Media Selection for Advertisements
After determining the target audience for a product or service, advertising agencies must select the appropriate media for the advertisement. We discuss here the major types of media used in advertising. We focus on attention on seven types of advertising: television, newspapers, radio, magazines, out-of-home, Internet, and direct mail.
Television in an attractive medium for advertising because it delivers mass audiences to advertisers. When you consider that nearly three out of four Americans have seen the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? you can understand the power of television to communicate with a large audience. When advertisers create a brand, for example, they want to impress consumers with the brand and its image. Television provides an ideal vehicle for this type of communication. But television is an expensive medium, and not all advertisers can afford to use it.
Television’s influence on advertising is fourfold. First, narrowcasting means that television channels are seen by an increasingly narrow segment of the audience. the Golf Channel, for instance, is watched by people who play golf. Home and Garden Television is seen by those interested in household improvement projects. Thus, audiences are smaller and more homogeneous (具有共同特点的) than they have been in the past. Second, there is an increase in the number of television channels available to viewers, and thus, advertisers. This had also resulted in an increase in the sheer number of advertisements to which audiences are exposed. Third, digital recording devices allow audience members more control over which commercials they watch. Fourth, control over programming is being passed from the networks to local cable operators and satellite programmers.
After television, the medium attracting the next largest annual as revenue is newspapers. The New York Times, which reaches a national audience, accounts for $1 billion in ad revenue annually. It has increased its national circulation (发行量) by 40% and is now available for home delivery in 168 cities. Locally, newspapers are the largest advertising medium.
Newspapers are a less expensive advertising medium than television and provide a way for advertisers to communicate a longer, more detailed message to their audience than they can through television. Given new production techniques, advertisements can be printed in about 48 hours, meaning newspapers are also a quick way of getting the message out. Newspapers are often the most important form of news for a local community, and they develop a high degree of loyalty from local readers.
Advertising on radio continues to grow. Radio is often used in conjunction with outdoor bill-boards (广告牌) and the Internet to reach even more customers than television. Advertisers are likely to use radio because it is a less expensive medium than television, which means advertisers can afford to repeat their ads often. Internet companies are also turning to radio advertising. Radio provides a way for advertisers to communicate with audience members at all times of the day. Consumers listen to radio on their way to school or work, at work, on the way home, and in the evening hours.
Two major changes—satellite and Internet radio—will force radio advertisers to adapt their methods. Both of these radio forms allow listeners to tune in stations that are more distant than the local stations they could receive in the past. As a result, radio will increasingly attract target audiences who live many miles apart.
Newsweeklies, women’s titles, and business magazines have all seen increases in advertising because they attract the high-end market. Magazines are popular with advertisers because of the narrow market that they deliver. A broadcast medium such as network television attracts all types of audience members, but magazine audiences are more homogeneous. If you read Sports Illustrated, for example, you have such in common with the magazine’s other readers. Advertisers see magazines as an efficient way of reaching target audience members.
Advertisers using the print media—magazines and newspapers—will need to adapt to two main changes. First, the Internet will bring larger audiences to local newspapers. These audiences will be more diverse and geographically dispersed (分散) than in the past. Second, advertisers will have to understand how to use an increasing number of magazines for their target audiences. Although some magazines will maintain national audiences, a large number of magazines will entertain narrower audiences.
Out-of-home advertising, also called place-based advertising, has become an increasingly effective way of reaching consumers, who are more active than ever before. Many consumers today do not sit at home and watch television. Using billboards, newsstands, and bus shelters for advertising is an effective way of reaching these on-the-go consumers. More consumers travel longer distances to and from work, which also makes out-of-home advertising effective. Technology has changed the nature of the billboard business, making it a more effective medium than in the past. Using the digital printing, billboard companies can print a billboard in 2 hours, compared with 6 days previously. This allows advertisers more variety in the types of messages they create because they can change their messages more quickly.
As consumers become more comfortable with online shopping, advertisers will seek to reach this market. As consumers get more of their news and information from the Internet, the ability of television and radio to get the word out to consumers will decrease. The challenge to Internet advertisers is to create ads that audience members remember.
Internet advertising will play a more prominent role in organizations’ advertising in the near future. Internet audiences tend to be quite homogeneous, but small. Advertisers will have to adjust their methods to reach these audiences and will have to adapt their persuasive strategies to the inline medium as well.
A final advertising medium is direct mail, which uses mailings to consumers to communicate a client’s message. Direct mail includes newsletters, postcards, and special promotion. Direct mail is an effective way to build relationships with consumers. For many businesses, direct mail is the most effective form of advertising. 【題組】1.
Television is an attractive advertising medium in that ________.
(A)it has large audiences
(B) it appeals to housewives
(C) it helps build up a company’s reputation
(D) it is affordable to most advertisers
2.【題組】2. With the increase in the number of TV channels, ________.
(A)the cost of TV advertising has decreased
(B) the number of TV viewers has increased
(C) advertisers’ interest in other media has decreased
(D) the number of TV ads people can see has increased
3.【題組】3. Compare with television, newspapers as an advertising medium _______.
(A)earn a larger annual ad revenue
(B) convey more detailed messages
(C) use more production techniques
(D) get messages out more effectively
4.【題組】4. Advertising on radio continues to grow because _______.
(A)more local radio stations have been set up
(B) modern technology makes it more entertaining
(C) it provides easy access to consumers
(D) it has been revolutionized by Internet radio
6.【題組】6. Out-of-home advertising has become more effective because _______.
(A)billboards can be replaced within two hours
(B) consumers travel more now than ever before
(C) such ads have been made much more attractive
(D) the pace of urban life is much faster nowadays
Global warming may or may not be the great environmental crisis of the 21st century, but regardless of whether it is or isn’t –we won’t do much about it. We will argue over it and may even, as a nation, make some fairly solemn-sounding commitments to avoid it. But the more dramatic and meaningful these commitments seem, the less likely they are to be observed.
Al Gore calls global warming an “inconvenient truth,” as if merely recognizing it could put us on a path to a solution. But the real truth is that we don’t know enough to relieve global warming, and –without major technological breakthroughs—we can’t do much about it.
From 2003 to 2050, the world’s population is projected to grow from 6.4 billion to 9.1 billion, a 42% increase. If energy use per person and technology remain the same, total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions (mainly, CO2) will be 42% higher in 2050. but that’s too low, because societies that grow richer use more energy. We need economic growth unless we condemn the world’s poor to their present poverty and freeze everyone else’s living standards. With modest growth, energy use and greenhouse emissions more than double by 2050.
No government will adopt rigid restrictions on economic growth and personal freedom (limits on electricity usage, driving and travel) that might cut back global warming. Still, politicians want to show they’re “doing something.” Consider the Kyoto Protocol (京都议定书). It allowed countries that joined to punish those that didn’t. But it hasn’t reduced CO2 emissions (up about 25% since 1990), and many signatories (签字国) didn’t adopt tough enough policies to hit their 2008-2012 targets.
The practical conclusion is that if global warming is a potential disaster, the only solution is new technology. Only an aggressive research and development program might find ways of breaking dependence on fossil fuels or dealing with it.
The trouble with the global warming debate is that it has become a moral problem when it’s really an engineering one. The inconvenient truth is that if we don’t solve the engineering problem, we’re helpless. 【題組】57.
What is said about global warming in the first paragraph?
(A)It may not prove an environmental crisis at all.
(B) It is an issue requiring world wide commitments.
(C) Serious steps have been taken to avoid or stop it.
(D) Very little will be done to bring it under control.
9.【題組】58. According to the author’s understanding, what is Al Gore’s view on global warming?
(A)It is a reality both people and politicians are unaware of.
(B) It is a phenomenon that causes us many inconveniences.
(C) It is a problem that can be solved once it is recognized.
(D) It is an area we actually have little knowledge about.
10.【題組】59. Green house emissions will more than double by 2050 because of _______.
(B) the widening gap between the rich and poor
(C) wasteful use of energy
(D) the rapid advances of science and technology
11.【題組】60. The author believes that, since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, ________.
(A)politicians have started to do something to better the situation
(B) few nations have adopted real tough measures to limit energy use
(C) reductions in energy consumption have greatly cut back global warming
(D) international cooperation has contributed to solving environmental problems
12.【題組】61. What is the message the author intends to convey?
(A)Global warming is more of a moral issue than a practical one.
(B) The ultimate solution to global warming lies in new technology
(C) The debate over global warming will lead to technological breakthroughs.
(D) People have to give up certain material comforts to stop global warming.
Someday a stranger will read your e-mail without your permission or scan the Websites you’ve visited. Or perhaps someone will casually glance through your credit card purchase or cell phone bills to find out your shopping preferences or calling habits.
In fact, it’s likely some of these things have already happened to you. Who would watch you without your permission? It might be a spouse, a girlfriend, a marketing company, a boss, a cop or a criminal. Whoever it is, they will see you in a way you never intended to be seen — the 21st century equivalent of being caught naked.
Psychologists tell us boundaries are healthy, that it’s important to reveal yourself to friends, family and lovers in stages, at appropriate times. But few boundaries remain. The digital bread crumbs (碎屑) you leave everywhere make it easy for strangers to reconstruct who you are, where you are and what you like. In some cases, a simple Google search can reveal what you think. Like it or not, increasingly we live in a world where you simple cannot keep a secret.
The key question is: Does that matter?
When opinion polls ask Americans about privacy, most say they are concerned about losing it. A survey found an overwhelming pessimism about privacy, with 60 percent of respondents saying they feel their privacy is “slipping away, and that bothers me.”
But people say one thing and do another. Only a tiny fraction of Americans change any behaviors in an effort to preserve their privacy. Few people turn down a discount at tollbooths (收费站) to avoid using the EZ-Pass system that can track automobile movements. And few turn down supermarket loyalty cards. Privacy economist Alessandro Acquisti has run a series of tests that reveal people will surrender personal information like Social Security numbers just to get their hands on a pitiful 50-cents-off coupon (优惠券).
But privacy does matter – at least sometimes. It’s like health: When you have it, you don’t notice it. Only when it’s gone do you wish you’d done more to protect it. 【題組】62.
What does the author mean by saying “the 21st century equivalent of being caught naked ”(Lines 3-4, Para.2)?
(A)People’s personal information is easily accessed without their knowledge.
(B) In the 21st century people try every means to look into others’ secrets.
(C) People tend to be more frank with each other in the information age.
(D) Criminals are easily caught on the spot with advanced technology.
14.【題組】63. What would psychologists advise on the relationships between friends?
(A)Friends should open their hearts to each other.
(B) Friends should always be faithful to each other.
(C) There should be a distance even between friends.
(D) There should be fewer disputes between friends.
15.【題組】64. Why does the author say “we live in a world where you simple cannot keep a secret” (Line 5, Para.3)?
(A)Modern society has finally evolved into an open society.
(B) People leave traces around when using modern technology.
(C) There are always people who are curious about others’ affairs.
(D) Many search engines profit by revealing people’s identities.
16.【題組】65. What do most Americans do with regard to privacy protection?
(A)They change behaviors that might disclose their identity.
(B) They use various loyalty cards for business transactions.
(C) They rely more and more on electronic devices.
(D) They talk a lot but hardly do anything about it.
17.【題組】66. According to the passage, privacy is like health in that ________.
(A)people will make every effort to keep it
(B) its importance is rarely understood
(C) it is something that can easily be lost
(D) people don’t cherish it until they lose it
Universities are institution that teach a wide variety of subjects at advanced levels. They also carry out research work aimed _67_ extending man’s knowledge of these subjects. The emphasis given to each of these functions _68_ from university to university, according to the views of the people in _69_ and according to the resources available. The smaller and newer universities do not _70_ the staff or equipment to carry out the _71_ research projects possible in larger institutions. _72_ most experts agree that some research activity is _73_ to keep the staff and their students in _74_ with the latest developments in their subjects.
Most students attend a university mainly to _75_ the knowledge needed for their chosen _76_. Educationists believe that this aim should not be the _77_ one. Universities have always aimed to produce men and women _78_ judgment and wisdom as well as knowledge. For this reason, they _79_ students to meet others with differing _80_ and to read widely to _81_ their understanding in many fields of study. _82_ a secondary school course, a student should be interested enough in a subject to enjoy gaining knowledge for its own _83_. He should be prepared to _84_ sacrifices to study his chosen _85_ in depth. He should have an ambition to make some 86 contribution to man’s knowledge.