1.Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Universities Branch Out
As never before in their long history, universities have become instruments of national competition as well as instruments of peace. They are the place of the scientific discoveries that move economies forward, and the primary means of educating the talent required to obtain and maintain competitive advantage. But at the same time, the opening of national borders to the flow of goods, services, information and especially people has made universities a powerful force for global integration, mutual understanding and geopolitical stability.
In response to the same forces that have driven the world economy, universities have become more self-consciously global: seeking students from around the world who represent the entire range of cultures and values, sending their own students abroad to prepare them for global careers, offering course of study that address the challenges of an interconnected world and collaborative (合作的) research programs to advance science for the benefit of all humanity.
Of the forces shaping higher education none is more sweeping than the movement across borders. Over the past three decades the number of students leaving home each year to study abroad has grown at an annual rate of 3.9 percent, from 800,000 in 1975 to 2.5 million in 2004. Most travel from one developed nation to another, but the flow from developing to developed countries is growing rapidly. The reverse flow, from developed to developing countries, is on the rise, too. Today foreign students earn 30 percent of the doctoral degrees awarded in the United States and 38 percent of those in the United Kingdom. And the number crossing borders for undergraduate study is growing as well, to 8 percent of the undergraduates at America’s best institutions and 10 percent of all undergraduates in the U.K. In the United States, 20 percent of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born, and in China many newly hired faculty members at the top research universities received their graduate education abroad.
Universities are also encouraging students to spend some of their undergraduate years in another country. In Europe, more than 140,000 students participate in the Erasmus program each year, taking courses for credit in one of 2,200 participating institutions across the continent. And in the United States, institutions are helping place students in the summer internships (实习) abroad to prepare them for global careers. Yale and Harvard have led the way, offering every undergraduate at least one international study or internship opportunity—and providing the financial resources to make it possible.
Globalization is also reshaping the way research is done. One new trend involves sourcing portions of a research program to another country. Yale professor and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Tian Xu directs a research center focused on the genetics of human disease at Shanghai’s Fudan University, in collaboration with faculty colleagues from both schools. The Shanghai center has 95 employees and graduate students working in a 4,300-square-meter laboratory seminars with scientists from both campuses. The arrangement benefits both countries; Xu’s Yale lab is more productive, thanks to the lower costs of conducting research in China, and Chinese graduate students, postdoctors and faculty get on-the-job training from a world-class scientist and his U.S. team.
As a result of its strength in science, the United States has consistently led the world in the commercialization of major new technologies, from the mainframe computer and the integrated circuit of the 1960s to the Internet infrastructure (基础设施) and applications software of the 1990s. the link between university-based science and industrial application is often indirect but sometimes highly visible: Silicon Valley was intentionally created by Stanford University, and Route 128 outside Boston has long housed companies spun off from MIT and Harvard. Around the world, governments have encouraged copying of this model, perhaps most successfully in Cambridge, England, where Microsoft and scores of other leading software and biotechnology companies have set up shop around the university.
For all its success, the United States remains deeply hesitant about sustaining the research- university model. Most politicians recognize the link between investment in science and national economic strength, but support for research funding has been unsteady. The budget of the National Institutes of Health doubled between 1998 and 2003, but has risen more slowly than inflation since then. Support for the physical sciences and engineering barely kept pace with inflation during that same period. The attempt to make up lost ground is welcome, but the nation would be better served by steady, predictable increases in science funding at the rate of long-term GDP growth, which is on the order of inflation plus 3 percent per year.
American politicians have great difficult recognizing that admitting more foreign students can greatly promote the national interest by increasing international understanding. Adjusted for inflation, public funding for international exchanges and foreign-language study is well below the levels of 40 years ago, in the wake of September 11, changes in the visa process caused a dramatic decline in the number of foreign students seeking admission to U.S. universities, and a corresponding surge in enrollments in Australia, Singapore and the U.K. Objections from American university and the business leaders led to improvements in the process and reversal of the decline, but the United States is still seen by many as unwelcoming to international students.
Most Americans recognize that universities contribute to the nation’s well-being through their scientific research, but many fear that foreign students threaten American competitiveness by taking their knowledge and skills back home. They fail to grasp that welcoming foreign students to the United States has two important positive effects: first, the very best of them stay in the States and— like immigrants throughout history—strengthen the nation; and second, foreign students who study in the United States become ambassadors for many of its most cherished (珍视) values when they return home. Or at least they understand them better. In America as elsewhere, few instruments of foreign policy are as effective in promoting peace and stability as welcoming international university students.
. From the first paragraph we know that present-day universities have become ________.
(A) more popularized than ever before
(B) in-service training organizations
(C) a powerful force for global integration
(D) more and more research-oriented
4.【題組】4. How do Yale and Harvard prepare their undergraduates for global careers?
(A) They give them chances for international study or internship.
(B) They arrange for them to participate in the Erasmus program.
(C) They offer them various courses in international politics.
(D) They organize a series of seminars on world economy.
5.【題組】5. An example illustrating the general trend of universities’ globalization is ________.
(A) Yale’s establishing branch campuses throughout the world
(B) Yale’s student exchange program with European institutions
(C) Yale’s helping Chinese universities to launch research projects
(D) Yale’s collaboration with Fudan University on genetic research.
6.【題組】6. What do we learn about Silicon Valley from the passage?
(A) It is known to be the birthplace of Microsoft Company.
(B) It was intentionally created by Stanford University.
(C) It is where the Internet infrastructure was built up.
(D) It houses many companies spun off from MIT and Harvard.
7.【題組】7. What is said about the U.S. federal funding for research?
(A) It has increased by 3 percent.
(B) It doubled between 1998 and 2003.
(C) It has been unsteady for years.
(D) It has been more than sufficient.
8. Section B
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
In this age of Internet chat, videogames and reality television, there is no shortage of mindless activities to keep a child occupied. Yet, despite the competition, my 8-year-old daughter Rebecca wants to spend her leisure time writing short stories. She wants to enter one of her stories into a writing contest, a competition she won last year.
As a writer I know about winning contests, and about losing them. I know what it is like to work hard on a story only to receive a rejection slip from the publisher. I also know the pressure of trying to live up to a reputation created by previous victories. What if she doesn’t win the contest again? That’s the strange thing about being a parent. So many of our own past scars and dashed hopes can surface.
A revelation (启示) came last week when I asked her, “Don’t you want to win again?” “No,” she replied, “I just want to tell the story of an angel going to first grade.”
I had just spent weeks correcting her stories as she spontaneously (自发地) told them. Telling myself that I was merely an experienced writer guiding the young writer across the hall, I offered suggestions for characters, conflicts and endings for her tales. The story about a fearful angel starting first grade was quickly “guided” by me into the tale of a little girl with a wild imagination taking her first music lesson. I had turned her contest into my contest without even realizing it.
Staying back and giving kids space to grow is not as easy as it looks. Because I know very little about farm animals who use tools or angels who go to first grade, I had to accept the fact that I was co-opting (借用) my daughter's experience.
While stepping back was difficult for me, it was certainly a good first step that I will quickly follow with more steps, putting myself far enough a way to give her room but close enough to help if asked. All the while I will be reminding myself that children need room to experiment, grow and find their own voices.
. What do we learn from the first paragraph?
(A) A lot of distractions compete for children’s time nowadays.
(B) Children do find lots of fun in many mindless activities.
(C) Rebecca is much too occupied to enjoy her leisure time.
(D) Rebecca draws on a lot of online materials for her writing.
9.【題組】58. What did the author say about her own writing experience?
(A) She was constantly under pressure of writing more.
(B) Most of her stories had been rejected by publishers.
(C) She did not quite live up to her reputation as a writer.
(D) Her way to success was full of pains and frustrations.
10.【題組】59. Why did Rebecca want to enter this year’s writing contest?
(A) She had won a prize in the previous contest.
(B) She wanted to share her stories with readers.
(C) She was sure of winning with her mother’s help.
(D) She believed she possessed real talent for writing.
11.【題組】60. The author took great pains to refine her daughter’s stories because ________.
(A) she wanted to help Rebecca realize her dreams of becoming a writer
(B) she was afraid Rebecca’s imagination might run wild while writing
(C) she did not want to disappoint Rebecca who needed her help so much
(D) she believed she had the knowledge and experience to offer guidance
12.【題組】61. What’s the author’s advice for parents?
(A) Children should be given every chance to voice their opinions.
(B) Parents should keep an eye on the activities their kids engage in.
(C) Children should be allowed freedom to grow through experience.
(D) A writing career, though attractive, is not for every child to pursue.
13. Passage Two
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
By almost any measure, there is a boom in Internet-based instruction. In just a few years, 34 percent of American universities have begun offering some form of distance learning (DL), and among the larger schools, it’s close to 90 percent. If you doubt the popularity of the trend, you probably haven’t heard of the University of Phoenix. It grants degrees entirely on the basis of online instruction. It enrolls 90,000 students, a statistic used to support its claim to be the largest private university in the country.
While the kinds of instruction offered in these programs will differ, DL usually signifies a course in which the instructors post syllabi (课程大纲), reading assignment, and schedules on Websites, and students send in their assignments by e-mail. Generally speaking, face-to-face communication with an instructor is minimized or eliminated altogether.
The attraction for students might at first seem obvious. Primarily, there's the convenience promised by courses on the Net: you can do the work, as they say, in your pajamas (睡衣). But figures indicate that the reduced effort results in a reduced commitment to the course. While dropout rate for all freshmen at American universities is around 20 percent, the rate for online students is 35 percent. Students themselves seem to understand the weaknesses inherent in the setup. In a survey conducted for eCornell, the DL division of Cornell University, less than a third of the respondents expected the quality of the online course to be as good as the classroom course.
Clearly, from the schools’ perspective, there’s a lot of money to be saved. Although some of the more ambitious programs require new investments in servers and networks to support collaborative software, most DL courses can run on existing or minimally upgraded (升级) systems. The more students who enroll in a course but don’t come to campus, the more school saves on keeping the lights on in the classrooms, paying doorkeepers, and maintaining parking lots. And, while there’s evidence that instructors must work harder to run a DL course for a variety of reasons, they won’t be paid any more, and might well be paid less.
. What is the most striking feature of the University of Phoenix?
(A) It boasts the largest number of students on campus.
(B) All its courses are offered online.
(C) Its online courses are of the best quality.
(D) Anyone taking its online courses is sure to get a degree.
14.【題組】63. According to the passage, distance learning is basically characterized by ________.
(A) a minimum or total absence of face-to-face instruction
(B) a considerable flexibility in its academic requirements
(C) the great diversity of students’ academic backgrounds
(D) the casual relationship between students and professors
15.【題組】64. Many students take Internet-based courses mainly because they can ________.
(A) save a great deal on traveling and boarding expenses
(B) select courses from various colleges and universities
(C) work on the required courses whenever and wherever
(D) earn their academic degrees with much less effort
16.【題組】65. What accounts for the high drop-out rates for online students?
(A) There is no mechanism to ensure that they make the required effort.
(B) There is no strict control over the academic standards of the courses.
(C) The evaluation system used by online universities is inherently weak.
(D) Lack of classroom interaction reduces the effectiveness of instruction.
17.【題組】66. According to the passage, universities show great enthusiasm for DL programs for the purpose of ________.
(A) building up their reputation
(B) upgrading their teaching facilities
(C) providing convenience for students
(D) cutting down on their expenses
18.Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
One factor that can influence consumers is their mood state. Mood may be defined __67__ a temporary and mild positive or negative feeling that is generalized and not tied __68__ any particular circumstance. Moods should be __69__ from emotions which are usually more intense, __70__ to specific circumstances, and often conscious. __71__ one sense, the effect of a consumer’s mood can be thought of in __72__ the same way as can our reactions to the __73__ of our friends—when our friends are happy and “up”, that trends to influence us positively, __74__ when they are “down”, that can have a __75__ impact on us. Similarly, consumers operating under a __76__ mood state tend to react to stimuli (刺激因素) in a direction __77__ with that mood state. Thus, for example, we should expect to see __78__ in a positive mood state evaluate products in more of a __79__ manner than they would when not in such a state. __80__, mood states appear capable of __81__ a consumer’s memory.
Moods appear to be __82__ influenced by marketing techniques. For example, the rhythm, pitch, and __83__ of music has been shown to influence behavior such as the __84__ of time spent in supermarkets or __85__ to purchase products. In addition, advertising can influence consumers’ moods which, in __86__, are capable of influencing consumer’ reactions to products.