1.Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1 For questions 1-7,choose the best answer from the four choices marked (A), (B), (C)and D. For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
What will the world be like in fifty years?
This week some top scientists, including Nobel Prize winners, gave their vision of how the world will look in 2056,fron gas-powered cars to extraordinary health advances, John Ingham reports on what the world’s finest minds believe our futures will be.
For those of us lucky enough to live that long,2056 will be a world of almost perpetual youth, where obesity is a remote memory and robots become our companions.
We will be rubbing shoulders with aliens and colonizing outer space. Better still, our descendants might at last live in a world at peace with itself.
The prediction is that we will have found a source of inexbaustible, safe, green energy, and that science will have killed off religion. If they are right we will have removed two of the main causes of war-our dependence on oil and religious prejudice.
Will we really, as today’s scientists claim, be able to live for ever or at least cheat the ageing process so that the average person lives to 150?
Of course, all these predictions come with a scientific health warning. Harvard professor Steven Pinker says: “This is an invitation to look foolish, as with the predictions of domed cities and nuclear-powered vacuum cleaners that were made 50 year ago.”
Anthony Atala, director of the Wake Forest Institute in North Carolina, belives failing organs will be repaired by injecting cells into the body. They will naturally to straight to the injury and help heal it. A system of injections without needles could also slow the ageing process by using the same process to “tune” cells.
Bruce Lahn, professor of human genetics at the University of Chicago, anticipates the ability to produce“unlimited supplies” of transplantable human organs without the needed a new organ, such as kidney, the surgeon would contact a commercial organ producer, give him the patient’s immuno-logical profile and would then be sent a kidney with the correct tissue type.
These organs would be entirely composed of human cells, grown by introducing them into animal hosts, and alloweing them to deveoop into and organ in place of the animal’s own. But Prof. Lahn believes that farmed brains would be “off limits”.He says: “Very few people would want to have their brains replaced by someone else’s and we probably don’t want to put a human brain ing an animal body.”
Richard Miller, a professor at the University of Michigan, thinks scientist could develop“an thentic anti-ageing drugs” by working out how cells in larger animals such as whales and human resist many forms of injuries. He says:“It’s is now routine, in laboratory mammals, to extend lifespan by about 40%. Turning on the same protective systems in people should, by 2056, create the first class of 100-year-olds who are as vigorous and productive as today’s people in their 60s”
Conlin Pillinger ,professor of planerary sciences at the Open University,says:”I fancy that at least we will be able to show that life didi start to evolve on Mars well as Earth.”Within 50years he hopes scientists will prove that alien life came here in Martian meteorites(陨石).
Chris McKay,a planetary scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center.believes that in 50 years we may find evidence of alien life in ancient permanent forst of Mars or on other planers.
He adds:”There is even a chance we will find alien life forms here on Earth.It mightbe as different as English is to Chinese.
Priceton professor Freeman Dyson thinks it “likely” that life form outer space will be discovered defore 2056 because the tools for finding it, such as optical and radio detection and data processing,are improving.
He ays:”As soon as the first evidence is found,we will know what to look for and additional discoveries are likely to follow quickly.Such discoveries are likely to have revolutionary consequences for biology, astronomy and philosophy. They may change the way we look at ourselves and our place in the universe.
Colonies in space
Richard Gottprofessor of astrophysics at Princeton,hopes man will set up a self-sufficient colony on Mars,which would be a “life insurance policy against whatever catastrophes,natural or otherwise,might occur on Earth.
“The real space race is whether we will colonise off Earth on to other worlds before money for the space programme runs out.”
Ellen Heber-Katz,a professor at the Wistar Institude in Philadelphia,foresees cures for inijuries causing paralysis such as the one that afflicated Superman star Christopher Reeve.
She says:”I believe that the day is not far off when we will be able to profescribe drugs that cause severes(断裂的) spinal cords to heal,hearts to regenerate and lost limbs to regrow.
“People will come to expect that injured or diseased organs are meant to be repaired from within,inmuch the same way that we fix an appliance or automobile:by replancing the damaged part with a manufacturer-certified new part.”She predict that within 5 to 10 years fingers and toes will be regrown and limbs will start to be regrown a few years later. Reparies to the nervous system will start with optic nerves and,in time,the spinal cord.”Within 50years whole body replacement will be routine,”Prof.Heber-Katz adds.
Sydney Brenner,senior distinguished fellow of the Crick-Jacobs Center in California,won the 2002 Noblel Prize for Medicine and says that if there is a global disaster some humans will survive-and evolition will favour small people with bodies large enough to support the required amount of brain power.”Obesity,”he says.”will have been solved.”
Rodney Brooks,professor of robotice at MIT,says the problems of developing artificial intelligence for robots will be at least partly overcome.As a result,”the possibilities for robots working with people will open up immensely”
Bill Joy,green technology expert in Califomia,says:”The most significant breakthrought would be to have an inexhaustible source of safe,green energy that is substantially cheaper than any existing energy source.”
Ideally,such a source would be safe in that it could not be made into weapons and would not make hazardous or toxic waste or carbon dioxide,the main greenhouse gas blamed for global warming.
Geoffrey Miller,evolutionary psychologist at the University of New Mexico,says:”The US will follow the UKin realizing that religion is nor a prerequisite (前提)for ordinary human decency.
“This,science will kill religion-not by reason challenging faith but by offering a more practical,uniwersal and rewarding moral frameworkfor human interaction.”
He also predicts that “ahsurdly wasteful”displays of wealth will become umfashionable while the importance of close-knit communities and families will become clearer.
These there changer,he says,will help make us all”brighe er,wiser,happier and kinder”.
What is john lngham’s report about?
(A)A solution to the global energy crisis
(B)Extraordinary advances in technology.
(C)The latest developments of medical science
(D)Scientists’vision of the world in halfa century
2.【題組】2. According to Harvard professor Steven Pinker,predictions about the future_____.
(A)may invite trouble
(B)may not come true
(C)will fool the public
(D)do more harm than good
3.【題組】3. Professor Bruce Lahn of the University of Chicago predicts that____.
(A)humans won’t have to donate organs for transplantation
(B)more people will donate their organs for transplantation
(C)animal organs could be transplanted into human bodies
(D)organ transplantation won’t be as scary as it is today
4.【題組】4. According to professor Richard Miller of the University of Michigarr, prople will____.
(A)life for as long as they wish
(B)be relieved from all sufferings
(C) life to 100 and more with vitality
(D)be able to live longer than whales
5.【題組】5.Priceton professor Freeman Syson thinks that____.
(A)scientists will find alien life similar to ours
(B)humans will be able to settle on Mars
(C)alien life will likely be discovered
(D)life will start to evolve on Mars
6.【題組】6.According to Princeton professor Richard Gott,by setting up a self-sufficient colony on Mars,
(A)Might survie allcatastrophes on earth
(B)Might acquire ample natural resources
(C)Will be able to travel to Mars freely
(D)Will move there to live a better life
7.【題組】7.Ellen Heber-Katz, professor at the Wistar Institue in Philadelpia,predicts that_____.
(A)human organs can bu manufactured like appliances
(B)people will be as strong and dymamic as supermen
(C) human nerves can be replanced by optic fibers
(D)lost fingers and limbs will be able to regrow
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause.During the pause, you must read the four choices marked (A), (B), (C), ang (D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 【題組】11.
(A) The man might be able to play in the World Cup.
(B) The man’s football career seems to be at an end.
(C) The man was operated on a few weeks ago.
(D) The man is a fan of world-famous football players.
9.【題組】12. (A) Work out a plan to tighten his budget
(B) Find out the opening hours of the cafeteria.
(C) Apply for a senior position in the restaurant.
(D) Solve his problem by doing a part-time job.
10.【題組】13. (A) A financial burden. (C) A real nuisance.
(B) A good companion (D) A well-trained pet.
11.【題組】14. (A) The errors will be corrected soon. (C) The computing system is too complex.
(B) The woman was mistaken herself. (D) He has called the woman several times.
12.【題組】15. (A) He needs help to retrieve his files. (C) He needs some time to polish his paper.
(B) He has to type his paper once more. (D) He will be away for a two-week conference.
13.【題組】16. (A) They might have to change their plan.
(B) He has got everything set for their trip.
(C) He has a heavier workload than the woman.
(D) They could stay in the mountains until June 8.
14.【題組】17. (A) They have wait a month to apply for a student loan.
(B) They can find the application forms in the brochure.
(C) They are not eligible for a student loan.
(D) They are not late for a loan application.
15.【題組】18. (A) New laws are yet to be made to reduce pollutant release.
(B) Pollution has attracted little attention from the public.
(C) The quality of air will surely change for the better.
(D) It’ll take years to bring air pollution under control.
16.【題組】19. Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
(A) Enormous size of its stores. (C) Its appealing surroundings.
(B) Numerous varieties of food. (D) Its rich and colorful history.
17.【題組】20. (A) An ancient building. (C) An Egyptian museum.
(B) A world of antiques. (D) An Egyptian Memorial.
18.【題組】21. (A) Its power bill reaches $9 million a year.
(B) It sells thousands of light bulbs a day.
(C) It supplies power to a nearby town.
(D) It generates 70% of the electricity it uses.
20.【題組】23. Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
(A) Transferring to another department. (C) Thinking about doing a different job.
(B) Studying accounting at a university (D) Making preparation for her wedding.
21.【題組】24. (A) She has finally got a promotion and a pay raise.
(B) She has got a satisfactory job in another company.
(C) She could at last leave the accounting department.
(D) She managed to keep her position in the company.
22.【題組】25. (A) He and Andrea have proved to be a perfect match.
(B) He changed his mind about marriage unexpectedly.
(C) He declared that he would remain single all his life.
(D) He would marry Andrea even without meeting her.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some question. Both the passage and the question will be spoken only once.. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
(A) They are motorcycles designated for water sports.
(B) They are speedy boats restricted in narrow waterways.
(C) They are becoming an efficient form of water transportation.
(D) They are getting more popular as a means or water recreation.
24.【題組】27. (A) Waterscooter operators’ lack of experience.
(B) Vacationers’ disregard of water safety rules.
(C) Overloading of small boats and other craft.
(D) Carelessness of people boating along the shore.
25.【題組】28. (A) They scare whales to death. (C) They discharge toxic emissions.
(B)They produce too much noise. (D) They endanger lots of water life.
26.【題組】29. (A) Expand operating areas. (C) Limit the use of waterscooters.
(B) Restrict operating hours. (D) Enforce necessary regulations.
27.【題組】30.Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
(A) They are stable. (C) They are strained.
(C) They are close. (D) They are changing.
28.【題組】31. (A) They are fully occupied with their own business.
(B) Not many of them stay in the same place for long.
(C) Not many of them can win trust from their neighbors.
(D) They attach less importance to interpersonal relations.
29.【題組】32. (A) Count on each other for help. (C) Keep a friendly distance.
(B) Give each other a cold shoulder. (D) Build a fence between them.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
(A) It may produce an increasing number of idle youngsters.
(B) It may affect the quality of higher education in America.
(C) It may cause many schools to go out of operation.
(D) It may lead to a lack of properly educated workers.
31.【題組】34．A）It is less serious in cities than in rural areas.
(B)It affects both junior and senior high schools.
(C)It results from a worsening economic climate.
(D)It is a new challenge facing American educators.
32.【題組】35. (A)Allowing them to choose their favorite teachers.
(B)Creating a more relaxed learning environment.
(C)Rewarding excellent academic performance.
(D)Helping them to develop better study habits.
33. Section B
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line thought the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Imagine waking up and finding the value of your assets has been halved. No, you’re not an investor in one of those hedge funds that failed completely. With the dollar slumping to a 26-year low against the pound, already-expensive London has become quite unaffordable. A coffee at Starbucks, just as unavoidable in England as it is in the United States, runs about $8.
The once all-powerful dollar isn’t doing a Titanic against just the pound. It is sitting at a record low against the euro and at a 30-year low against the Canadian dollar. Even the Argentine peso and Brazilian real are thriving against the dollar.
The weak dollar is a source of humiliation, for a nation’s self-esteem rests in part on the strength of its currency. It’s also a potential economic problem, since a declining dollar makes imported food more expensive and exerts upward pressure on interest rates. And yet there are substantial sectors of the vast U.S. economy-from giant companies like Coca-Cola to mom-and-pop restaurant operators in Miami-for which the weak dollar is most excellent news.
Many Europeans may view the U.S. as an arrogant superpower that has become hostile to foreigners. But nothing makes people think more warmly of the U.S. than a weak dollar. Through April, the total number of visitors from abroad was up 6.8 percent from last year. Should the trend continue, the number of tourists this year will finally top the 2000 peak? Many Europeans now apparently view the U.S. the way many Americans view Mexico-as a cheap place to vacation, shop and party, all while ignoring the fact that the poorer locals can’t afford to join the merrymaking.
The money tourists spend helps decrease our chronic trade deficit. So do exports, which thanks in part to the weak dollar, soared 11 percent between May 2006 and May 2007. For first five months of 2007, the trade deficit actually fell 7 percent from 2006.
If you own shares in large American corporations, you’re a winner in the weak-dollar gamble. Last week Coca-Cola’s stick bubbled to a five-year high after it reported a fantastic quarter. Foreign sales accounted for 65 percent of Coke’s beverage business. Other American companies profiting from this trend include McDonald’s and IBM.
American tourists, however, shouldn’t expect any relief soon. The dollar lost strength the way many marriages break up- slowly, and then all at once. And currencies don’t turn on a dime. So if you want to avoid the pain inflicted by the increasingly pathetic dollar, cancel that summer vacation to England and look to New England. There, the dollar is still treated with a little respect. 【題組】52.
Why do Americans feel humiliated?
(A) Their economy is plunging (B) They can’t afford trips to Europe
(C) Their currency has slumped (D) They have lost half of their assets.
34.【題組】53.How does the current dollar affect the life of ordinary Americans?
(A)They have to cancel their vacations in New England.
(B)They find it unaffordable to dine in mom-and-pop restaurants.
(C)They have to spend more money when buying imported goods.
(D)They might lose their jobs due to potential economic problems.
35.【題組】54 How do many Europeans feel about the U.S with the devalued dollar?
(A)They feel contemptuous of it
(B)They are sympathetic with it.
(C)They regard it as a superpower on the decline.
(D)They think of it as a good tourist destination.
36.【題組】55 what is the author’s advice to Americans?
A.They treat the dollar with a little respect
B.They try to win in the weak-dollar gamble
C.They vacation at home rather than abroad
D.They treasure their marriages all the more.
37.【題組】56 What does the author imply by saying “currencies don’t turn on a dime” (Line 2,Para 7)?
A.The dollar’s value will not increase in the short term.
B.The value of a dollar will not be reduced to a dime
C.The dollar’s value will drop, but within a small margin.
D.Few Americans will change dollars into other currencies.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
In the college-admissions wars, we parents are the true fights. We are pushing our kids to get good grades, take SAT preparatory courses and build resumes so they can get into the college of our first choice. I’ve twice been to the wars, and as I survey the battlefield, something different is happening. We see our kids’ college background as e prize demonstrating how well we’ve raised them. But we can’t acknowledge that our obsession(痴迷) is more about us than them. So we’ve contrived various justifications that turn out to be half-truths, prejudices or myths. It actually doesn’t matter much whether Aaron and Nicole go to Stanford.
We have a full-blown prestige panic; we worry that there won’t be enough prizes to go around. Fearful parents urge their children to apply to more schools than ever. Underlying the hysteria(歇斯底里) is the belief that scarce elite degrees must be highly valuable. Their graduates must enjoy more success because they get a better education and develop better contacts. All that is plausible——and mostly wrong. We haven’t found any convincing evidence that selectivity or prestige matters. Selective schools don’t systematically employ better instructional approaches than less selective schools. On two measures——professors’ feedback and the number of essay exams——selective schools do slightly worse.
By some studies, selective schools do enhance their graduates’ lifetime earnings. The gain is reckoned at 2-4% for every 100-poinnt increase in a school’s average SAT scores. But even this advantage is probably a statistical fluke(偶然). A well-known study examined students who got into highly selective schools and then went elsewhere. They earned just as much as graduates from higher-status schools.
Kids count more than their colleges.Getting into yale may signify intellgence,talent and
Ambition. But it’s not the only indicator and,paradoxically,its significance is declining.The reason:so many similar people go elsewhere.Getting into college is not life only competiton.Old-boy networks are breaking down.princeton economist Alan Krueger studied admissions to one top Ph.D.program.High scores on the GRE helpd explain who got in;degrees of prestigious universities didn’t.
So,parents,lighten up.the stakes have been vastly exaggerated.up to a point,we can rationalize our pushiness.America is a competitive society;our kids need to adjust to that.but too much pushiness can be destructive.the very ambition we impose on our children may get some into Harvard but may also set them up for disappointment.one study found that,other things being equal,graduates of highly selective schools experienced more job dissatisfaction.They may have been so conditioned to deing on top that anything less disappoints.
Why dose the author say that parengs are the true fighters in the college-admissions wars?
A.They have the final say in which university their children are to attend.
B.They know best which universities are most suitable for their children.
C.they have to carry out intensive surveys of colleges before children make an application.
D.they care more about which college their children go to than the children themselves.
39.【題組】58.Why do parents urge their children to apply to more school than ever?
A.they want to increase their children chances of entering a prestigious college.
B.they hope their children can enter a university that offers attractive scholarships.
C.Their children eill have have a wider choice of which college to go to.
D.Elite universities now enroll fewer syudent than they used to.
40.【題組】59.What does the author mean by kids count more than their college(Line1,para.4?
A.Continuing education is more important to a person success.
B.A person happiness should be valued more than their education.
C.Kids actual abilities are more importang than their college background.
D.What kids learn at college cannot keep up with job market requirements.
41.【題組】60.What does Krueger study tell us?
A.GETting into Ph.d.programs may be more competitive than getting into college.
B.Degrees of prestigious universities do not guarantee entry to graduate programs.
C.Graduates from prestigious universities do not care much about their GRE scores.
D.Connections built in prestigious universities may be sustained long after graduation.
42.【題組】61.One possible result of pushing children into elite universities is that______
A.they earb less than their peers from other institutions
B.they turn out to be less competitive in the job market
C.they experience more job dissatisfaction after graduation
D.they overemphasize their qualifications in job application
43.Part V Cloze
Directions: there are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked (A), (B), (C), and (D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Seven years ago, when I was visiting Germany, I Met with an official who explained to me that the country had a perfect solution to its economic problems. Watching the U.S. economy ___62___ during the ‘90s, the Germans had decided that they, too, needed to go the high-technology ___63___. But how? In the late ‘90s, the answer schemed obvious. Indians. ___64___ all, Indian entrepreneurs accounted for one of every three Silicon Valley start-ups. So the German government decided that it would ___65___ Indians to Term any just as America does by ___66___ green cards. Officials created something called the German Green Card and ___67___ that they would issue 20,000 in the first year. ___68___, the Germans expected that tens of thousands more Indians would soon be begging to come, and perhaps the ___69___ would have to be increased. But the program was a failure. A year later ___70___ half of the 20,000 cards had been issued. After a few extensions, the program was ___71___.
I told the German official at the time that I was sure the ___72___ would fail. It’s not that I had any particular expertise in immigration policy, ___73___ I understood something about green cards, because I had one (the American ___74___). The German Green
Card was mismand,I argued,__75__it never,under any circumtances,translated into German citizenship.The U.S.green card,by contrast,is an almost__76__path to becoming American (after five years and a clean record).The official__77__my objection,saying that there was no way Germany was going to offer these peoplecitizenship.”we need young tach workers,”he said.”that’s what this pro-gram is all __78__.”so Germany was asking bright young__79__to leavetheir country,culture and families,move thousands of miles away,learn a new language and work in a strange land—but without any__80__of ever being part of their new home.Germany was senging a signal, one that was ___81___ received in India and other countries, and also by Germany’s own immigrant community. 【題組】62. (A) soar (C) amplify
(B) hover (D) intensify