruptcy.”
Wilbur Ross Jr. has echoed Zuckerman’s anger over the bitter struggles faced by middle-class Americans. “It’s an outrage that any American’s life expectancy should be shortened simply because the company they worked for went bankrupt and ended health-care coverage,” said the former chairman of the International Steel Group.
What’s happening? The very rich are just as trendy as you and I, and can be so when it comes to politics and policy. Given the recent change of control in Congress, the popularity of measures like increasing the minimum wage, and efforts by California’s governor to offer universal health care, these guys don’t need their own personal weathermen to know which way the wind blows.
It’s possible that plutocrats (有钱有势的人) are expressing solidarity with the struggling middle class as part of an effort to insulate themselves from confiscatory (没收性的) tax policies. But the prospect that income inequality will lead to higher taxes on the wealthy doesn’t keep plutocrats up at night. They can live with that.
No, what they fear was that the political challenges of sustaining support for global economic integration will be more difficult in the United States because of what has happened to the distribution of income and economic insecurity.
In other words, if middle-class Americans continue to struggle financially as the ultrawealthy grow ever wealthier, it will be increasingly difficult to maintain political support for the free flow of goods, services, and capital across borders. And when the United States places obstacles in the way of foreign investors and foreign goods, it’s likely to encourage reciprocal action abroad. For people who buy and sell companies, or who allocate capital to markets all around the world, that’s the real nightmare. 【題組】57.
What is the current topic of common interest among the very rich in America?
(A)The fate of the ultrawealthy people.
(B)The disintegration of the middle class.
(C) The inequality in the distribution of wealth.
(D) The conflict between the left and the right wing.
39.【題組】58. What do we learn from Mortimer Zuckerman’s lamentation?
(A)Many middle-income families have failed to make a bargain for better welfare.
(B)The American economic system has caused companies to go bankrupt.
(C) The American nation is becoming more and more divided despite its wealth.
(D) The majority of Americans benefit little from the nation’s growing wealth.
40.【題組】59. From the fifth paragraph we can learn that ________.
(A)the very rich are fashion-conscious
(B)the very rich are politically sensitive
(C) universal health care is to be implemented throughout America
(D) Congress has gained popularity by increasing the minimum wage
41.【題組】60. What is the real reason for plutocrats to express solidarity with the middle class?
(A)They want to protect themselves from confiscatory taxation.
(B)They know that the middle class contributes most to society.
(C) They want to gain support for global economic integration.
(D) They feel increasingly threatened by economic insecurity.
42.【題組】61. What may happen if the United States places obstacles in the way of foreign investors and foreign goods?
(A)The prices of imported goods will inevitably soar beyond control.
(B)The investors will have to make great efforts to re-allocate capital.
(C) The wealthy will attempt to buy foreign companies across borders.
(D). Foreign countries will place the same economic barriers in return.
Part V Cloze （15 minutes）
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], (C)and (D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
In 1915 Einstein made a trip to Göttingen to give some lectures at the invitation of the mathematical physicist David Hilbert. He was particularly eager － too eager, it would turn 62 － to explain all the intricacies of relativity to him. The visit was a triumph, and he said to a friend excitedly, “I was able to 63 Hilbert of the general theory of relativity.” all of Einstein’s personal turmoil(焦躁) at the time, a new scientific anxiety was about to 65 . He was struggling to find the right equations that would 66 his new concept of gravity, 67 that would define how objects move 68 space and how space is curved by objects. By the end of the summer, he 69 the mathematical approach he had been 70 for almost three years was flawed. And now there was a 71 pressure. Einstein discovered to his 72 that Hilbert had taken what he had learned from Einstein’s lectures and was racing to come up 73 the correct equations first.
It was an enormously complex task. Although Einstein was the better physicist, Hilbert was the better mathematician. So in October 1915 Einstein 74 himself into a month-long frantic endeavor in 75 he returned to an earlier mathematical strategy and wrestled with equations, proofs, corrections and updates that he 76 to give as lectures to Berlin’s Prussian Academy of Sciences on four 77 Thursdays.
His first lecture was delivered on Nov. 4. 1915, and it explained his new approach, 78 he admitted he did not yet have the precise mathematical formulation of it. Einstein also took time off from 79 revising his equations to engage in an awkward fandango (方丹戈双人舞) with his competitor Hilbert. Worried 80 being scooped(抢先)，he sent Hilbert a copy of his Nov. 4 lecture. “I am 81 to know whether you will take kindly to this new solution.” Einstein noted with a touch of defensiveness.
【題組】62. [A]up [B]over