1.On the Importance of a Name
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked (A), (B), (C)and (D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Helicopter Moms vs. Free-Range KidsWould you let your fourth-grader ride public transportation without an adult? Probably not. Still, when Lenore Skenazy, a columnist for the New York Sun, wrote about letting her son take the subway alone to get back to "Long story short :my son got home from a department store on the Upper East Side, she didn’t expect to get hit with a wave of criticism from readers.
“Long story short: My son got home, overjoyed with independence,” Skenazy wrote on April 4 in the New York Sun. “Long story longer: Half the people I’ve told this episode to now want to turn on in for child abuse. As if keeping kids under lock and key and cell phone and careful watch is the right way to rear kids. It’s not. It’s debilitating (使虚弱)—for us and for them.”
Online message boards were soon full of people both applauding and condemning Skenazy’s decision to let her son go it alone. She wound up defending herself on CNN (accompanied by her son) and on popular blogs like the buffing ton post, where her follow-up piece was ironically headlined “More From America’s Worst Mom.”
The episode has ignited another one of those debates that divides parents into vocal opposing camps. Are Modern parents needlessly overprotective, or is the world a more complicated and dangerous place than it was when previous generations were allowed to wander about unsupervised?
From the “she’s an irresponsible mother” camp came: “Shame on you for being so careless about his safety,” in Comments on the buffing ton post. And there was this from a mother of four: “How would you have felt if he didn’t come home?” But Skenazy got a lot of support, too, with women and men writing in with stories about how they were allowed to take trips all by them selves at seven or eight. She also got heaps of praise for bucking the “helicopter parent” trend: “Good for this Mom,” one commenter wrote on the buffing ton post. “This is a much-needed reality check.”
Last week, encouraged by all the attention, Skenazy started her own blog—Free Range, kids—promoting the idea that modern children need some of the same independence that her generation had. In the good old days nine-year-old baby boomers rode their bikes to school, walked to the store, took buses—and even subways—all by themselves. Her blog, she says, is dedicated to sensible parenting. “At Free Range Kids, we believe in safe kids. We believe in car seats and safety belts. We do NOT believe that every time school-age children go outside, they need a security guard.”
So why are some parents so nervous about letting their children out of their sight? Are cities and towns less safe and kids more vulnerable to crimes like child kidnap and sexual abuse than they were in previous generations?
Not exactly. New York City, for instance, is safer than it’s ever been; it’s ranked 36th in crime among all American cities. Nationwide, stringer kidnaps are extremely rare; there’s a one-in-a-million chance a child will be taken by a stranger, according to the Justice Department. And 90 percent of sexual abuse cases are committed by someone the child knows. Mortality rates from all causes, including disease and accidents, for American children are lower now than they were 25 years’ ago. According to Child Trends, a nonprofit research group, between 1980 and 2003 death rates dropped by 44 percent for children aged 5 to 14 and 32 percent for teens aged 15 to 19.
Then there’s the whole question of whether modern parents are more watchful and nervous about safety than previous generations. Yes, some are. Part of the problem is that with wall to wall Internet and cable news, every missing child case gets so much airtime that it’s not surprising even normal parental anxiety can be amplified. And many middle-class parents have gotten used to managing their children’s time and shuttling them to various enriching activities, so the idea of letting them out on their own can seem like a risk. Back in 1972, when many of today’s parents were kids, 87 percent of children who lived within a mile of school walked or biked every day. But today, the Centers for Disease Control report that only 13 percent of children bike, walk or otherwise t themselves to school.
The extra supervision is both a city and a suburb phenomenon. Parents are worried about crime, and they are worried about kids getting caught in traffic in a city that’s not used to pedestrians. On the other hand, there are still plenty of kids whose parents give them a lot of independence, by choice or by necessity. The After School Alliance finds that more than 14 million kids aged 5 to 17 are responsible for taking care of themselves after school. Only 6.5 million kids participate in organized programs. “Many children who have working parents have to take the subway or bus to get to school. Many do this by themselves because they have no other way to get to the schools,” says Dr. Richard Gallagher, director of the Parenting Institute at the New York University Child Study Center.
For those parents who wonder how and when they should start allowing their kids more freedom, there’s no clear-cut answer. Child experts discourage a one-size-fits-all approach to parenting. What’s right for Skenazy’s nine-year-old could be inappropriate for another one. It all depends on developmental issue, maturity, and the psychological and emotional makeup of that child. Several factors must be taken into account, says Gallagher. “The ability to follow parent guidelines, the child’s level of comfort in handling such situations, and a child’s general judgment should be weighed.”
Gallagher agrees with Skenazy that many nine-year-olds are ready for independence like taking public transportation alone. “At certain times of the day, on certain routes, the subways are generally safe for these children, especially if they have grown up in the city and have been taught how to be safe, how to obtain help if they are concerned for their safety, and how to avoid unsafe situations by being watchful and on their toes.”
But even with more traffic and fewer sidewalks, modern parents do have one advantage their parents didn’t: the cell phone. Being able to check in with a child anytime goes a long way toward relieving parental anxiety and may help parents loosen their control a little sooner. Skenazy got a lot of criticism because she didn’t give her kid her cell phone because she thought he’d lose it and wanted him to learn to go it alone without depending on mom—a major principle of free-range parenting. But most parents are more than happy to use cell phones to keep track of their kids.
And for those who like the idea of free-range kids but still struggle with their inner helicopter parent, there may be a middle way. A new generation of GPS cell phones with tracking software make it easier than ever to follow a child’s every movement via the Internet—without seeming to interfere or hover. Of course, when they go to college, they might start objecting to being monitored as they’re on parole (假释).
When Lenore Skenazy’s son was allowed to take the subway alone, he ________.
(A)was afraid that he might get lost
(B)enjoyed having the independence
(C)was only too pleased to take the risk
(D)thought he was an exceptional child
2.【題組】2. Lenore Skenazy believes that keeping kids under careful watch
(A)hinders their healthy growth
(B)adds too much to parents’ expenses
(C)shows traditional parental caution
(D)bucks the latest parenting trend
3.【題組】3. Skenazy’s decision to let her son take the Subway alone has net with________.
(A)opposition from her own family
(B)share parenting experience
(C)fight against child abuse
(D)protect children’s rights
6.【題組】6. Parents today are more nervous about their kids’ safety than previous generations because________.
(A)there are now fewer children in the family
(B)the number of traffic accidents has been increasing
(C)their fear is amplified by media exposure of crime
(D)crime rates have been on the rise over the years
7.【題組】7. According to child experts, how and when kids may be allowed more freedom depends on ________.
(A)the traditions and customs of the community
(B)the safety conditions of their neighborhood
(C)their parents’ psychological makeup
(D)their maturity and personal qualities
8.【題組】11. Section A
(A)Fredforgot to call him last night about the camping trip.
(B)He is not going to lend his sleeping bag to Fred.
(C)He has not seen Fred at the gym for sometime.
(D)Fred may have borrowed a sleeping bag from someone else.
13.【題組】16. (A)Both of them are laymen of modern art.
(B)She has beamed to appreciate modem sculptures.
(C)Italian artists’ works are difficult to understand.
(D)Modern artists are generally considered weird.
14.【題組】17. (A)They seem satisfied with what they have done.
(B)They have called all club members to contribute.
(C)They think the day can be called a memorable one.
(D)They find it hard to raise money for the hospital.
15.【題組】18. (A)The man shouldn’t hesitate to take the course.
(B)The man should talk with the professor first.
(C)The course isn’t open to undergraduates.
(D)The course will require a lot of reading.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
16.【題組】19. (A)Current trends in economic development.
(B)Domestic issues of general social concern.
(C)Stories about Britain’s relations with other nations.
(D)Conflicts and compromises among political parties.
17.【題組】20. (A)Based on the poll of public opinions.
(B)By interviewing people who file complaints.
(C)By analyzing the domestic and international situation.
(D)Based on public expectations and editors’ judgment.
19.【題組】22. (A)The average life span was less than 50 years.
(B)It was very common for them to have 12 children.
(C)They retired from work much earlier than today.
(D)They were quite optimistic about their future.
23.【題組】26. Passage One
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
(A)To help young people improve their driving skills.
(B)To alert teenagers to the dangers of reckless driving.
(C)To teach young people road manners through videotapes.
(D)To show teens the penalties imposed on careless drivers.
25.【題組】28. (A)It has changed teens’ way of life.
(B)It has made teens feel like adults.
(C)It has accomplished its objective.
(D)It has been supported by parents.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
28.【題組】31. (A)The flower scent stimulated people’s desire to buy.
(B)Stronger smells had greater effects on consumers.
(C)Most shoppers hated the small the shoe store.
(D)84% of the customers were unaware of the smells.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29.【題組】32. (A)A goods train hit a bus carrying many passengers.
(B)Two passenger trains crashed into each other.
(C)A passenger train collided with a goods train.
(D)An express train was derailed when hit by a bomb.
30.【題組】33. (A)The rescue operations have not been very effective.
(B)More than 300 injured passengers were hospitalized.
(C)The cause of the tragic accident remains unknown.
(D)The exact casualty figures are not yet available.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
For hundreds of millions of years, turtles (海龟) have struggled out of the sea to lay their eggs on sandy beaches, long before there were nature documentaries to celebrate them, or GPS satellites and marine biologists to track them, or volunteers to hand-carry the hatchlings (幼龟) down to the water’s edge lest they become disoriented by headlights and crawl towards a motel parking lot instead. A formidable wall of bureaucracy has been erected to protect their prime nesting on the Atlantic coastlines. With all that attention paid to them, you’d think these creatures would at least have the gratitude not to go extinct.
But Nature is indifferent to human notions of fairness, and a report by the Fish and Wildlife Service showed a worrisome drop in the populations of several species of North Atlantic turtles, notably loggerheads, which can grow to as much as 400 pounds. The South Florida nesting population, the largest, has declined by 50% in the last decade, according to Elizabeth Griffin, a marine biologist with the environmental group Oceana. The figures prompted Oceana to petition the government to upgrade the level of protection for the North Atlantic loggerheads from “threatened” to “endangered”—meaning they are in danger of disappearing without additional help.
Which raises the obvious question: what else do these turtles want from us, anyway? It turns out, according to Griffin, that while we have done a good job of protecting the turtles for the weeks they spend on land (as egg-laying females, as eggs and as hatchlings), we have neglected the years spend in the ocean. “The threat is from commercial fishing,” says Griffin. Trawlers (which drag large nets through the water and along the ocean floor) and long line fishers (which can deploy thousands of hooks on lines that can stretch for miles) take a heavy toll on turtles.
Of course, like every other environmental issue today, this is playing out against the background of global warming and human interference with natural ecosystems. The narrow strips of beach on which the turtles lay their eggs are being squeezed on one side by development and on the other by the threat of rising sea levels as the oceans warm. Ultimately we must get a handle on those issues as well, or a creature that outlived the dinosaurs (恐龙) will meet its end at the hands of humans, leaving our descendants to wonder how creature so ugly could have won so much affection.
We can learn from the first paragraph that ________.
(A)human activities have changed the way turtles survive
(B)efforts have been made to protect turtles from dying out
(C)government bureaucracy has contributed to turtles’ extinction
(D)marine biologists are looking for the secret of turtles’ reproduction
34.【題組】53. What does the author mean by “Nature is indifferent to human notions of fairness” (Line 1, Para. 2)?
(A)Nature is quite fair regarding the survival of turtles.
(B)Turtles are by nature indifferent to human activities.
(C)The course of nature will not be changed by human interference.
(D)The turtle population has decreased in spite of human protection.
35.【題組】54. What constitutes a major threat to the survival of turtles according to Elizabeth Griffin?
(A)Their inadequate food supply.
(B)Unregulated commercial fishing.
(C)Their lower reproductively ability.
(D)Contamination of sea water
36.【題組】55. How does global warming affect the survival of turtles?
(A)It threatens the sandy beaches on which they lay eggs.
(B)The changing climate makes it difficult for their eggs to hatch.
(C)The rising sea levels make it harder for their hatchlings to grow.
(D)It takes them longer to adapt to the high beach temperature.
37.【題組】56. The last sentence of the passage is meant to ________.
(A)persuade human beings to show more affection for turtles
(B)stress that even the most ugly species should be protected
(C)call for effective measures to ensure sea turtles’ survival
(D)warn our descendants about the extinction of species
38.Passage Two Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
There are few more sobering online activities than entering data into college-tuition calculators and gasping as the Web spits back a six-figure sum. But economists say families about to go into debt to fund four years of partying, as well as studying, can console themselves with the knowledge that college is an investment that, unlike many bank stocks, should yield huge dividends.
A 2008 study by two Harvard economists notes that the “labor-market premium to skill”—or the amount college graduates earned that’s greater than what high-school graduate earned—decreased for much of the 20th century, but has come back with a vengeance (报复性地) since the 1980s. In 2005, The typical full-time year-round U.S. worker with a four-year college degree earned $50,900, 62% more than the $31,500 earned by a worker with only a high-school diploma.
There’s no question that going to college is a smart economic choice. But a look at the strange variations in tuition reveals that the choice about which college to attend doesn’t come down merely to dollars and cents. Does going to Columbia University (tuition, room and board $49,260 in 2007-08) yield a 40% greater return than attending the University of Colorado at Boulder as an out-of-state student ($35,542)? Probably not. Does being an out-of-state student at the University of Colorado at Boulder yield twice the amount of income as being an in-state student ($17,380) there? Not likely.
No, in this consumerist age, most buyers aren’t evaluating college as an investment, but rather as a consumer product—like a car or clothes or a house. And with such purchases, price is only one of many crucial factors to consider.
As with automobiles, consumers in today’s college marketplace have vast choices, and people search for the one that gives them the most comfort and satisfaction in line with their budgets. This accounts for the willingness of people to pay more for different types of experiences (such as attending a private liberal-arts college or going to an out-of-state public school that has a great marine-biology program). And just as two auto purchasers might spend an equal amount of money on very different cars, college students (or, more accurately, their parents) often show a willingness to pay essentially the same price for vastly different products. So which is it? Is college an investment product like a stock or a consumer product like a car? In keeping with the automotive world’s hottest consumer trend, maybe it’s best to characterize it as a hybrid (混合动力汽车); an expensive consumer product that, over time, will pay rich dividends. 【題組】57.
What’s the opinion of economists about going to college?
(A)Huge amounts of money is being wasted on campus socializing.
(B)It doesn’t pay to run into debt to receive a college education.
(C)College education is rewarding in spite of the startling costs.
(D)Going to college doesn’t necessarily bring the expected returns.
39.【題組】58. The two Harvard economists note in their study that, for much of the 20th century, ________.
(A)enrollment kept decreasing in virtually all American colleges and universities
(B)the labor market preferred high-school to college graduates
(C)competition for university admissions was far more fierce than today
(D)the gap between the earnings of college and high-school graduates narrowed
41.【題組】60. In this consumerist age, most parents ________.
(A)regard college education as a wise investment
(B)place a premium on the prestige of the College
(C)think it crucial to send their children to college
(D)consider college education a consumer product
42.【題組】61. What is the chief consideration when students choose a college today?
(A)Their employment prospects after graduation.
(B)A satisfying experience within their budgets.
(C)Its facilities and learning environment.
(D)Its ranking among similar institutions.
43. Some historian say that the most important contribution of Dwight Eisenhower’s presidency (总统任期) in the 1950s was the U.S. interstate highway system. It was a __62__ project, easily surpassing the scale of such previous human __63__ as the Panama Canal. Eisenhower’s interstate highways __64__ the nation together in new ways and __65__ major economic growth by making commerce less __66__. Today, an information superhighway has been built—an electronic network that __67__ libraries, corporations, government agencies and __68__. This electronic superhighway is called the Internet, __69__ it is the backbone (主干) of the World Wide Web.
The Internet had its __70__ in a 1969 U.S. Defense Department computer network called ARPAnet, which __71__ Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. The Pentagon built the network for military contractors and universities doing military research to __72__ information. In 1983 the National Science Foundation (NSF), __73__ mission is to promote science, took over.
This new NSF network __74__ more and more institutional users, may of __75__ had their own internal networks. For example, most universities that __76__ the NSF network had intracampus computer networks. The NSF network __77__ became a connector for thousands of other networks. __78__ a backbone system that interconnects networks, internet was a name that fit.
So we can see that the Internet is the wired infrastructure (基础设施) on which web __79__ move. It began as a military communication system, which expanded into a government-funded __80__ research network.
Today, the Internet is a user-financed system tying intuitions of many sorts together __81__ an “information superhighway.” 【題組】62.